Research initiatives and grants - Torsten Söderberg Foundation (2024)

Pierre HakizimanaLinköping UniversityArtificial Intelligence-driven approaches for therapeutic prevention of hearing lossMedicine2023

Amount granted: SEK 800 000

More than 400 million people globally suffer from hearing loss, resulting in costs of almost USD 980 billion annually. In addition to impairing hearing, it also reduces quality of life and can lead to depression, dementia and learning disabilities. Particularly vulnerable are over a billion young adults and teenagers who are regularly exposed to harmful noise levels, as well as soldiers in noisy combat zones. Despite current hearing protection, they are still at risk. With increasing tensions at EU borders, such as in Ukraine, and military activities such as Sweden's Aurora 23, hearing protection is now more than ever a priority in both healthcare and national security.Previous research methods, which tried to combat harmful molecules released after noise exposure, proved insufficient. Instead, we need to act earlier to prevent permanent hearing damage. My recent discoveries using AI technology show early signs of hearing damage and point out specific vulnerable parts of the ear. Based on these insights, I propose to use established drugs, such as aspirin and streptomycin, as protection against these damages. First results, especially with streptomycin, are promising.The aim of the project is to use existing drugs to prevent hearing damage from becoming permanent. With the right research and technology, we hope to protect millions from the silent threat of hearing loss.Hans EllegrenKungl. Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Academy Professorship in Medicine 2024Medicine2023

Amount awarded: SEK 10 000 000

There is a great need for this type of research position, where outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further develop their research. It is an important part of further strengthening Swedish research in the light of international developments. The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the field of medicine by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed on the basis of documented scientific quality of the research performed. Particular emphasis will be placed on research carried out during the last five-year period. The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed. The grant will be used to fill a new five-year Academy Professorship in Medicine in 2024.Lars StrannegårdStockholm School of EconomicsDonation to the Chair in Young Leadership on the occasion of HM the King's 50 years on the throneEconomy2023

Amount granted: SEK 1 670 000

The Torsten Söderberg Foundation, the Ragnar Söderberg Foundation and PO Söderberg have jointly decided to donate SEK 5 million to a professorship at the Stockholm School of Economics to shed light on young leadership on the occasion of HM the King's 50th year on the throne. Through this new internationally advertised professorship at the Stockholm School of Economics, the parties wish to celebrate the 50th anniversary of HM the King's accession to the throne and to support the academic highlighting of young leadership at the School.Henrik HornInstitute for Business ResearchInvestment protection agreements in times of increased security tensionsEconomy2023

Amount granted: SEK 491 500

A significant share of global investment is covered by intergovernmental investment protection agreements. The agreements have been criticized on a number of points. Among other things, it is argued that the agreements slow down the phasing out of fossil fuel production systems.The changing geopolitical situation in recent years has added a new dimension to these agreements by emphasizing protection against, rather than protection of, inward international investment. One example is the EU's pursuit of 'strategic autonomy' and increasingly far-reaching demands that foreign investment not be allowed in sensitive sectors. The dispute between Huawei and Sweden over the exclusion from the 5G auction, which is being conducted under the China-Sweden agreement, illustrates the security policy aspects of these agreements.This sub-project will shed light on exclusion clauses for security policy measures in investment protection agreements. Although national security and climate concerns are politically separate issues, both types of concerns affect the value of agreements in a similar way. Both can be seen as exogenous shocks that reduce host countries' gains from the agreements, and escape clauses can be seen as ways to allocate risk. Nevertheless, from an economic point of view, are there reasons to design national security escape clauses differently from corresponding clauses for climate action? How well does the existence of such clauses correlate with security tensions between countries?Thomas TangeråsInstitute for Business ResearchNew tools for analyzing markets with imperfect competition: Part 2Economy2023

Amount granted: SEK 657 000

In imperfectly competitive markets, firms use market power to charge excessive prices. Inefficiencies arise because customers refrain from buying even if their willingness to pay is higher than the cost of producing the good. Overpricing also leads to redistribution of income from consumers to firms. Quantitative analysis of market power is thus fundamental to evaluating how efficiently markets function and the degree of redistribution they generate. Existing methods for estimating competition have significant weaknesses because they are sensitive to assumptions that must be made about demand and cost conditions but cannot be verified. This is the second part of a project to develop methods that provide more reliable estimates of competition in the market by making minimal assumptions about underlying demand and costs. The second main objective of the project is to apply these methods to evaluate the extent to which firms exercise market power in the Nordic electricity market.Magnus LodefalkÖrebro UniversityKey factors behind AI's labor market impactEconomy2023

Amount granted: SEK 787 700

Artificial intelligence (AI) has made great strides and is expected to fundamentally reshape the labor market. But in the absence of longitudinal microdata on firms and workers, research on the effects of AI is still limited, partly contradictory, and demonstrates associations rather than causality. In our ongoing data-driven project, we find that AI is associated with job growth, especially for white-collar workers, and that new occupations are emerging that demand cognitive, social and creative skills.In this continuation project, we focus on key factors behind AI's effects on productivity, wages, job content and work environment. We study firms' and employees' exposure and adaptation to different types of AI in four selected countries over two decades using methods from economics and computer science and unique microdata. We then identify general and specific causal effects on the outcome variables.The goal is to contribute with solid knowledge about how different groups of knowledge-intensive companies and officials are affected by AI. This is to enable politicians, authorities, companies and employees to make informed and future-oriented decisions. Knowledge-intensive services are central to our society's infrastructure and are undergoing a digital transformation. We shed light on how AI affects different groups' tasks, skill requirements, work environment, wages and productivity - in short, what key factors can help workers and employers thrive in tomorrow's world of work.Alexander HusebyeCenter for Business HistoryOlof A. Söderberg-a biographyEconomy2023

Amount granted: SEK 296 800

The Center for Business History is applying for an additional grant to cover costs incurred for the completion of the book project Olle Söderberg - handelsledare, industriman, samhällsbyggare, written by Dr. Benito Peix Geldart. Work on the book was completed in July and then went to pressThe grant is partly intended to compensate for extended research and editorial work and costs for layout and printing that arose during the earlier stages of the book and partly to cover costs not yet incurred for various activities in connection with the launch in the fall of 2023.In the run-up to the launch of the book, a number of activities are being carried out:- Presentation of the book at the Researchers' Square at the Göteborg Book Fair - Launch of the book at the Stockholm School of Economics - Production of a studio program, partly for Axess TV, partly for CfN's own channels The author will also present the book at a conference in Oslo in The European Business History Association in August 2023. Paula RothCauses and consequences of over-indebtednessEconomy2023

Amount granted: SEK 11 380 00

In Sweden, over 400,000 individuals are registered with debts for collection with the Swedish Enforcement Authority. The authorityreceives over one million applications for unpaid debts every year. In 2020, the number of applications increased by 26% compared to the same period the year before. Since then, the number of applications has fallen, but the median debt has instead increased by almost 20%.Despite the relatively high prevalence in the population, knowledge about the causes and consequences of over-indebtedness is low. The studies that do exist are largely based on interviews or survey responses and lack strategies to identify causal outcomes. Most studies focus on the relationship between over-indebtedness and health. The results show that over-indebted people are more likely to suffer from depression and chronic illness. The reason for the negative health effects is said to be the increased stress and stigma that over-indebtedness entails. In Sweden, the unique availability of individual data from the Swedish Enforcement Authority enables a systematic study of the effects of over-indebtedness.The research project aims to answer the following questions: (1) Why do individuals become over-indebted? (2) What are the social costs of the large number of over-indebted people in Sweden? By looking at individuals with debt and following their health and labor market outcomes, we can evaluate the negative effects of over-indebtedness. We will also look at whether over-indebtedness increases the risk of crime.Martin SöndergaardStockholm School of EconomicsWhy responsible cooperation between competitors increases salesEconomy2023

Amount granted: SEK 292 500

The project will explore how responsible collaborations between competitors can best be communicated. This is an important issue as very little research exists on how customers perceive competitors' collaborations, while communication about responsibility can lead to both more negative and more positive attitudes towards retail chains, depending on how it is communicated.Collaborations between competitors are an important step towards a more sustainable society. One example is when Coca-Cola and Pepsi decided to collaborate on replacing in-store refrigeration systems to make them more environmentally friendly. Another example is how Swedish grocery stores together with other industry players established the deposit system. How consumers perceive these initiatives can provide guidance on how they should be communicated. By demonstrating the profitability of communicating these types of initiatives, they can become more attractive for stores to cooperate. Based on the results of a pilot study already conducted, it seems that projects carried out in cooperation with competitors are perceived as more responsible.The research can provide insights not only on communication in this context, but also on marketing in general as it generates insights on the underlying psychology of consumers.Per SamuelssonLund UniversityDisqualification under association lawJurisprudence2023

Amount granted: SEK 702 000

Corruption and other forms of opportunism are a social problem in both the public and private spheres. An important aspect of the problem relates to the risks created by the existence of conflicts of interest.Under current law, many different roles carry with them obligations to make decisions according to a certain objective. When someone is in such a role, there is a risk that he or she will instead be guided by self-interest or other private objectives. Conflict of interest rules aim to counteract such risks by preventing the decision-maker from taking decisions. There are many goal-driven roles that are subject to conflict of interest rules. These include judges, public officials, auditors and board members of companies and associations.There are no major studies of disqualification rules in Swedish law. The aim of our project is to fill this gap through a monographic presentation. The focus will be particularly on the rules of association law. This does not prevent us from framing the presentation by discussing disqualification rules and their purposes in general and by linking the theme to both practical philosophy (ethics) and economic analysis, such as principal agent theory.The functional relationship between disqualification rules and other rules and principles aimed at protecting the governing objective against opportunism will also be addressed. These include, for example, the principle of loyalty, which has become increasingly controversial in recent times.Claes LernestedtStockholm UniversityHeirs of Frankenstein. On responsibility in a new ageJurisprudence2023

Amount granted: SEK 1 058 000

The concept of 'responsibility' is, on the one hand, highly charged (and, for example in criminal law, related to ideas of 'guilt' and blame), and on the other hand, vague and ambiguous. Today, there is an unprecedented willingness to be accountable in different contexts and relationships, and at the same time (and coherently) an unprecedented diversity and variegation in this use. The aim of the project, which is based on (criminal) law with interdisciplinary elements, is to try to take a broad and perhaps partly unified approach to ideas and practices regarding responsibility and accountability today. The focus is not least on accountability on the part of society through legal regulation.The project addresses, among other things, (existing and potential) liability in "newer" areas created by technological development (self-driving cars, which are often mentioned in such contexts, are just one example among many). But there are also other interesting developments today, such as an increased interest in imposing responsibility on previous generations (e.g. for slavery) as well as on future generations. There are also many questions about, for example, the construction and allocation of responsibility in legal persons (in what ways can and should such persons be regarded as "own" existences for the purposes of responsibility?), as well as such fundamental questions about human agency that have always existed - and that can probably be thought of as "eternal" - but which in the context concerned here may possibly be regarded in a partly new light.Richard SannerholmSödertörn UniversityOutsourcing of legal services. The legal situation regarding the use of consultants by public authorities.Jurisprudence2023

Amount granted: SEK 692 000

It is increasingly common for public authorities to buy in consultancy services. One category of services that has increased recently is legal services. Public authorities purchase legal advice because they need to solve specific legal problems, but also to strengthen their administrative law skills, or for support in awarding grants and in certain types of decision-making. There are several risks associated with the purchase of legal services by public authorities. Public authorities are expected to know the applicable law in their field - it is a matter of legal certainty that public authorities independently, objectively and impartially interpret and apply the applicable law. A particular risk exists when authorities purchase legal advice in connection with the development of regulations or in the exercise of public authority, e.g. in supervision, or in the granting of permits and subsidies. Administrative tasks involving the exercise of public authority may only be transferred to others if there is an explicit legal basis. The project will collect data on the use of legal advice by government agencies and investigate what the legal boundaries are, especially in the exercise of public authority and the development of regulations. The research aims to increase knowledge of current law and the risks that can arise when legal expertise is sought outside the walls of the authority. The project is expected to contribute new knowledge to the legal literature where there is currently a lack of research on the use of consultants by public authorities and, on a practical level, offer guidance when procuring legal services.Katia CejieUppsala UniversityNeed for reform - Taxation principles for cross-border teleworkingJurisprudence2023

Amount granted: SEK 1 138 000

With the pandemic, we jumped several years ahead in the digitalization process. The ability to work fully or partially remotely is now often taken for granted by employees. However, when teleworking takes place in such a way that employees and employers are located in different countries, several taxation issues arise (collection of income taxes and social security contributions).Digitization has rendered the current principles of taxation obsolete. The complexity is enormous, and applying the current rules seems both unfair and difficult to understand. In the area of global individual taxation, either a major reform or special regulations for different types of situations are required.The aim of this project is to propose new tentative nexus taxation principles on which the reformed tax rules could be based. Nexus refers to the degree of connection a person should have in order to be taxed in a particular country. What these nexus principles might look like is discussed in relation to three different situations of cross-border telework, both temporary and more permanent in nature. In light of the need for financing the welfare state, the project also aims to analyze what a fair distribution of taxation rights could look like. A secondary aim of the project is to be at the forefront of European research in this area and to contribute to the network that will be created.Karin LundströmÖrebro UniversityPledging and forced sale of owner-occupied flatsJurisprudence2023

Amount granted: SEK 242 500

Owner-occupied apartments were introduced as a new type of housing in Sweden in May 2009. Owner-occupied apartments involve direct ownership of an apartment. Previously, apartments could only be owned indirectly through a share in an association or limited company. Since owner-occupied apartments are considered as other real estate, the same regulation applies to owner-occupied apartments when transferring and pledging them. The problem with regulating a completely new form of housing in accordance with existing legislation on immovable property is that it does not take account of the specific features of owner-occupied flats. There are several potential problems with condominiums. In a time of recession and rising interest rates, it is likely that condominiums may be subject to enforcement proceedings and forced realization. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate and analyze the legal situation of pledging and forced realization of owner-occupied apartments. The purpose includes clarifying what consequences a forced realization of an owner-occupied apartment can have for various stakeholders to the owner-occupied apartment. The legislation on owner-occupied apartments is relatively new, which is why the purpose includes comparing the regulation of owner-occupied apartments with the regulation of traditional properties and condominiums.Nina DueRöhsska Museum, GothenburgDonation to the Röhhska Museum in memory of Dr. h.c. Tomas SöderbergOther2022

Amount granted: SEK 5 000 000

Due to the former chairman of the Torsten Söderberg Foundation, phil.dr h.c.. Tomas Söderberg's many years of extensive contributions to the Foundation, the Foundation has decided to donate SEK 5 million to the Röhsska Museum in his memory. The donation will enable the museum to develop its collection of Nordic design and craft objects through new acquisitions, thereby strengthening the research base in the field. Gunilla Linde BjurArchitects and facades. Gothenburg 1850-1920Other2023

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

The project concerns the reprint of the book "Architects and Facades. Göteborg 1850 - 1920 to which the foundation has previously contributed funds for research and printing. Part two of the book, "Women take place. Architects in 100 years, Gothenburg 1920 - 2020" is currently underway, also with support from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation.Kjell BluckertThe Swedish History DaysThe Swedish History DaysOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The Swedish History Days is a non-profit organization, founded in 1993, which through annual conferences seeks to promote interestin history and strengthen the importance of the subject. The regular meetings aim to create and maintaincontacts between representatives of historical research, museum and archive institutions, book publishersschool education and the general public interested in history, and are held in a different location each year (mostly in Sweden, but also in Finland, Germany and the Baltic countries, i.e. parts of historical Sweden).Radiohjälpen - Children of the World. For Ukrainian children suffering from mental illness.Donation on the occasion of HM The Queen's 80th birthdayOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

The Crown Princess Couple FoundationDonation on the occasion of HRH Prince Daniel's 50th birthdayOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

Stefan GüntherGunnebo Castle and GardensGunnebo Castle and the neoclassical villa's artistic programOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 400 000

When Gunnebo Castle was completed in 1796, it was one of the country's most lavish mansions, with architecture and decorationinspired by the latest developments on the continent. The architecture followed different models than theStockholm-based, more researched, architecture. The decoration followed an artistic program, which in the years1786-96 by the architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg and the Italian sculptor Gioacchino Frulli, and constitutesone of the most significant decorative cycles of the second half of the 18th century in Sweden. Gunnebo's architect C.W. Carlbergdeveloped an independent design language in relation to the architects in Stockholm - but who were Carlberg's role models?From the Renaissance onwards, complex iconographic programs - which celebrated the political, economic andintellectual ambitions - formed the basis for the decoration of a building. These programs were developed in collaboration betweenthe client and his advisors, of which Gunnebo is a lavish example - but what was Gunnebo's artisticprogram? Despite its importance, the background to one of the most prominent Swedish buildings of the 18th century is largelyunexplored. The aim of this project is to describe and analyze the architectural history of Gunnebo and the artisticprogram behind its decorations based on an iconological and comparative study of contemporarydevelopments in Europe. The study will result in a monograph. The ambition is to publish a richly illustrated volume to increase knowledge of the site and its value.Mats MalmThe Swedish AcademyAnniversary edition of the Swedish Academy's dictionaryOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

Gunnel LindelövT Carlsson BokförlagMaja Sjöström - Swedish textile pioneerOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Maja Sjöström (1868-1961) came from humble beginnings in the countryside of Skåne, but succeeded at an early age in gaining admission to the new course in pattern drafting at the Technical School in Stockholm in 1889-1892. Thereafter, her work at Handarbetets vänner, Stockholm 1893-1916, for 24 years, was of great importance for the association's development into the leading textile studio in the Nordic region. Especially during the years 1897-1915, she became the most prominent artist there because of her innovation, the breadth and variety of patterns of high quality she designed. Sjöström created works for many private clients, for the Swedish royal family, for public environments such as the Mittag-Leffler Institute, the Swedish Medical Society, Stockholm City Hall, Sofia Church and Storkyrkan in Stockholm, as well as works for the many exhibitions in which Handarbetets Vänner participated, in Sweden and internationally.Between 1916 and 1923, Sjöström was commissioned by architect Ragnar Östberg and the City Hall Committee to be responsible for the entire textile decoration of Stockholm City Hall, the largest textile commission of its time. Maja Sjöström was the only woman among all the men. After this commission, the artist moved to Rome, where she continued to work on private commissions and interior design projects. In 2023, it will be 100 years since Stockholm City Hall was inaugurated, and in 2024, the Friends of Needlework will celebrate its 150th anniversary, at least two good reasons in the near future to pay attention to Maja Sjöström's work again.Ann-Charlotte HellKungl. Musical AcademiesMusic in military archives - not just military musicOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 644 751

A large and, for most people, unknown treasure trove of Swedish music is hidden in the military archives. Today it is not only forgotten but also virtually inaccessible and we risk losing a large and important part of our musical heritage.From the beginning of the 19th century until the middle of the last century, military musicians played a crucial role in Swedish musical life. Thanks to the music corps, many places around the country had a flourishing musical life and, alongside their service in the military, the musicians were of crucial importance to civilian musical life, where they often had a driving role. Many were also skilled composers who, in addition to marches and ceremonial music, also composed a lot of music for civilian contexts, from chamber music to orchestral works.By establishing a database of the archives and creating an overview of the sheet music preserved in them, as well as publishing a number of new freely downloadable sheet music editions from this rich material, Living Music Heritage/Kungl. Musikaliska Akademien in collaboration with Försvarsmusiken wants to make the music available to musicians, music students, concert organizers, researchers and the music-interested public. In this way, it becomes a natural and living part of today's modern concert repertoireIngemar OskarssonVisiting Sweden in the age of great powerOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 30 000

The project concerns the publication of a book, "På besök i stormaktstidens Sverige", published by Natur & Kultur. In the book, I recount and comment on the travel accounts from the 17th century left by a total of eleven French-speaking visitors to Sweden, ten French and one Swiss, and which in several cases have never before received attention in Swedish research. Together, these accounts provide a detailed, partly new and in-depth picture of Sweden at the time and of how conditions were perceived by travelers from a country that, regardless of religious differences, was a political ally."A Visit to Sweden in the Age of Great Power" is also in many ways a continuation and expansion of my book "The Journey of the French Chamberlain", which was published in 2013 with substantial support from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation. Nearly forty illustrations, some of which have rarely or never been reproduced in historical literature, contribute to the understanding of the text. They should be reproduced in the best possible technical quality, and my application is for a contribution to ensuring good image reproduction.Urban LundbergThe journal ResponsRespons magazine - Review journal for the humanities and social sciencesOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 80 000

Respons is a politically independent and interdisciplinary journal that focuses on reviewing non-fiction in Swedish, including translations, in the humanities and social sciences. Our ambition is to maintain an important part of the infrastructure of the Swedish public sphere and to give the interested public the opportunity to survey and evaluate the publication of non-fiction. Our expert writers, mainly academic experts, review around 150 books annually. Respons has established itself as a leading journal for discussing and disseminating research in the humanities and social sciences, and is thus an important platform for universities to engage with the wider community. Respons also functions as a nursery in that it offers researchers at Swedish universities and colleges opportunities to develop the ability to communicate their knowledge in Swedish to a wider readership, at a time when what is rewarded in academia is to publish their results in English in specialized journals that often only reach those already familiar with the subject. The journal thus offers a Swedish forum where academics can have their research recognized and critically discussed, and where they can follow publications both in their own field and in other research disciplines. Respons also provides continuous training and an overview of the latest in non-fiction research and publishing to groups outside our universities, such as teachers, librarians and policy makers at various levels.Peter LindströmUmeå UniversityThe relationship between Sweden and Turkey in historical perspectiveOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 549 000

In October 2022, Sweden's Prime Minister traveled to Ankara to try to persuade Turkey's leaders to approve Sweden's NATO application. The visit highlighted the long history of alliance building between the two nations. As a gift to the Turkish leader, the Swedish delegation brought a copy of the Treaty of Alliance concluded between Sweden and Turkey in December 1739. The history of the negotiations behind the treaty and Sweden's previous relationship with Turkey is largely unwritten. At the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the relevant translation of the treaty and information about the diplomatic negotiations leading up to the treaty could be handed over by the project leader to the delegation. This project aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the relationship between Sweden and Turkey from a historical perspective.The study has two main objectives: One objective is to contribute to new knowledge about the background, purpose, implementation and results of the 1730s negotiations. The second goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the patterns of values and attitudes that were expressed during the negotiations, i.e. what the analysis says about the prevailing political culture - with a particular focus on the importance of trust at the actor level. Project funding is sought for the processing of already collected source material and the completion of a monograph. This is expected to take one year.Gullög NordquistSwedish Humanist AssociationSvenska Humanistiska Förbundet årsskrift 147 Tellström, History of food cultureOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 65 000

The book aims to give an 800-year overview of our Swedish food culture, from the moment we leave our mothers' breasts and eat the first piece of cultural food. There we start a lifelong food cultural process to be part of the group we want to be part of. Like all food culture in the world, the food and drink in our glasses tells us about the people and the values we like and want to share. A raw material cannot become a food until it has received our stamp of approval. Behind every dish and flavor there is a cultural and historical background. This book aims to provide the reader interested in food and history with that background, a food-historical "laundry line of ideas" stretching from the 13th century to our own time, where we can hang the right food expression in the right place and also ponder from which laundry basket we picked the food expression - from New York, London, Paris or more exotic places. Food culture can and should be approached in the same way that other cultural historians have tried to understand literature, music, art, theater, fashion. We are all part of a food culture, perhaps several. There is no individual food culture - it is always collective. The harsh conditions of our climate have deeply influenced our food culture. It is based on raw materials from a relatively short growing season that must last the whole year. Over time, technological developments, such as the iron stove, and food culture ideals have pushed against each other and food culture has been built up with eating habits and food choices from cultures that Swedes look up to.Fabian ArnhemArmy MuseumSweden and Ukraine - where paths crossedOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Since February 24, 2022, Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine is ongoing. News of the fighting dominates Swedish media. As a consequence, Sweden has applied for NATO membership and new investments in national defense have been initiated. Swedish museums are working on export plans with renewed vigor, and issues of history and cultural heritage are higher on the agenda than they have been for years. What many people do not know is that there are exceptional objects from Ukraine in several museums and archives in Sweden. Strangely, these objects have never before been exhibited together in Sweden. Here is a unique opportunity to showcase and bring together historical artifacts of high relevance to research fields with touchpoints in both our history and the present.The Army Museum and the National Archives are working together with the National History Museums, the Ukrainian Embassy and the National Museum of Ukrainian History during the Second World War to produce a joint exhibition with the aim of spreading knowledge about the historical links between Sweden and Ukraine and thus problematizing the telling of history during war and conflict. The research collaboration is also an important support to Ukraine to strengthen cultural heritage institutions and assist in their resilience during ongoing war. It also develops our national knowledge on the protection of cultural heritage in war and strengthens the ability to collaborate with cultural heritage institutions in other countries.The societal relevance of the exhibition is very high and its implementation is urgent.Jonas MattssonResearch and Progress FoundationPublication of the journal Forskning & Framsteg in 2024Other2023

Amount granted: SEK 80 000

Forskning & Framsteg reports on research and research results and on the role of research in society. The topics and research results covered must be of interest to society and individuals in society. Forskning & Framsteg's science journalism and popular science are at the forefront of knowledge, are educational, always deserve high credibility and are done with the reader in focus. By reporting on research and research achievements, the magazine will help to strengthen democracy and increase people's knowledge in society at large.Anna HambergUppsala UniversityThe University House in Uppsala. Construction, design and useOther2023

Amount granted: SEK 55 000

The time had finally come, with just two months to go before the inauguration of Uppsala University House. The final year had been waited for until the very last moment to be written on the inscription board on the south-west facade of the building: constructed during the reign of Oscar II in accordance with a royal and parliamentary decision, this building was inaugurated for Uppsala University in 1887. The new University House was to be a palace of education or wisdom, as representative as those of other European universities, and to a large extent it is the same building environment we still encounter today. The building has a special status as one of the few well-preserved and coherent environments in Sweden from the 1880s in terms of architecture, decorative painting, art and furniture, and which is also used for its original purpose, namely academic ceremonies and everyday life.The University House was built during a time when its design and aesthetics have historically been criticized already in the present, but especially with the advent of modernism. This means that it has not been researched to the same extent as other eras. The thesis is thus a contribution to the expansive history of institutional construction in the second half of the 19th century through an in-depth study of a specific building project. In addition, the thesis work has enabled the necessary conservation measures of an unusual drawing material that will be published for the first time.Roger EliassonAeroseum FoundationDevelopment of educational and experiential school and museum activities.Other2023

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The Aeroseum aeronautical experience center in Gothenburg, located in a mountain hangar 30 m underground, has for many years been conducting curriculum-based school activities under the guidance of employed educators. The aim is to use the exhibits, airplanes, helicopters and other aircraft to create a greater understanding and interest in science and technology among the visiting students. In 2022, the decision was taken to exploit part of the area on top of the Aeroseum mountain by building an adventure park where visitors are trained in problem solving, teamwork and motor skills, using different workstations. So far, two workstations have been acquired - a rope course and an obstacle course. The Aeroseum now intends to acquire additional items in the form of a fall protection mat covered in artificial grass to be applied under the workstations to allow up to 85 cm falls without injury.Stina WickströmKarolinska InstituteCell therapy with Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) and Dendritic Cell vaccine.Medicine2022

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

With several breakthroughs in immunology research, we are on the verge of a new generation of cancer treatments based on activating the body's own immune system to resist the cancer. Immunotherapy with immune-activating antibodies can prolong survival in patients with certain types of severe cancer but only works in a small proportion (<30 %) av patienter, varför det behövs andra behandlingsalternativ. Cellterapi är ett exempel på en lovande ny behandlingsmetod, där patientens egna vita blodkroppar aktiveras utanför kroppen och ges tillbaka till patienten för att där bekämpa cancerceller.Vi har lovande resultat där vi behandlar patienter med den elakartade hudcancern malignt melanom med cellterapi kombinerat med ett tumörvaccin. Vita blodkroppar (T-celler ) renas fram från cancertumören, mångfaldigas och ges tillbaka i ett stort antal till patienten för att söka upp och döda tumörceller. Behandlingen kombineras med ett tumörvaccin, för att öka effekten av de injicerade vita blodkropparna. Hos de patienter som erhållit behandling har en tydlig effekt på dennes cancer uppmätts, och 3 av dessa patienter är fortfarande fria från sjukdom många år efter behandlingen. Vi har nu tillstånd från att behandla ytterligare 10 patienter och vill även utöka till senare behandla även andra typer av cancer. Målsättningen är att kunna erbjuda cancerpatienter en effektiv immunterapi med hjälp av cellterapi och tumörvaccin.Anders OlofssonUmeå UniversityA new form of therapeutic and prophylactic treatment for transthyretin amyloidosisMedicine2022

Amount granted: SEK 584 616

Summary will be published shortlySusanne BejerotRegion Örebro CountyRituximab - a placebo-controlled trial for schizophrenia spectrum disorderMedicine2022

Amount granted: SEK 3 324 240

85% of those with schizophrenia never recover. They also have an increased morbidity in physical diseases, especially immunological ones. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated a link between inflammation/autoimmunity and schizophrenia.Between 2019-2022, we have investigated in an open pilot study whether nine severely ill therapy-resistant patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder improve with the anti-inflammatory drug rituximab. Rituximab is a well-proven drug (anti-CD20 antibodies) commonly used in MS and rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment is given every six months. Rituximab has not previously been tested in mental illness so our pilot study is groundbreaking. We have seen very good results in several patients with SSD (6/9), so we intend to proceed with a placebo-controlled study in 104 patients (18-51 years).Rituximab is given as a single drop. Serious side effects can occur, but are extremely rare. The study patients continue with their regular drug treatment which reduces the risk of deterioration. We will evaluate the effect after 12 weeks using established evaluation instruments and examine general improvement, function and self-rated health. Patients will be followed for 6 months. Side effects and signs of inflammation will be investigated.If the treatment proves effective, it will most likely revolutionize the understanding and treatment recommendations for a severely affected patient group. Hans EllegrenThe Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Academy Professorship in Medicine 2023Medicine2022

Amount awarded: SEK 10 300 000

Lars L GustafssonKarolinska InstituteHistory of science study of Sune Bergström: legendary scientist, leader and social reformerMedicine2022

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

Researchers whose discoveries contribute to health attract interest. Nobel Prize winner Sune Bergström (1916-2004) was an influential Swedish medical researcher in the 20th century, but he has no biography. This project aims to fill this gap. We highlight how Bergström and his colleagues became successful and describe his life, work and importance based on interviews, archival research and literature. This is presented in a biography in Swedish and English. Part I describes the researcher and private person Sune Bergström from his school years in the USA during the burning world war, groundbreaking discoveries about prostaglandins and his time as a professor at the age of 31 in Lund and in Stockholm from 1959. Part two highlights his commitment to global health and his industrial collaborations. Part three is about the communicator, mentor and research leader and analyzes his leadership style and good contacts with national and global leaders and authorities, such as the WHO (World Health Organization) and the NIH (National Institutes of Health) in the US. Project leaders Gustafsson and Tjärnlund have extensive experience in research, archival studies and research communication. We are applying for funding to complete the project, which has so far conducted around 50 interviews with key individuals and collected material from 15 different archives. The biography is expected to be completed in 2024. The visionary Sune Bergström, his actions and driving forces can illustrate how research contributes to improved health for millions of people.Robin FåhraeusUmeå UniversityDeveloping treatment for Epstein-Barr virus-related diseases.Medicine2022

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes various diseases and it has been estimated that 2-3% of all cancers are caused by EBV. Other diseases include infectious mononucleosis. More recently, an association between EBV and multiple sclerosis has been demonstrated. Despite knowing that EBV causes disease for 60 years, there is no specific treatment for EBV. All EBV-infected cells express the protein EBNA1, which is essential for the virus, and knocking out EBNA1 also knocks out the virus. EBNA1 is therefore an interesting protein for the development of new treatment methods against EBV. Our research has shown that EBNA1 has a unique mechanism for regulating its own synthesis. We have shown the cellular mechanisms that regulate EBNA1 synthesis and we have identified compounds that specifically inhibit EBNA1 synthesis. We have also shown how these compounds work. Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a tumor that carries the virus in 100% of all cases. Treatment of two different NPC tumors in mice with anti-EBNA1 substances does not affect the animals significantly and there are no signs of toxicity but the tumors disappear. Substances that are more effective in inhibiting EBNA1 are more effective in preventing NPC tumor growth. A tumor that does not carry EBV (melanoma) is not affected by the treatment. This project aims to develop, in collaboration with medicinal chemists, new compounds that are effective in inhibiting EBNA1 synthesis and can be developed into drugs for EBV-associated diseases.Anders BillströmUniversity of SkövdeEntrepreneurial resilience of SMEs in the face of multiple crisesEconomy2022

Amount granted: SEK 2 123 000

Swedish and international companies are in a unique situation of managing multiple crises simultaneously. Companies are working to recover from the coronavirus pandemic, while also trying to deal with the war in Ukraine, inflation and the start of the recession. This means that companies do not have time to recover between crises, putting many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at risk of not surviving. The ability to cope with crises in small businesses is called entrepreneurial resilience (ER) and consists of internal factors within the firm such as the personality, experience and capabilities of the entrepreneur, and external factors outside the firm such as the availability of resources and support. Research is limited because it often focuses on the management of single crises after they have happened. The aim of the project is therefore to develop knowledge about ER in SMEs when dealing with multiple crises. The project intends to develop and test a conceptual framework of factors affecting ER (the entrepreneur, the firm and the environment) and showing the effects of ER (survival, merger and bankruptcy). The project intends to conduct a literature study, interview study and survey study. The project deepens and broadens an ongoing project where ER in SMEs in Skaraborg is studied during the Corona pandemic. This is done by investigating ER during several added crises in SMEs throughout Västra Götaland and Halland. Sune KarlssonÖrebro UniversityImproving economic policy and forecasting with high-frequency dataEconomy2022

Amount granted: SEK 1 047 000

If a balanced stabilization policy is to be conducted, a well updated basis for decision-making is required in the form of current assessments and forecasts. This is particularly important when major shocks hit the economy and stabilization policy is expected to play a greater role than normal. However, a large proportion of the models used by policy makers today do not meet this requirement as they are based on data observed at low frequencies, often quarterly. This project therefore aims to analyze whether "mixed frequency" models, i.e. models that use high frequency information to model low frequency series such as GDP, can contribute to better macroeconomic situation assessments and forecasts.Erik LissLinköping UniversityPeer effects and the urban-rural education gapEconomy2022

Amount granted: SEK 787 500

A large and growing gap in educational outcomes between urban and rural areas has emerged, with major implications for the future of rural students. However, previous research has not investigated the causes of this gap. We examine whether and how 'peer effects' can explain this educational gap, and the implications for students from different social backgrounds.Peer effects mean that school students influence each other, positively through e.g. engagement in school work or helping each other, or negatively through e.g. messiness, bullying and fewer role models in the classroom. However, empirical research on peer effects in Swedish schools is still limited, despite its relevance in research, education policy and public debate.We use extensive register data on students, parents, school classes, teachers and schools in all schools since 1987 to study how classmates in the grade or school class affect students' grades, upper secondary school choices, and whether they go to university, and how this differs between urban and rural areas. To isolate the causal impact of peer effects on grade outcomes and future study choices, we use sibling comparisons and instruments for the parental background of peers.Louise CormackLund UniversityHealth inequalities from a life course perspectiveEconomy

Amount granted: SEK 485 000

In the 20th century, public health in the western world has improved enormously and life expectancy at birth is now several decades higher than 100 years ago. However, these improvements have not benefited everyone equally. In Sweden, a socio-economic gradient in infant mortality has existed since the turn of the century and in adult mortality since the mid-20th century. The gradient implies lowest mortality among those with high socioeconomic status and highest mortality among those with low socioeconomic status. Although research has found long-term socioeconomic and health-related effects of early life circ*mstances, inequalities in adult mortality have not been fully linked to factors at earlier ages. The aim of this project is to examine how health inequalities in early life persist into older ages and what factors influence health inequalities across the life course. Economic, health-related and demographic factors will be analyzed. Longitudinal, historical population data on individuals living in Landskrona and five neighboring parishes between 1905-1967, linked to modern population registers, will be used to study the life course of individuals throughout the 20th century. The project contributes theoretically and methodologically to existing research, but is also policy relevant as it can inform which interventions reduce health inequalities and when they have the greatest impact.Farrukh JavedLund UniversityState-of-the-art GDP forecasting during economic crises using machine learning methodsEconomy2022

Amount granted: SEK 1 696 000

The war in Ukraine and the global crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic highlighted the importance of real-time assessments of the macroeconomic situation as a basis for conducting appropriate stabilization policies. However, this is a challenging task, with a major complicating factor being the lagged publication of key economic variables. In order to facilitate economic decision-makers, there has been an increased focus on producing faster statistics that better reflect the current state of the economy in order to improve the decision-making basis for stabilization policy. An important method for this is current forecasting of key variables such as gross domestic product (GDP), which is currently carried out regularly by various forecasting institutes such as the National Institute of Economic Research. Our contribution to the growing interest in baseline forecasting is to incorporate methods from the machine learning literature. These have advantages over previously used methods because they can handle large data sets and model non-linear relationships between economic variables. This project aims to evaluate and further develop these methods. The evaluation is carried out through simulation methods and applications where Swedish GDP is forecast at present. The aim is to improve the NIER's current GDP forecasting methods. Our focus is thus on a small open economy, which will characterize the design of the simulation study.Jan MartonUniversity of GothenburgAccounting in private companies - regulation that helps or hinders growthEconomy2022

Amount granted: SEK 1 679 200

Currently, the economy in Sweden and other countries is undergoing major changes, driven for example by increased digitalization and increased demands for sustainability. Both economists and politicians point to the importance of start-ups in dealing with this change, as they are more likely to adopt completely new business models than more mature companies.An important aspect of facilitating the start-up and growth of new businesses is their access to finance, which requires high-quality accounting, which is often costly to produce. At the same time, simplification is highlighted as a way to promote new businesses, which means, among other things, having lower accounting requirements. The two conflicting requirements create a tension that requires balancing in regulation. At present, legislators and regulators have limited scientific support for how the balance should be made and the project provides a basis for how it can be done in an optimal way.Through access to unique Swedish data for unlisted companies, the project examines the effects of smaller companies' accounting choices. More specifically, it examines whether simplified accounting leads to worse or better opportunities for growth. Through a quantitative survey of all unlisted companies, comprehensive knowledge of the companies' own assessments of how accounting should be designed is obtained. This provides the basis for statements on how accounting regulation should be designed to support the creation and growth of new businesses.Mattias DahlbergUppsala UniversityThe arm's length principle in a time of transition - new principles for corporate taxationJurisprudence2022

Amount granted: SEK 1 188 000

The digitalized economy has called for changes in the principles of taxation of globally operating companies. The OECD and the G20 have proposed new rules that increase the taxing power of the state in which consumers are located (the 'market state'). Within the framework of the traditional distribution principle ("arm's length principle"), some changes have also taken place, particularly in relation to the transaction-based profit distribution method. Common to these developments is that the residence of consumers and factors of production, such as capital and wages, should determine where corporate taxation should take place. The project will examine what this means for Swedish companies located in a small open economy, dependent on exports and dependent on investments in research and development.Erik NerepStockholm School of EconomicsDistribution of decisions and competences in limited liability companiesJurisprudence2022

Amount granted: SEK 363 750

The project started on April 1, 2018, but its schedule has been delayed due to illness. The project investigates whether the Swedish corporate governance model is appropriate and effective. For example, is there reason to consider the introduction of a supervisory body in Swedish listed companies, at least as an alternative to other corporate governance models, and what would be the benefits of such a system? Furthermore, it is examined whether, as an alternative to the German dualist system, there is reason to investigate and consider whether the principles of corporate governance in the USA and the UK should be given greater influence in the Swedish company law system.Cécile BrokelindLund UniversityThe global minimum tax and Swedish interest deduction restrictionsJurisprudence2022

Amount granted: SEK 2 060 000

On December 22, 2021, the European Commission presented a proposal to implement the OECD rules on minimum global taxation of profits of multinational groups to prevent profit shifting to countries with low or no taxation. In addition, the European Commission has also proposed two additional tax directives. During 2021 and 2022, a number of guiding judgments have been issued concerning the compatibility of the Swedish group contribution model and the interaction with the interest deduction rules with EU law. In light of the EFTA Court's judgment in the PRA case on June 1, 2022, the need to implement new tax directives, it is reasonable to ask whether there are legal conditions for Sweden to retain the group contribution while the proposed tax directives require the introduction of new interest deduction rules. Through a legal analysis, the project aims to explain and discuss the problems that arise from the interaction between the Swedish group contribution model, interest deduction rules, a fiscally generous interest policy, and the introduction of the global minimum tax within the EU and the new tax directives.Leila BrännströmUniversity of GothenburgThe Transformation of Property Protection: A Legal History and Theory StudyJurisprudence2022

Amount granted: SEK 441 000

The overall aim of the project is to take a holistic approach to how property rights and property protection have changed in Swedish law since the mid-1980s. The effects of the transnationalization of law and the development of information technology will be highlighted in particular. A first step in the project is to map these changes. The lines of development identified by the survey will then be analyzed on the basis of a number of influential theories of how property rights arise and why they should be protected. These theories are essentially normative but in the context of this project the theories will be used diagnostically to explore the legal developments.The central research questions of the project are: How have property rights and property protection changed in Sweden since the mid-1980s? How does this legal development relate to influential theories of how property rights arise and why they should be protected?The project will be structured around three concrete and topical questions: 1) the extent to which property rights include the future return of property, 2) the impact of the impending climate crisis on rights to land and natural resources, and 3) the regulation of data as an asset class. Each of these issues will be highlighted historically, discussed in relation to the development of technology and transnational law, and provide an entry point for the legal philosophical analysis of property rights and their protection.Axel HolmgrenStockholm UniversityInternational crimes in national criminal lawJurisprudence2022

Amount granted: 1 068 000 SEK

In the last decade, it has become increasingly common for Swedish courts to try so-called international crimes - i.e. serious violations of international law that otherwise often go unpunished. These have included war crimes and genocide linked to conflict zones in different parts of the world. In the future, it is very likely that we in Sweden will see convictions for acts committed in the context of Russia's war in Ukraine. These international crimes are rooted in international law dating back to the aftermath of the Second World War. Since 2002, these crimes can be investigated and tried by the International Criminal Court in The Hague. Nowadays, however, the vast majority of prosecutions take place in courts in different national legal systems. When interpreting Swedish criminal provisions, international law standards need to be taken into account. This is material that is otherwise foreign to criminal law and is found in sources outside the Swedish legal system. One question that arises is how this material should be delimited; to what extent Swedish or international rules should be applied when assessing responsibility for the crimes. Furthermore, it is important that this difficult-to-understand material is systematized and made available to legal practitioners. The research project aims to investigate the above-mentioned issues and contribute to further knowledge regarding how the provisions should be interpreted and applied, which would contribute to facilitating the enforcement of liability for these very serious crimes as well as to a more legally secure and uniform application of the law. Ola SvenssonLund UniversityStandard setting and application of law in contract lawJurisprudence2022

Amount granted: 115 000 SEK

The project examines whether it is possible to create an appropriate division of labor between the legislator and the courts when it comes to the formation of contract law, and the extent to which standardization through contracts can constitute a complement or alternative to contract law legislation and the formation of precedents. Attention is also paid to different methods of statutory interpretation in connection with an analysis of the importance of formalism and pragmatism in contract law. Key issues addressed are the extent to which regulation should take place through legislation and legislative reasoning and the extent to which it should take place through precedent. Standard-setting through contractual regulation through contracts is also given considerable scope, which is reflected in an analysis of the role that individually designed contracts and standard contracts can play in standardizing the legal relationship between the parties. Furthermore, various rules for the interpretation and completion of contracts are examined and how these affect the formation of contract law, as well as protective legislation for the benefit of consumers.Johanna ChamberlainUppsala UniversityRights and risks in data protection and AI legislationJurisprudence2022

Amount granted: SEK 559 000

What is a rights-based or risk-based regulatory model? Is rights-based regulation about to be replaced by risk-based regulation and, if so, what are the legal and societal consequences? These questions form the core of the research project, where the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the proposed regulation on artificial intelligence (AI) will be analyzed as examples of different ways of legislating on elusive and extensive contemporary and future challenges. Through a critical close reading of the two pieces of legislation and related case law, the study will seek to map the ongoing trends at the EU level, where fundamental rights have gained an increasingly important role in legislation in recent decades but where a movement in the discourse can now be sensed towards a focus on controlling risks instead of protecting rights - not least in the AI context. A further task within the framework of the study will be to investigate which national parallels are noticeable regarding rights- and risk-based regulations (for example, the Public Access to Information and Secrecy Act can be said to constitute both parts), as well as to discuss challenges for the Swedish legal system when meeting the EU legislation that is now being developed. The interplay between the protection of fundamental rights and governance and oversight mechanisms, and how these legal structures affect individuals and other actors at the societal level, will be central to the study.Mia SkottStockholm City MuseumThe archival journey that became an artist's portrait: Anna Maria Thelott (c1683-1710)Other2022

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

How does one achieve historical knowledge about a relatively unknown and little researched woman's artistic professional activity at the beginning of the 18th century, and what does this knowledge tell us about women's driving forces and scope of action on the art scene of the time? The question will be answered through this project and presented in a monograph. The aim is to contribute with in-depth and nuanced knowledge, and to show how to find and interpret sources, thereby encouraging others to take on similar projects.As a result of the subordination and marginalization of women in the 17th and 18th centuries, existing research suggests that the opportunities for women to train and be active in the art scene were very limited. However, the painter and engraver Anna Maria Thelott (c.1683-1710) stands out. Her clients included Charles XII, Olof Rudbeck the Elder and Johan Peringskiöld. Until her death in 1710, she managed to support herself and her parents through her professional activities.Despite these long-established facts, no one had previously researched her, largely because it was assumed that no relevant sources had been preserved. However, this changed ten years ago when Mia Skott discovered, for example, that Thelott had taught drawing, making her the first known female art teacher in Sweden. The project had to be shelved, but is now resumed with a microhistorical approach that builds on the one presented in Mia Skott's book Tapetmakerskor - Självständiga yrkeskvinnor i 1700-talets Stockholm.Brita PlanckVästergötland Museum FoundationBearers of gods - Finnestorp sacrificial siteOther2022

Amount granted: SEK 25 000

Between Floby and Larv, a sacrificial site was found in 1902 in a wetland at Finnestorp. Repeated sacrifices have taken place here from the beginning of our era and 500 years later. The finds consist of skeletal parts of horses, sheep and pigs, as well as humans, but above all parts of metal objects from weapons and horse equipment.There are various explanations as to why these items were placed in the bogs, but most commonly it is linked to cult, religion and sacrifice. Before being placed in the water, the objects were destroyed by bending or cutting them.The research project "Victim Site Finnestorp" was carried out in two fieldwork rounds, a first phase in 2000-2004 and a second in 2008-2012. The first round includes almost 300 objects plus bone/horn material. Since 2021, the finds from Finnestorp have been at Västergötland Museum. Work is currently underway to catalog and preserve them. The idea is that the finds will form the backbone of a new basic exhibition. The project enables a preliminary study for the exhibition.Susanna OomActa KonserveringscentrumPreservation of heritage textiles through wet cleaning.Other2022

Amount granted: 133 750 SEK

We accept students from the conservation program at the University of Gothenburg and also from foreign universities. The profession of conservator is interdisciplinary. It includes natural science, cultural history and not least practical knowledge of the materials you handle. We see it as an important part of our business to be able to receive conservators in training. It is a way for us to keep abreast of new research and new methods in conservation while contributing our experience.In our work with conservation of cultural heritage textiles, wet cleaning is often an important part of the work process. To carry out wet cleaning in the best possible way, textile conservators rely on a specially made washing table. A washing table also provides us with opportunities for method development and for testing new cleaning methods. The grant enables the textile department to carry out the wet cleaning process in a professional manner, to carry out method development and ultimately to preserve our textile heritage.Dag KlackenbergThe Swedish History DaysThe Swedish History Days 2023Other2022

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The Swedish History Days (DSH) is a non-profit organization, founded in 1993, which seeks to promote interest in history and strengthen the importance of the subject through annual conferences. The regular meetings aim to create and maintain contacts between representatives of historical research, museum and archive institutions, book publishers, school teachers and the public interested in history. The DSH is held every year in a new location, usually in Sweden but also in Finland, Germany and the Baltic countries, i.e. parts of historical Sweden.Joachim ÖstlundLund UniversitySwedish early modern Egyptology 1677 - 1739Other2022

Amount granted: SEK 354 000

With the establishment of the College of Antiquities in Sweden in 1666, an ordinance on the preservation of ancient monuments was written to gain knowledge of Sweden's oldest history. The old Icelandic and Norwegian literature was also studied, until the activity slowed down around 1720. This project aims to draw attention to equally ambitious, but almost unknown, Swedish research on Egyptian antiquity during the same period. A central figure in this project was Charles XII, who commissioned the three orienteering expeditions during his exile in Bender. The expeditions started from Bender and consisted of chaplains and fortification officers of the Carolinian army. They also wrote treatises and several literary works on ancient Egypt during this period. As with the study of ancient remains in Sweden, the study of Egyptian artifacts put established knowledge in a new light. The exploration of monuments and ancient texts created - what I call - cracks in time due to discoveries that suggested that the history of the Egyptian dynasty was older than the biblical creation story. The purpose of this project is twofold: to define the form and content of early modern Swedish Egyptology and to analyze this knowledge in a contemporary historical perspective. The project will result in a book in Swedish for the public interested in history. The book will fill a gap in knowledge as it addresses a fascinating quest for knowledge about Egypt's ancient history long before the emergence of modern Egyptology in the 19th century.Peter FischerAssociation of Friends of the Swedish Cyprus ExpeditionIntercultural relations in the Bronze Age: the geographical dimensionOther2022

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

The project intends to continue in the coming years the study of interregional contacts during the Bronze Age of Europe and neighboring cultures (ca. 1630-1150 BC). This will be done through the Söderberg expedition's excavations in the Cypriot trading metropolis of Hala Sultan Tekke.In recent years, work has concentrated on the burial site which is exposed to destruction by agriculture and looting. Exploration with georadar and magnetometer shows that many tombs are only a few centimeters below the surface and are thus highly exposed. Based on the geophysical survey results, the most vulnerable graves will be located and carefully documented during the excavation.One example is Tomb UU from the 15th century BC, which was discovered in spring 2022 when it was partially exposed by the plow. So far, 20 individuals and 141 complete objects, many of which were imported, have been found. The imports indicate extensive interregional contacts, which is in line with the main objective of the project. Currently, the expedition can report imported objects from the cemetery that confirm contacts with areas from Sardinia to Afghanistan and from the Baltic Sea to Nubia. The results have been reported in the international media.As only a very limited part of the tomb could be uncovered in 2022, the excavation will continue in the coming seasons. In addition to advanced excavation techniques, sophisticated scientific analysis methods are also used.Olle JosephsonSwedish Humanist AssociationKristoffer Leandoer: The unfinished literatureOther2022

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

Every year, the 2000 members of the Swedish Humanities Association receive a newly written book in the Swedish humanities. For 2023, a book is planned by the author and critic Kristoffer Leandoer with the preliminary title "Den oavslu*tade litteraturen. An essay on everything that was not finished". In eighteen chapters, the book takes on unfinished great works of Western literature - Leandoer gives several examples from different eras, such as Geoffrey Chaucer's famous Canterbury Tales (14th century), Edmund Spenser's verse epic The Faire Queen (16th century) and Robert Musil's novel The Man Without Qualities (20th century) - if one thinks of these works as complete and finished.Leandoer poses a number of questions that such a library might raise. Do works from different times and languages have anything in common? What do we mean by the word (or concept) "end"? Here Leandoer draws on international research in this area, such as Frank Kermode's well-known The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction (1967). Leandoer brings up a number of interesting aspects of unfinished literature, including what it does to its authors and how it relates to nothing less than life itself, specifically how we imagine its end or, alternatively, how we dream that it will never end. It also includes interesting aspects of the reading of literature - both how it has been read and how it wants to be read.Ninni Trossholmen Partille mansion through the ages - cultural-historical considerationsOther2022

Amount granted: 125 000 SEK

While other mansions in western Sweden appear to be fairly well documented, Partille Manor does not seem to have attracted the same attention. The origin and development of the manor over time and not least the varying ownership conditions, which in turn may have left their mark on the design of the building, its inherent atmosphere and life in the surrounding community, seems to be a fascinating story and very important to document and tell for posterity. A previously approved research project has shed new light on the unique cultural-historical character of Partille Manor, findings that will be published in printed form with the help of this grant.Petra SöderlundSwedish Society of LiteratureText-critical publication of Olof von Dalin's Poetry 1751-1761Other2022

Amount granted: SEK 225 000

The project application concerns the Swedish Literature Society's (SVS) publication of four volumes in the series Olof von Dalin's Collected Writings. The first volume of this text-critical edition was published in 2008 and so far nine volumes have been published: Poetry (up to and including 1750), Drama and Letters. The language pioneer Dalin has a unique position in Swedish literary history and more than 2 500 of his poems have been preserved. The poems testify to his remarkable skill in a variety of poetic genres and contexts, whether they are tributes to the royal family, funerals, politics, religion, philosophy, satire or simply nonsense. Many of his lyrics both reflected and developed a table or drinking song tradition, the existence of which has previously received little scholarly attention. Co-editor James Massengale's discovery that a significant proportion of Dalin's poems were performed as songs has already provided a new perspective on Dalin and his poetry. The present application concerns volumes I:4-I:5 (text) and II:4-II:5 (commentary), containing poems from 1751 to 1761. The commentary presents a number of textual witnesses, variant readings, glosses and a musical commentary. The editors are Dr. Ingemar Carlsson, Prof. em. James Massengale, Gun Carlsson and Dr. Barbro Ståhle Sjönell, who have also published the already published volumes of Dalin's Collected Writings. SVS was founded in 1907 and aims to publish text-critical, i.e. scientific, editions of older Swedish fiction.Fedir AndroshchukState Historical MuseumsSweden and Ukraine in museum collection history and exhibition narrativesOther2022

Amount granted: SEK 1 608 000

The Russian invasion of Ukraine raised public concerns about not only the country's independence but also the established democratic world order. Vladimir Putin's distorted interpretation of historical sources and denial of Ukraine's independence provided the theoretical basis for the start of the war. In these circ*mstances, Ukrainian cultural heritage was threatened by both Putin's ideology and Russian missiles. Today, when Russian museums are used as an important instrument of colonial state propaganda, it is extremely important to examine the role of museums in the creation of local national identities and highlight their international and multicultural context. This project focuses on a comparative study of collection history in Swedish and Ukrainian history museums. Swedish museums hold archaeological artifacts and historical objects and documents of Ukrainian origin, some of which came to Sweden during the Viking Age, the early Middle Ages or the Reformation and constitute material evidence of contacts between the countries.The main focus of the project is collection history based on Ukrainian objects in Swedish museums and Swedish (or more broadly, Nordic) objects in Ukrainian museum collections. The aim is to draw attention to and account for this material and explore how knowledge of the collections can influence national narratives in both countries. Another task is to elaborate some theoretical and methodological views that can help Swedish and Ukrainian museums to resist Russian state propaganda.Kay GlansThe journal ResponsRespons magazine - Review journal for the humanities and social sciencesOther2022

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

Respons is an interdisciplinary journal that focuses on reviewing non-fiction in Swedish, including translations, in the humanities and social sciences. Our ambition is to maintain an important part of the Swedish public infrastructure and give the interested public the opportunity to review and evaluate non-fiction publications. Our expert writers, mainly academic experts, review around 200 books annually. Respons has established itself as a leading journal for discussing and disseminating research in the humanities and social sciences and is thus an important platform for universities' interaction with society. The journal also functions as a nursery by offering researchers at Swedish universities and colleges opportunities to develop the ability to communicate their knowledge in Swedish to a wider readership, at a time when the reward in academia is to publish their results in English in specialized journals that often only reach the already familiar. In this way, the journal offers a Swedish forum where academics can have their research noticed and critically discussed, and where they can follow publications both in their own field and in other research disciplines. Respons also provides continuous training and an overview of the latest in research and non-fiction publishing to groups outside our universities, such as teachers, librarians and decision-makers at different levels.Jonas MattssonResearch and Progress FoundationPublication of the journal Forskning & Framsteg in 2023Other2022

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

The journal Forskning & Framsteg reports on research, research results and the role of research in society. The topics and research results that are highlighted should primarily be of interest to society and the individual in society. Forskning & Framsteg works at the forefront of knowledge, is general education, should always deserve high credibility and be made with the reader in focus. By reporting on research and research achievements, the magazine will contribute to strengthening democracy and increasing people's knowledge in society at large.Claes OhlssonUniversity of GothenburgA new mechanism for regulating body weightMedicine2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Obesity is a growing public health problem worldwide, with more than one billion people overweight and 300 million obese.Obesity contributes to serious diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several reports have shown thatpeople who spend much of the day sitting have an increased risk of obesity and diabetes. Our results suggest thatincreased loading on the legs, which occurs when standing up, may lead to increased activation of a 'body wave' in the weight-bearing longtubular bones is activated more, and that this in turn leads to more activity in an anti-obesity system and hence reduced weight.There is already a well-known system that aims to keep fat mass constant. The anti-obesity hormonehormone leptin is released into the bloodstream from adipose tissue in proportion to the size of the fat mass. Leptin exerts a negativefeedback in the brain leading to reduced appetite and obesity. Unfortunately, most obese people are, for unknown reasons, insensitive to theleptin's anti-obesity effect. We have now shown in the prestigious American Academy of Sciences journal PNAS thatthe insertion of weights in the abdominal cavity or under the skin of obese mice leads to a reduction in food intake, body weight andfat mass decrease independently of leptin. This effect appears to involve a specific cell type in the long tubular bones. We now want toto study the exact mechanism of how the 'body wave' in the legs affects fat mass and appetite, probably via an effect on theon the brain. We also want to investigate the importance of this novel system for fat regulation in humans.Artur SchmidtchenLund UniversityStudies on SARS CoV-2 Spike protein and its effect on inflammationMedicine2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 135 000

COVID-19 patients may develop excessive and uncontrolled inflammation causing a dysfunctional inflammatory state, characterized by severe organ damage with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a common denominator. Cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure and diabetes, as components of Metabolic Syndrome (MS), appear to play an important role in developing a more severe form of the disease.Apart from the clinical link that MS is a risk factor for COVID-19, mechanistic information on the link between MS and COVID-19 is lacking. However, there is a well-known link between high levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and MS. We have made the unexpected but significant discovery that the extracellular protein in SARS Cov2, the Spike protein (S) interacts with and strongly boosts the inflammatory response to LPS.In this project, we aim to analyze the interaction between S and LPS and the effects on inflammation. For this we will use in silico models, biophysical and biochemical methods in combination with studies in cell systems, human blood and animal models. The results, which will be communicated immediately after the completion of the proposed project, will provide a possible molecular explanation for the association between COVID-19 and MS and may lead to new therapeutic targets and strategies to ameliorate the hyperinflammation observed in COVID-19 patients.Lars L. GustafssonKarolinska InstituteHistory of science study of Sune Bergström: legendary scientist, leader and social reformerMedicine2020

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

In the 20th century, research breakthroughs contributed to better public health. The question of which scientists make discoveries that develop society has interested people for many years. One of Sweden's greats is Nobel Prize winner and professor of medicine Sune Bergström (1916-2004). There is no biography of him, and this project aims to fill this gap. We will partly document Bergström's life, work, driving forces and significance and partly write a biography of him in Swedish and English based on interviews, archive research and literature studies. Part I of the biography describes the researcher and private person Sune Bergström from his school years in the USA during the burning world war, the groundbreaking discoveries about prostaglandins and the time as a professor at the age of 31 in Lund and in Stockholm from 1959. Part two highlights Bergström's commitment to global health in poor countries and his capacity for industrial collaboration. Part three describes Bergström, the communicator and mentor, and his leadership style with a brilliant ability to gain support for research and education initiatives. The biography is scheduled for completion in the first half of 2022. The visionary Sune Bergström, his achievements and driving forces can illustrate how research and international cooperation improve the health of millions of people. Greta HultqvistUppsala UniversityProtein drug design for improved drug delivery and increased therapeutic efficacyMedicine2020

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Immunotherapy is one of the most promising treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease despite the fact that large molecules, such as the antibodies used, are kept out of the brain by the blood-brain barrier. We have developed a core transporter protein that increases the uptake of antibodies in the mouse brain by almost 100 times and now want to continue our work on these projects in the following two steps:1. transport into the human brain. Our brain transporter does not work in humans. There are viruses that infect the brain in both mice and humans. In order to do so, they must first cross the blood-brain barrier, so they have developed proteins on their surface that act as blood-brain barrier transporters. In this project, we will test whether these can be used to transport antibodies into the brain.2. increase the brain's own degradation of amyloid beta. The treatment methods currently in clinical trials target the aggregates that have already been formed and do not bind to the smallest aggregates, which are perhaps the most toxic. If you can increase the brain's degradation of amyloid beta, you can prevent the aggregates from forming at all and then have a major effect on cognition. In this project, we try to activate the endogenous degradation by transporting the peptide somatostatin into the brain with our BBB transporter.There is enormous potential for improvement in immunotherapy and diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease and other brain diseases if we can significantly increase the uptake of antibodies in the brain and target new types of aggregates.Lennart LindbomKarolinska InstituteNew approach to counteract vascular leakage in severe infectious conditionsMedicine2020

Amount granted: SEK 365 000

Local infections in the body can spread to the blood and cause sepsis. Sepsis is a serious condition that often leads to tissue damage in several major organ systems with high mortality rates. The body's immune system plays an important role in containing the infection, but at the same time causes damage to the blood vessels of tissues, resulting in plasma leakage. The blood vessels of the lungs are particularly vulnerable, leading to pulmonary edema and severe respiratory failure. A similar process has been observed in patients with severe Covid-19 disease in the current coronavirus pandemic. We have previously shown that proteins released from the storage vesicles of a group of white blood cells (neutrophil granulocytes) are strongly involved in reducing the barrier function of blood vessels during inflammation. We have also found that the harmful effect of these proteins on blood vessel permeability can be effectively counteracted by treatment with the heparin-like substance sevuparin. In the current project, we want to establish the therapeutic value of sevuparin treatment in severe infectious conditions. Blood plasma from sepsis and Covid-19 patients is analyzed for proteins that induce increased vascular permeability and edema formation, and the ability of sevuparin to inactivate these substances is evaluated. The results from these analyses will form the basis for planned clinical trials with sevuparin in severe infections.Sven-Erik DahlénKarolinska Institute3-COMBO: New strategy to treat asthma in young children and adults by broadly blocking mast cellsMedicine2020

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

The aim of the project is to conduct a proof of concept study of a new and previously untested strategy to treat asthma.We have shown in animal experiments and in isolated human airways that a combination of three different drugs can fully protect the airways against asthmatic airway narrowing. The antagonists block three groups of mast cell signaling molecules: histamine, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. We have also shown in clinical trials in asthmatics that when two of these drugs (antihistamine and leukotriene antagonist) are combined, partial protection against allergen-induced airway narrowing is obtained.Our hypothesis is that the pretreatment that has been experimentally shown to be effective will also fully protect allergic asthmatics against the standardized asthma attack obtained during controlled exposure to allergens, so-called allergen provocation.In the trial, asthmatics will be pre-treated in a randomized order with placebo, or various combinations of the active substances montelukast (registered leukotriene antagonist), desloratadine (registered antihistamine), and ramatroban (prostaglandin antagonist that will be imported from Japan where it is used for hay fever). Ramatroban blocks the receptors for prostaglandins that are suspected to be involved in asthma.The project is testing a Swedish basic research discovery with the potential to create a new future low-cost alternative for tablet treatment of asthma.Marie Wahren-HerleniusKarolinska InstituteTranslational studies on congenital heart block for mortality reductionMedicine2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Congenital heart block can develop in the fetus during pregnancy in a woman with SSA and SSB autoantibodies. International studies report a mortality rate of 25-30%. Through our clinical and molecular studies, we have established a surveillance program in which we observe less than 4% mortality, as well as a significantly increased time after birth to pacemaker need in the child. However, in the majority of SSA/SSB positive pregnancies no heart block develops - and almost half of all blocks develop in pregnancies where the woman is not known to carry SSA/SSB antibodies. The aim of this project is to identify biomarkers to identify the high-risk pregnancies and monitoring methodology so that the program can be made available to all at-risk pregnancies. We will use a world-unique biobank of samples collected over a 15-year period to identify clinically useful markers using proteomic methodology. Screening methods to identify at-risk pregnancies in large groups will be developed using immunological techniques. Reducing the mortality rate for a disease to a quarter is a breakthrough that we now want to make available to the wider population and the world.Hjalmar BrismarRoyal Institute of TechnologyAutomated quantitative optical renal pathologyMedicine2021

Amount granted: SEK 1 558 152

The number of people with kidney disease worldwide amounted to nearly 700 million in 2017. This number is expected to increase in the coming years unless investments are made in improved diagnostics, new treatment methods and preventive measures. Kidney diagnostics currently use a combination of urine and blood tests and microscopic analysis of kidney tissue (biopsies). The microscopy methods are several decades old and are based on cutting the tissue into thin/ultra-thin sections and visualizing disease morphology on a large and small scale. Light microscopy has been used since the 1880s to visualize stained larger kidney structures. To visualize the smallest filter structures in the kidney, electron microscopy has been used since the 1950s. Since 2015, we have developed new methods that make it possible for the first time to image these ultra-small structures also with light microscopy. We have shown that we can see nanometer-sized filtration structures in three dimensions in whole tissue samples. Our optical pathology enables a fully automated and quantitative description of pathological changes in the kidney on a small and large scale. In this project, our methods are further developed on human tissue for clinical diagnosis of kidney diseases in collaboration with renal clinics and renal pathologists. We will further apply automatic image analysis with deep learning to more quickly, efficiently and easily diagnose kidney diseases with our optical renal pathology method.Göran K. HanssonKungl. Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Academy Professorship in Medicine 2022Medicine2021

Amount awarded: SEK 10 300 000

There is a great need for this type of research position, where proven outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further strengthen and develop their research. The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis will be placed on research carried out during the last five-year period.The quality of the research programme, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed. The Academy is therefore applying for an additional grant of SEK 10 million so that a five-year Academy Professorship in Medicine can be filled in 2022.Pär HallbergUppsala UniversitySWEDEGENE - genetic causes of adverse drug reactionsMedicine2021

Amount granted: SEK 1 112 686

Adverse drug reactions are a common cause of morbidity and death. The total cost amounts annually to 10% of the Swedish healthcare budget. There is therefore much to be gained by using precision medicine to identify the most appropriate drug for the individual patient using genetic testing. Currently, knowledge of the genetic causes of adverse drug reactions is limited. The research initiative SWEDEGENE, for which the main applicant is the project leader, has changed the conditions and provides good opportunities for studies in this area. At present, SWEDEGENE has collected DNA and clinical data for about 3200 patients who have suffered about 40 different types of adverse drug reactions. The first results of the project have identified several clinically relevant associations between side effects and genetic variation. At present, there are results from whole genome scans for 2300 patients and for 1,000 individuals also from whole genome sequencing. The purpose of the project is to process and report the collected data generated by the research initiative.Agneta NordenskjöldKarolinska InstituteFemale clerks in Sweden in the second half of the 19th centuryMedicine2021

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

Field surgeons have been described since the 15th century in Sweden and were responsible for surgical care during wars and could then also carry out their activities in civilian life during peacetime. In 1861, a new regulation on the profession of field surgeon was issued regarding the treatments that field surgeons were allowed to perform, mainly minor surgery, and the regulation included that women could also become field surgeons. The first female medical officer in Sweden was originally a midwife, and she was examined before the Board of Health in 1863. During the period 1860 to 1930, according to the census, there were around 30 female medical officers. Field nurse training was later abolished in 1896 by a parliamentary decision, but field nurses were active in Sweden well into the 20th century. This project aims to describe the number, education, activities and tasks of female field clerks in Sweden. We have so far identified 70 female clerks in Sweden through various sources. Data has been compiled regarding their demographic information, year of graduation, location and period of activity, as well as references. The project will, with the help of searches in the National Archives, mainly concerning the Karolinska Institute, the Medical Board and the Collegium medicum, and in the City Archives, concerning the archives of the 1st city doctor, also describe education, work tasks and the demarcation with other professional groups.Rickard SandbergStockholm School of EconomicsRetail data ("Big Data") and predictive analyticsEconomy2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 860 000

Today, most retail companies have access to very large amounts of data - so-called 'Big Data'. This data can consist of e.g. customer, product, transaction, sales channel, geospatial, text and image data (observed over time). The interest in Big Data among retailers is huge for obvious reasons, and with adequate analytics, e.g. consumer behavior can be predicted.However, there are significant gaps in both theory and methodology, among both users and researchers, regarding retail data and predictive analytics. In fact, much of the information value of Big Data is not utilized, and often one simply does not know what to do with all the data. Predictive analytics based on Big Data also faces additional challenges with the upcoming EU General Data Protection Regulation [GDPR] and how data may be used de facto in the future. The need for research on how theory and method can be combined to extract the informational value of Big Data, under GDPR, is thus extremely urgent.In an effort to address this need, an interdisciplinary project has been initiated at the Stockholm School of Economics, where leading researchers from the Center for Retailing [CFR] and the Center for Economic Statistics [CES] collaborate. The project is unique in the sense that access to Big Data is provided by leading retail companies in Sweden. The project team also includes two PhD students.Joachim TågInstitute for Business Research, IFNCompanies and employees in a changing labour marketEconomy2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 845 000

In recent decades, the Swedish labour market has undergone extensive structural changes as a result of technological developments that have driven digitization and globalization processes. In parallel, there have been major changes in the ownership structure of Swedish companies: foreign ownership has increased, state and municipal companies have been privatized, venture capital ownership has become a common form of ownership, and entrepreneurship has become a prominent feature of the modern economy. Digitalization, ownership changes and globalization have all had major consequences for the way the labour market works today.The purpose of this project is to analyze how these different structural changes have affected different types of employees, entrepreneurs and firms in Sweden over the past decades. Specific questions we seek answers to include how digitalization, ownership changes, and globalization have affected wages, wage dispersion, work environment, and the risk of employees losing their jobs; how the allocation of talent in the Swedish business sector has been affected; and what determinants guide decisions to start new successful firms and what characterizes successful careers in the Swedish labor market. These questions will be addressed through empirical analyses using extensive register-based information on the Swedish labor force linked to firm and owner data for the period 1990-2015.Thomas TangeråsInstitute for Business Research, IFNNew tools to analyze markets with imperfect competitionEconomy2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 170 000

In markets with imperfect competition, firms can use their size to charge excessive prices. The use of market power leads to inefficiencies as some people refrain from buying because the product is too expensive and to redistribution from consumers to firms as those who do buy pay too much. Economic analysis of how well competition works in different markets is therefore essential to determine whether public intervention, such as competition law or direct price regulation, is appropriate. Existing methods for estimating competition have significant weaknesses as they are sensitive to assumptions that need to be made about unobservable demand and cost conditions. This project will develop a method for estimating the degree of competition in different markets that is based only on observable conditions and therefore provides more reliable estimates of market competition. The project will then apply these methods to evaluate the extent to which firms exercise market power in the electricity market. In particular, the project will evaluate the pockets of local market power that sometimes arise due to bottlenecks in the electricity network. Such local market power can lead to consumers paying too much for their electricity in some parts of the country, but not in others, and has not really been investigated.Matilda OrthInstitute for Business Research, IFNCompetition and uncertainty in healthcare: the Swedish pharmacy marketEconomy2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 130 000

Access to medicines affects all people in society and is important for achieving good health and quality of life. All individuals need to have access to a wide range of good quality medicines at good prices within a reasonable distance. Although the supply of medicines is the subject of lively debates both in Sweden and internationally - not least in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic - there is a lack of knowledge about the functioning of the pharmacy market. The purpose and goal of this research project is to study competition under uncertainty in the Swedish pharmacy market after the re-regulation in 2009.The project contributes to the international research front in economics and econometrics. We develop analytical tools that are applied to unique and large data sets for all Swedish pharmacies and their products and employees. We analyze consumer behavior and competition between pharmacies over time in different regions.An advantage is that the methodological approach together with detailed data makes it possible to adequately evaluate changes in the market due to, among other things, new establishments and subsidies to pharmacies in sparsely populated areas. For example, we answer: How do product ranges, prices and availability change in the short and long term? Are there regional differences?The researchers are based in the US, Belgium and Sweden. Well-established communication channels are used to disseminate results to policy makers and the public. Hans Seerar WesterbergTrade Research InstituteAre employer contribution reductions absorbed by wage increases? Economy2020

Amount granted: SEK 330 000

The recent high levels of immigration and youth unemployment mean that Europe in general, and Sweden in particular, face very significant labor market policy challenges. In this context, the retail sector is important as it represents a potential entry point for marginalized individuals who have not yet gained a foothold in the labour market. It is therefore of great importance to increase the understanding of the impact of various labor market reforms and how they affect the intended beneficiaries of the reform. An often overlooked possibility is that labor market reforms affect individuals who do not belong to the reform's target group, which in turn has consequences for the effectiveness of the reform. The purpose of this project is to study the previously overlooked effects of the reduction in employer's contributions for young people in 2007 by analyzing the wage development of the already established workforce in the retail trade. Unlike previous studies, the data material allows an analysis of various wage components and the number of hours worked for full-time individuals who were employed before the reform, i.e. individuals who were not intended to be affected by the reform. The project thus contributes new knowledge about the underlying adjustment mechanisms that affect the effectiveness of reforms aimed at reducing the labor costs of entrepreneurs.Hedvig WidmalmUppsala UniversityWomen and alcohol in the Age of Liberty, 1718-1775 Economy2020

Amount granted: SEK 942 000

In the 18th century, it was common for women to earn a living as innkeepers. Brewing beer and distilling spirits for domestic use were women's activities, linked to cooking. However, brewing, distilling and selling alcohol became highly regulated in the 18th century. Mainly, brandy was regulated. Distillation for private use was banned three times during the period 1718-1775, and a new duty was established for the import of spirits into the cities in 1731. Crown distilleries were established in 1775. The aim of the project is to investigate how these regulations affected women's ability to earn a living by selling alcohol, legally and illegally. The method to investigate this is to use court book material from the periods when new regulations were introduced. The main questions are: how were the regulations discussed? What economic issues did they raise? How were the women who sold alcohol viewed, and who were the customers? A comparison over time can show an interplay between how and why regulations were introduced, and how the people affected responded to them.This project examines three cities: Falun, Uppsala and Karlskrona, all of which were dominated by large organizations such as the copper mine, the university and the navy. A further aim of the study is to see how the gender segregation that emerged in Falun, Uppsala and Karlskrona affected and was affected by alcohol sales and regulations. This will be a way to analyze gender segregation more generally, and to compare with other countries and other eras.Mia Kuritzén LöwengartUppsala UniversityJewish economic activity and the transformation of Stockholm into a modern capital city Economy2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 635 000

The overall aim of the project is to study the participation of Jews in the creation of the Swedish national identity. The economic activities of Swedish Jews are analyzed with a particular focus on the capital's public institutions, social networks and cultural identity. In 1870, Sweden's Jews received full civil rights, enabling them to contribute to the development of the capital. By examining Jewish donors and their contribution to the emergence of public institutions in Stockholm from 1870 to 1930, as well as the social networks involved in the process, the project joins international research that has placed economic issues at the center of Jewish cultural studies, and that perceives economic activity as a conceptual entry point to understanding Jewish identity. Using a hermeneutic approach, biographical and architectural methods and network analysis, as well as spatial theory, according to which physical manifestations in urban space reflect individual ideals, the project analyzes the role of Swedish Jews in the creation of Stockholm's modern institutions and understands the importance of Swedishness for contemporary Jewish identity. The project analyzes five public institutions and their buildings, constructed between 1878 and 1928: Stockholm University, the Nordic Museum, City Hall, the Stockholm School of Economics and the Stockholm City Library. The buildings became contemporary topographical symbols of Stockholm's development into a modern capital and the cultural development of the nation.Therese NilssonThe Institute for Business Research FoundationThe role of cultural norms in migrant work and enterprise developmentEconomy2021

Amount granted: SEK 991 000

The proportion of foreign-born people in Sweden has increased in recent decades and now accounts for 20% of the population. Immigration poses new challenges and opportunities for society and the labor market. We study how immigrants, from different countries with different cultural characteristics, manage in and affect the Swedish labor market from two perspectives. We study how cultural factors affect immigrants' labor market integration, focusing on the effects of coming from cultures with different degrees of tolerance, trust, religiosity and individualism. We also study how the multicultural composition of the workforce affects the functioning, profitability and personnel growth of firms.We know little about these relationships in general, but the conditions for a better understanding are good. We have access to a unique longitudinal company database that is linked to individual data on employees. An additional strength is that we can link indicators of cultural factors and attitudes in immigrants' background countries to individual outcomes. This avoids problems of reverse causality. Our project is based on a real problem: weak labor market integration among foreign-born individuals. The project adds new policy-relevant knowledge that complements previous research. The project provides a basis for designing policies for a more inclusive and equal society, but also insights into the importance of culture for the functioning of the economy.Hans KjellbergStockholm School of EconomicsThe market society of the futureEconomy2021

Amount granted: SEK 1 040 000

The post-war open market-based society is today facing significant changes. Long-term societal challenges such as climate change, geopolitical changes and the ongoing digitalization create both opportunities and challenges, while sudden shocks such as the ongoing pandemic or the global financial crisis put today's market society to the test. Within the framework of a larger research program that aims to generate new knowledge, understanding and capacity for strategic action to build a long-term sustainable future market society, this project finances four doctoral students' dissertations. Two of these are already defined and deal with how political considerations can influence individual consumers' consumption behavior, and how consumers' returns of goods can be reduced in digital commerce. The other two PhD students will be recruited in 2022 to one of the three research themes of the overall program: (1) The emergence of the platform economy: the new global intermediaries and the market society they build; (2) The transformation of the market society: strategies for digital and sustainable market ecosystems; and (3) The future of marketing: strategic marketing in a world of influencers, nudges and algorithms.Henrik HornThe Institute for Business Research FoundationInvestment protection agreements in times of intensified climate policiesEconomy2021

Amount granted: 860 000 SEK

A significant proportion of global investment flows are covered by intergovernmental investment protection agreements. These agreements have been criticized on a number of points. Recently, their climate impact has been questioned in particular. It is argued that investment protection agreements slow down the transition to a climate sustainable economy by locking economies into existing production systems, in particular by making the phase-out of stranded assets more expensive. Economic research on the agreements is still very limited. The overall purpose of this project is therefore to initiate research on the design and effects of the agreements from a climate perspective. The project consists of two parts, both at the intersection of economics and law.A highly criticized aspect of the agreements is that they allow private investors to bring disputes against host countries (ISDS). A sub-project will identify the advantages and disadvantages for the parties to the agreements of allowing such a right of action in disputes concerning climate-related measures by host countries. The concept of investors' "legitimate expectations" plays a central role in arbitration of investment treaty disputes, and can be expected to do so in future climate-related disputes. However, there are different legal views on what is meant by the concept. The second subproject will analyze the role of expectations in climate action disputes from an economic perspective. Michael Klug Stockholm School of EconomicsDo active funds extract profits at the expense of passive investors?Economy2021

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

Passive investments are steadily gaining in popularity. Passive funds replicate an index and thus aim to reap a market risk premium. Active management instead allows fund managers to pursue multiple strategies that aim to achieve superior performance compared to a passive benchmark. However, these strategies usually require more trading as well as skill. Fund managers are compensated for their skill as well as for trading costs.On the one hand, active fund managers as a group underperform the market and, according to some research, investors should only invest passively. On the other hand, active fund managers may have superior information or skill that they use to their clients' advantage. The project will examine trading related to index component changes to identify whether active fund managers exploit limited passive investors. First, we aim to identify and characterize the subset of active funds that follow a potentially simple index reconstruction strategy that is not feasible for limited passive fund managers. Next, we want to calculate the costs that passive funds incur as a result of the active funds' strategy. After establishing that active fund managers benefit from exploiting passive investors in the same benchmark, we ask whether and to what extent active fund managers show skill in using this strategy.Alexander HusebyeThe Center for Business History AssociationOlof A. Söderberg - a biographyEconomy2021

Amount granted: SEK 490 875

This project aims to produce a biography of the entrepreneur and consul general Olof Söderberg through extensive archival research. We see the project as urgent to highlight one of the key figures in an important phase of Sweden's modernization, and thereby make a significant contribution to business history research. The current application constitutes a supplement to complete the production of the book in 2022.Paula RothThe Institute for Business Research FoundationCauses and consequences of over-indebtednessEconomy2021

Amount granted: SEK 865 000

In Sweden, more than 400,000 individuals are registered with the Swedish Enforcement Authority for debt collection. The authority receives over one million applications for unpaid debts annually. In the first half of 2020, in connection with the outbreak of the pandemic, the number of applications increased by 26 percent compared to the same period the year before, and the total amount of debt also increased steadily. Despite the relatively high prevalence in the population, knowledge of the causes and consequences of over-indebtedness is low. The studies that do exist are mostly based on interviews or survey responses and lack strategies to identify causal outcomes. Most studies focus on the relationship between over-indebtedness and health. Results show, among other things, that over-indebted people are more likely to suffer from depression and chronic illness. The reason for the negative health effects is said to be the increased stress and stigma associated with over-indebtedness.In Sweden, the unique availability of individual data from the Swedish Enforcement Authority enables a systematic study of the effects of over-indebtedness. The research project aims to answer the following questions: (1) Why do individuals become over-indebted? (2) What are the social costs of the large number of over-indebted people in Sweden? By looking at individuals with debt and following their health and labor market outcomes, we can evaluate the negative effects of over-indebtedness. We will also look at whether over-indebtedness increases the risk of crime.Magnus LodefalkÖrebro UniversityKey factors behind AI's labor market impactEconomy2021

Amount granted: SEK 1 358 250

Artificial intelligence (AI) has made great strides and is expected to fundamentally reshape the labor market. However, in the absence of longitudinal micro data on firms and workers, research on the effects of AI is somewhat contradictory, showing associations rather than causal links between AI and, for example, employment.In this data-driven project, we break new ground. We focus on key factors behind the labor market effects of AI for the knowledge-intensive service sector. We study firms' and employees' exposure and adaptation to different types of AI in four selected countries over two decades, using methods from economics and computer science and a unique micro-level data set. We measure the development and adoption of AI. We then describe and identify general and specific effects of AI in the short and long term. The goal is to contribute with solid knowledge about how different groups of knowledge-intensive service companies and employees are affected by AI. This is needed to enable politicians, authorities, companies and employees to make informed, balanced and future-oriented decisions. Knowledge-intensive services are central to the infrastructure of our modern society and are undergoing a digital transformation thanks to advances in AI. We highlight how AI affects labor demand, job content, skills offered/demanded, and income - in short, what are the key factors that can help workers and employers thrive in tomorrow's world of work.Therese Nordlund EdvinssonUppsala UniversityOutside the boardroom - succession practices 1890-90Economy2021

Amount granted: SEK 930 000

The purpose of this continuation grant is to investigate succession practices in a number of Swedish business families during the period 1890-1990. Previous research has often emphasized the importance of examining succession processes from a gender perspective. The project aims to study how, why and in what way sons are often chosen over daughters as leaders in family businesses. The study is of relevance as Sweden is often seen as a pioneer in gender equality, but has at the same time struggled with gender imbalance in business. The project consists of two case studies, the first of which examines how families chose successors and how succession practices were coordinated within the family. Women often played key roles, but fathers also planned the upbringing of their children. When and how did it become possible for a female family member to enter the boardroom? The second case study examines those children who were not considered suitable as successors in the family business. Were older siblings always given priority over younger ones? For example, what happened to younger siblings, could they take subordinate positions in the business? What happened when sons-in-law were brought into the family business, could they replace the roles of daughters? Microhistorical and biographical methods are used to examine and compare archived material on three family dynasties. Complementary material from newspapers and interviews is also used. The project aims to provide new knowledge about why gender structures can be difficult to change over time in large family businesses.Emil ElgebrantStockholm UniversitySubstantive identity for other than thingsJurisprudence2020

Amount granted: SEK 930 000

It is not unusual for legal systems to consider, for example, simple claims, rights, account-based financial instruments, intellectual property rights, etc. as property even though they lack physical representation. However, the legal techniques used by legislators and practitioners to deal with different types of non-tangible property from a property law and insolvency law perspective differ from one type of property to another, and the legal theoretical explanatory models have been largely illogical and unpedagogical. The significance of this legal uncertainty has increased significantly over the past 20 years, especially as the economic importance of new phenomena, and thus also types of property, continues, and will continue, to increase. A number of different virtual securities, different types of virtual payment systems and more and more complex intellectual property rights linked to these phenomena now constitute significant values for most businesses. The research project, Sakrättslig identitet för annat än saker, concerns a number of different legal issues related to factual identity and proprietary exclusivity that arise when conflicting claims relate to property types without physical representation (other than things). The research project can be described as basic legal research in the field of insolvency law with clear elements of general property law.Therese JohnstoneÖrebro UniversityParticipation of the child in compulsory care decisionsJurisprudence2020

Amount granted: SEK 220 000

It is a political goal in Sweden to improve the legal status of the child. This is reflected in the social child and youth care legislation where measures have been taken to develop an increased child rights element. The child's participation forms part of such a child rights element. Participation is about being involved and having a voice in decisions on matters concerning the individual. The right of the child to participate in decision-making processes is based on both respect for and recognition of each child as a person with rights. The legal meaning is that the views of the child should be systematically taken into account in decisions affecting the child.The thesis project investigates the child's right to participation under the Act (1990:52) with special provisions on the care of young people (LVU). The child's participation must be ensured in the legal process, but at the same time the child has both a limited capacity for legal action and a limited self-determination, which has different consequences for the child. The project examines the various legal and ethical issues that arise in relation to children's rights and their legal status in a compulsory care context. What does it mean for a child to have a right to participate in a court process? What does it mean that a child should be involved in decision-making? From a legal security perspective, it is important to investigate issues related to how the child's participation and involvement can be realized and respected while achieving the fundamental purpose of the compulsory care legislation to protect the child.Pernilla RendahlUniversity of GothenburgIncreasing tax fairness through increased contextualizationJurisprudence2020

Amount granted: SEK 1 005 000

Tax law is a subject with high societal relevance that is characterized by political decisions where structures in the legislation lead to complexity, interpretation and application difficulties. Tax law is also a national concern, but regional and international developments constantly affect the conditions for the functioning of tax law and the principles that form the basis for taxation and redistribution. One example of this is the so-called BEPS project (Base Erosion Profit Shifting) run by the OECD and the proposals that have been made to change the taxation of digital business models.The high degree of regulatory difficulties and conflicts between international principles means that tax law research is largely concerned with what the law is, how it can be interpreted and applied. This study aims to develop how tax law is contextualized in these studies to explore patterns in what is claimed to constitute tax justice. Previous research has dealt with tax justice (see for example Gunnarsson, 1995). This study takes its starting point in previous research, but also considers the UN's sustainability goals as a critical perspective on how tax law can be contextualized in terms of tax justice. One area where this has been actualized is the proposed changes to the taxation of digital companies and digital services.Linus PentikäinenÖrebro UniversityJuror's doxa - when the court puts the law book asideJurisprudence2020

Amount granted: SEK 220 000

Within this doctoral project, so-called juror judgments are studied. Nominee judgments mean legal decisions where the court's non-legally trained judges, i.e. the nominees, voted down the court's legal judges and thus decided the outcome. In recent years, a number of jury judgments have attracted media attention and, in connection with this, both the cases in question and the jury system as a whole have been criticized. Among other things, there have been opinions that the jury members, in these cases, do not judge based on current law but instead base their judgments on prejudices and preconceived notions. This study is interdisciplinary between the subjects of rhetoric and jurisprudence. The study analyzes in depth the written reasons for the judgments of jurors with the help of rhetorical theory. The purpose is partly to examine the reasons why the members of the tribunal vote as they do in these cases and partly to study how these decisions are motivated. There is also a particular focus on mapping and examining whether the arguments that the members of the tribunal use to justify the verdict are supported by current law or not. In cases where there is no legal support for the decision, the arguments used are analyzed in order to find out where these arguments are taken from instead and how they are structured. The study highlights the current issue of the presence or absence of lay judges in Swedish legal processes and maps the differences between the lay judges and the legal judges' way of arguing.Elisabeth AronssonÖrebro UniversityGeneral principles of law - theory and taxonomyJurisprudence2020

Amount granted: SEK 220 000

Increased international influence has meant that the Swedish legal system has to some extent needed (and still needs) to adapt to a view of the legal sources in which legal principles are given a more prominent and significant role than the Swedish legal tradition has historically given them. The research project deals with the use of general legal principles in Swedish law.Legal principles are often unwritten or vague in both their content and boundaries. They are also multifunctional. Legal principles can be the basis or origin of other legal rules, be used to fill in gaps in a set of rules, or constitute what other rules are to be interpreted from or in the light of. Legal principles can both refer to a given legal rule/norm (e.g. the principle of legality) and systematize several legal rules/norms (e.g. principles of the rule of law). In legal argumentation, it is also not uncommon to refer only to "principles of the rule of law", "principles of tort law" or "general principles of law" without defining them further.The project aims to study and systematize the characteristics and functions of general principles of law in the application of law and in legal argumentation. In order to fulfill the purpose, the project investigates what characterizes legal principles in the legal science context, how the characteristics change depending on the context and which function(s) the legal principle performs in a given legal science context.Katarina OlssonLund UniversityLegal status and governance of foundationsJurisprudence2021

Amount granted: 465 000 SEK

All of Sweden's foundations make an enormous difference in large and small ways. Numerous people are directly or indirectly given a better life through grants from foundations. Foundations contribute to positive changes in society through grants for research and education. However, the legal regulation of foundations contains deficiencies that need to be studied and evaluated in order to eventually be corrected. The purpose of the project is to problematize a number of issues related to the creation, life and termination of the foundation. Examples of questions that will be addressed are whether the foundation should be able to obtain the status of a legal person only through registration, which is not the case today. Another issue concerns the conflict of competence between the County Administrative Board and Kammarkollegiet when it comes to amending the foundation ordinance, which leads to great irritation among both foundations and authorities. Overall, the project is about using scientific argumentation to create greater legal certainty and thus also legitimacy for the important foundation system.Giacomo Lindgren ZucchiniStockholm UniversityRight of recourse between individuals due to representative liability under tax lawJurisprudence2021

Amount granted: SEK 620 000

Representative liability under tax law means that representatives of a limited company, for example, can be ordered to pay the company's tax debts. This makes representative liability an important tool for, among other things, collecting unpaid taxes from bankrupt companies. For a representative to be subject to such liability, he or she must have contributed to the non-payment of taxes through intent or gross negligence. In addition, a decision on representative liability must be taken by an administrative court following a specific application by the tax authority. Consequently, the procedure gives the Swedish Tax Agency certain powers to influence who is subject to tax representative liability, for example by taking into account the state of evidence or the ability of individuals to pay. Thus, some candidates may also be overlooked, which then raises the question of whether those who have been imposed tax representative liability can in turn demand payment from other individuals (right of recourse). Such a right exists between the representative and the company, but otherwise there is considerable uncertainty about what applies. Because of this, the purpose of the research project is to analyze the legal conditions for recourse between individuals due to tax law representative liability. This includes in particular examining how such possibilities for recourse relate to the requirements imposed by the tax law principle of legality, which aims to maintain legal certainty in the collection of tax.Karin BladÖrebro UniversityResponsibility of the representative in case of insolvencyJurisprudence2021

Amount granted: SEK 220 000

The purpose of the thesis is to evaluate Swedish law with regard to the personal liability of representatives of limited liability companies that have financial difficulties and are at risk of insolvency. The company law and tax law systems for the personal liability of a limited liability company's representative when the company is in financial difficulties are not coordinated with each other and their (lack of) interaction complicates the task of creating a simple and understandable picture of a company representative's liability for the company's obligations. In addition to the rules of company and tax law, further rules are added which may give rise to liability for a representative of a company in financial crisis, such as tort and criminal law provisions. In addition, Sweden will incorporate the EU's Insolvency Directive in 2022, which requires that the Swedish legal system contain rules on the liability of company directors in the event of imminent insolvency, an economic condition that does not directly activate either the rules of company law or tax law. The thesis presents alternatives to the current regulatory framework, such as a flexible insolvency law liability rule meaning that the directors' duty to act is actualized at an earlier stage in the event that a company should suffer financial difficulties. Such an option would also meet the requirements of the EU Directive.Jonatan SchytzerUppsala UniversityThe environment in bankruptcyJurisprudence2021

Amount granted: 980 000 SEK

In recent years, the media have repeatedly highlighted how criminals are making money at the expense of the environment. The criminals have undertaken to take care of waste, but instead of complying with current regulations, black mass from crushed batteries has been buried in fields outside Kumla, toxic waste has been dumped near water sources on the shores of Lake Mälaren, and waste has been handled so badly that fires have broken out at waste facilities in southern Stockholm and in Småland. Toxic waste has become a commodity in the underworld. We can talk about waste gangsters.There is a comprehensive set of rules on how to deal with waste. The rules are based on the idea that the polluter should pay, but in the vast majority of the cases mentioned, there is no money in the hands of the criminals or in the businesses they have run. The companies have gone bankrupt, which ultimately leads to a short-circuit in the distribution of responsibility under environmental law. There is no polluter who can pay. You could say that the environment is bankrupt. It is precisely this social problem that I want to investigate and propose solutions to in this project.Marika EricsonThe National Defence CollegeCyber attacks in peace and war: emergency preparedness and total defence legislationJurisprudence2021

Amount granted: SEK 350 000

The project is an update and continuation of a previous doctoral project. The focus is on exploring how Swedish legislation for peacetime crises and war provides Sweden with the conditions to handle cyber-attacks aimed at socially important activities and infrastructure. The project deals with the borderline between peace and war and the regulations for high readiness with associated authorization laws.Cyber attacks can be legally defined as different types of crimes, as terrorism or as acts of violence between states. There are currently no international conventions that specifically regulate states' use of cyberspace and cyber operations. At the same time, cyber attacks are an effective means for states to influence other states without using conventional military force. By concealing the identity of the attacker and not resulting in direct physical injury and/or death of people, cyber attacks can create major problems for authorities dealing with them, especially in the division of responsibilities between police and military authorities. Problems arise because the laws to be applied seek clear cut points between crime, espionage and acts of war based on whether the attacker is an individual, a criminal network or identifiable as a state and where the damage should be physical to people and infrastructure. When states act with force and coercion in peacetime against another state, what is Sweden's legal right to defend itself and in what way, with what means?Jesper JohanssonStockholm School of Economics Foundation (sse) Institute for ResearchEffective conditional legislation in tax lawJurisprudence2021

Amount granted: 980 000 SEK

Increasingly, Sweden and other countries are making their taxes conditional. Companies are not allowed to deduct costs and losses if these can also be deducted in other countries, and income that would otherwise be tax-free must still be taxed if it is not taxed in another country. In order to counteract aggressive tax planning that gives rise to tax advantages, conditional legislation is now being introduced, followed by directives and recommendations stemming from international cooperation such as the EU, OECD and G20.At the same time, both national and EU law practice indicates that conditional legislation faces significant problems. EU Member States find it difficult to design legislation that is both fit for purpose and compatible with EU law. For taxpayers, conditional legislation proves to lead to double taxation and liquidity disadvantages. Furthermore, it gives rise to a lack of predictability, as its application requires knowledge of other states' legal systems, such as their tax bases, legal definitions and classifications, etc. Conditional legislation can therefore be seen as a way for political actors to shift problems resulting from the lack of harmonization of states' tax systems onto taxpayers and law enforcement authorities.The project aims to establish principles for the design and application of conditional legislation so that it achieves its objectives in ways that are compatible with EU law, but where its negative effects are minimized.Mikael RuotsiUppsala UniversityHow can the Constitution protect democracy and the rule of law?Jurisprudence2021

Amount granted: 980 000 SEK

Constitutional democracies around the world are in crisis. The last ten years have been marked by a dismantling of the rule of law, not least in countries of the former Eastern Bloc. European countries that were previously regarded as relatively stable democracies are under pressure. The Swedish system of government cannot be assumed to be immune to this development either.Against the background of this global and regional context, this project explores the legal possibilities for protecting the fundamental principles of the Swedish system of government set out in Chapter 1 of the Instrument of Government. Based on the concept of "militant constitutionalism", the following overarching question is examined: how can the constitutional rules on constitutional amendments and the possibilities for judicial review of constitutional amendments provide protection for the democratic rule of law?The project explores a number of fundamental but complex constitutional choices. How should rules on constitutional amendments in a Swedish context be designed to achieve a reasonable balance between stability and flexibility? To what extent should constitutional amendments affecting individual rights and freedoms or the division of powers between the legislature, the executive and the courts be subject to judicial review? Which bodies should exercise this judicial review of constitutional amendments? What role can and should the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights play in protecting the rule of law?Dag KlackenbergThe Swedish History DaysThe Swedish History Days 2021Other2020

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The Swedish History Days is a non-profit organization, founded in 1993, which seeks to promote interest in history and strengthen the importance of the subject through annual conferences. The regular meetings aim to create and maintain contacts between representatives of historical research, museum and archive institutions, book publishers, school teachers and the public interested in history, and are held every year in a new location (usually in Sweden but also in Finland, Germany and the Baltic countries, i.e. parts of historical Sweden).Viveka LjungströmResearch and progressPublication of the journal Research and Progress in 2021Other2020

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The journal Forskning & Framsteg reports on research, research results and the role of research in society. The topics and research results that are highlighted should primarily be of interest to society and the individual in society. Forskning & Framsteg works at the forefront of knowledge, is general education, should always deserve high credibility and be made with the reader in focus. By reporting on research and research achievements, the magazine will contribute to strengthening democracy and increasing people's knowledge in society at large.Christina Gunneriusson WistmanMuseum creation in the Swedish art fieldOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Based on museum creation and Swedish museums in the mid-20th century, this project examines art collections, the importance of art and its social function. The overall aim is to provide an overview of the ideas behind the founding of a number of museums, and a selection of museums are examined more closely, particularly with regard to their foundation: the collections. Where did the collections come from and how are they managed and administered today? The social function of the collections is an important aspect. In 1958, Moderna Museet opened in Stockholm. Ten years earlier, at the end of June 1948, Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde was opened, a museum that by definition became Sweden's first museum for modern and contemporary Swedish art. These museums are examples of two different types of museum foundations and also only two examples of new Swedish (art) museums around the middle of the 20th century. As for the donor museums and the county museums, the driving forces behind the creation of each museum are interesting and rewarding to investigate. How did these collections become museums, and what is a museum collection? It is clear that the regional museums that actively work with art today remain more relevant and attractive than those that focus more on general cultural history. The artists' homes that were museumized around the middle of the 20th century have chosen different survival strategies. Is the original protagonist of these museums today a burden or a valuable starting point for museum activities? Are artists' homes an obsolete phenomenon?Roger EliassonAeroseumThe Flying Barrel - a unique, educational, interactive exhibitionOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 140 000

The Aeroseum Foundation operates an aviation experience center in a 22,000 square meter underground mountain hangar. The mountain is classified as world unique by the National Defense History Museum. For the third year in a row, the facility is number 1 on Tripadvisor among all museums in western Sweden. The exhibition concept is designed to trigger children and young people's interest in science and technology.Håkan HåkanssonLund UniversityTranscription of the Ravensbrück archiveOther2020

Amount granted: 125 000 SEK

The Ravensbrück Archive is one of the world's most comprehensive testimonies to the Nazi crimes against humanity. Immediately after the end of the war, a large number of interviews were conducted with Holocaust survivors, describing their experiences in the concentration camps of the Nazi regime. Within the framework of the Witnessing Genocide project, the University Library has made the interviews digitally available via a web portal that opened in 2017 and currently has about 10,000 unique users per year. The intention is also that all Polish-language interviews will be translated into English, a task that is taking longer than expected due to the often difficult-to-read handwriting. To streamline the translation process, our ambition is therefore to have an experienced native Polish transcriber transcribe the original text, which would free up the translator's time and significantly increase his capacity. However, this service does not fit within our current budget, so we are applying to the Torsten Söderberg Foundation for an additional grant.Bengt NordqvistArchaeology Victim site FinnestorpTime of gold and Finnestorp sacrifice siteOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 499 850

In 2000-2004 and 2008-2012, investigations were carried out at the Finnestorp sacrifice site. A site that turned out to contain a find material that belongs to the category - 'the finest and most exquisite objects from Sweden's pre-Christian era' and it belongs to one of the most important remains from Nordic prehistory. At Offerplats Finnestorp, warrior after warrior has been sacrificed along with their battle stallions and valuable weapons. These mighty men whose arsenal consisted of magnificent gilded swords, lances and golden horse equipment. Magnificent objects of royal value, made by the most skilled craftsmen in Europe at the time. The ongoing research work includes international comparisons and publication of the research work in the form of a major scientific book (Vol. I, III) and a popular science book (Vol. II). During 2020-2021, work has progressed on the manuscripts for two book volumes on Finnestorp. These are practical work I - 'Fyndens i fokus' and practical work II - a "Coffee Table Book". In addition, Practice III presents the results of the side projects that concerned, among other things, the gold neck collar from Möne and the gold neck ring from Bragnum. The isotope analyses concern studies of horse and human teeth. A selection of analyses have been carried out and show that several of the sacrificed horses come from different regions, such as north and west of Västergötland. The osteological analyses concern 4000 skeletal fragments and the results have been compiled. Stefan GüntherGunnebo Castle and GardensGunnebo Castle and the neoclassical villa's artistic programOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 732 500

When Gunnebo Castle was completed in 1796, it was one of the country's most lavish mansions, with architecture and decoration inspired by the latest developments on the continent. The architecture followed different models than the more studied Stockholm-based architecture. The decoration followed an artistic program carried out in 1786-96 by the architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg and the Italian sculptor Gioacchino Frulli, and constitutes one of the most significant decorative cycles of the second half of the 18th century in Sweden. Gunnebo's architect C.W. Carlberg developed an independent design language in relation to the architects in Stockholm - but who were Carlberg's role models? Ever since the Renaissance, complex iconographic programs - celebrating the political, economic and intellectual ambitions of the client - formed the basis of a building's decoration. These programs were developed in collaboration between the client and his advisors, of which Gunnebo is a lavish example - but what was Gunnebo's artistic program? Despite its importance, the background to one of the most prominent Swedish buildings of the 18th century remains largely unexplored. The aim of the project is to describe and analyze the architectural history of Gunnebo and the artistic program behind its decorations based on an iconological and comparative study of contemporary developments in Europe. The study will culminate in a monograph. The ambition is to publish a richly illustrated volume to increase knowledge of the site and its value.Kay GlansResponses magazineRespons magazine - review journal for the humanities and social sciencesOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The journal Respons is aimed at those working in the academic world and an interested public who want to keep abreast of the qualified discussion in the humanities and social sciences. Respons provides readers with orientation, not least in the publications of small publishers, and gives Swedish academics an opportunity to communicate with other disciplines and a wider readership. The journal is also a forum for cultural debate and discussion of research issues affecting the humanities and social sciences.Response thus takes place at an intersection where several needs are met. The review activities of daily newspapers have deteriorated dramatically in recent years. Either non-fiction is not reviewed at all, or it is written briefly, often by someone who has no in-depth knowledge of the subject. It is becoming increasingly difficult for the general quality-oriented audience to find their way around and increasingly difficult for small quality-oriented publishers to find readers. For its part, the academic world risks losing contact with the national audience and with other disciplines, partly because it lacks platforms in the Swedish public sphere and partly because the focus is now on publishing in English in specialist journals. Responses thus also play an important role in safeguarding the Swedish language against English in the humanities and social sciences. Marie-Louise FranzénInger Estham and medieval embroidery - a legacy of research materialOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Albertus Pictor's frescoes are found in churches, mainly in the Mälar landscape. At the end of the 19th century, Hans Hildebrand discovered in medieval documents that Albertus Pictor was both a painter and an embroiderer. Albert signed some of the frescoes but not the embroideries. Scholars such as Agnes Branting, Andreas Lindblom and Agnes Geijer studied Albert's paintings, compared them to embroidery and attributed church embroidery to him. The attributed embroideries were re-studied by Inger Estham, PhD in art history, PhD in theology at Uppsala University and former head of the former textile unit at the Swedish National Heritage Board and the National History Museums. Inger Estham studied the embroideries attributed to Albert with slightly different eyes. She studied them from a historical perspective, such as who might have acquired, donated or worn them. She also looked at them from the perspective of textile technology. Albert was not the only pearl embroiderer in Sweden at the time. She also dealt with other pearl embroiderers who were contemporaries of Albert and who are known in sources. In her research, she also presented a previously unknown bead embroiderer in the context of textile research. When Inger Estham passed away in 2016, her work was in an incomplete manuscript draft. She bequeathed her research material to Mari-Louise Franzén. Mattias LegnérUppsala UniversityCultural preparedness. Cultural heritage, air defense and propaganda in the Nordic countries 1939 -1945.Other2020

Amount granted: SEK 45 000

The notion that the next major war would involve civil society and be devastating was widespread in the 1930s. It would not just be a conflict between warring powers but between cultures, where the civilian population would be severely tested. If a society was to survive the next war at all, it needed to develop ways to protect its culture and heritage. The project explores how this was done and how the strategies were linked to broader notions of Nordic and national history. History was used extensively in public speeches, churches and monuments were built into various shelters, museum objects were evacuated to bomb shelters, museum staff were instructed on how to protect collections in case of bombing. Cultural heritage was also used to boost defense morale and to identify enemies. The Nordic countries could not agree on a common foreign policy; instead, cultural exchanges that emphasized solidarity and historical ties between peoples became important for contact between the countries. In Norway and Denmark, cultural heritage was used for ideological purposes by the occupying power after 1940, and in Finland it was used to describe the enemy Russia as barbaric. The Nordic countries thus represent different approaches to war and cultural heritage. In all cases, cultural heritage was actively used by museums to construct visions of the future, when society could return to normal. The study is based on archival material and literature from the period. Gunnar D. HanssonPublication of Sturlunga saga in three volumesOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 90 000

Sturlunga saga is the name of a coherent compilation of so-called contemporary sagas or chronicles from 13th century Iceland. It is an extensive work - about 1000 pages of running text - which has never before appeared in Swedish translation. Sturlunga saga describes the feuds between the great chieftain families of the time, including the family of the historian and poet Snorri Sturluson. Sturlunga saga is one of the most important works of medieval Nordic literature. In recent years, Sturlunga saga has attracted increasing interest from both scholars and contemporary fiction writers. Sturlunga saga is an extraordinarily important Nordic source for knowledge of the economic, social and political conditions of the period. The entire work exists in a preliminary translation by Sten Kindlundh, who died in 2019. The translator submitted his Sturlunga manuscript to the editors of Islänningasagorna I-V (2014) a few months before his death. The present translation requires thorough and extensive editing and processing in order to be published in a planned three-volume edition - as well as a commentary section. This work has been initiated by Gunnar D Hansson, Kristinn Jóhannesson and Joakim Lilljegren. Ida Maria DickssonPort and industrial heritage inventory of Gothenburg - part 3Other2020

Amount granted: SEK 180 000

At the same high rate as Gothenburg's buildings are now being transformed and renewed, the city's historic port and industrial environments are disappearing. The knowledge base required to take industrial history into account in this renewal is weak. We have therefore begun a port and industrial history inventory of Gothenburg. The project has been initiated by the Gothenburg City Museum and a preliminary study and pilot inventory has been carried out under their auspices. Further inventory is being carried out independently by us, the industrial antiquities experts Ida Dicksson and Lena Knutson Udd, with the Gothenburg City Museum as a reference group. The inventory is divided into 13 stages and is being carried out in stages as funds can be obtained.The inventory will focus on physical remains such as buildings, cranes, docks, quays, etc. to increase insight into how this identity-creating cultural heritage has enriched and shaped Gothenburg, the possibility of taking greater account of this history in the city's renewal and the possibility of communicating this knowledge to residents and visitors. The inventory of each area will result in a public and richly illustrated text that will be freely available on the internet, as well as maps and inventory forms that can be used by architects and urban planners in Q-gis. The material produced will also be designed so that it can be published in its entirety as a book. Funding to complete a book is only sought after the entire inventory has been completed.Caroline Ahlström ArciniState Historical MuseumsThe mystery of GårdbyOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 73 600

A few years ago, archaeologists conducted an archaeological survey of the remains of Gårdby's medieval church. It was in connection with a major renovation of the 19th century church that the older foundation walls could be excavated under the floor of the current church. The investigation resulted in the entire church and all the graves in it being affected. The medieval church's roof trusses had been used for the current church's floor joists. A tree-ring analysis of the wood showed that the church was built in the early 12th century. All graves in the church have been investigated, a very special grave with a stone coffin can be linked to the original owner of the church.Based on the fine material with great potential for further research, we have worked on different types of scientific analysis. The County Administrative Board but also funds have contributed with applications for funds for several different scientific analyses of the skeletal material. A total of 25 of the 31 skeletons found have been dated by carbon 14 analysis. This means that we have a good insight into when the burials took place in the church. A large number of the skeletons have also been DNA-analyzed, in order to clarify any relationship between the individuals. A large part of the individuals have been strontium analyzed with regard to geographical origin. The investigation and the subsequent analyses have no equivalent in the country, which is why we see it as extremely important to get these results, both for the locals but also for a collective research community.Lars LarssonLund UniversityAnalysis of ritually deposited rock axes during early agrarian cultureOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

The Stensborg site in Grödinge Sn is the most important site for the destruction of objects from the Early Neolithic period (early agrarian society c. 5500 BC) in central Sweden. Objects from both southern and northern Scandinavia show that the site had a special role in the contacts between south and north in Scandinavia and that its ritual role for destroyed and subsequently deposited objects was unique. Previously, the flint objects have been treated. This project aims to analyze the large number of rock axes and chisels to determine which quarries were used to produce the raw materials. By identifying the quarries used for axe production, the origin of the areas from which the objects come can be determined. Through a petrographic analysis of the rocks, it is possible to see the site as a whole. This is of particular importance since, in addition to flint tools destroyed by fire, the site has the largest material of destroyed rock art objects in Scandinavia.Per Arne SkansenPartille HembygdsföreningVillastaden Paradiset. A book about people, houses and development over 120 years.Other2020

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

A book about the villa town Paradiset - but also a book about the development of Partille municipality during the 20th century. Paradiset holds the key to the early industrial establishments, with the Harbeck, Jebsen and Eck families, each of whom is given a separate chapter. The description extends from the 1890s to the present day, with some completely new knowledge about the origin of the architecture and the connection with Utbynäs Villastad. Professor emeritus Claes Caldenby begins with an architectural history overview of the villa town as a phenomenon, and places Paradiset in context.The book also provides interesting personal and cultural history in various areas. Main author Per Arne Skansen. With text contributions by Claes Caldenby, Bo Eek, Michael Eriksson, Leif Jebsen, Eva Nielsen, Fritz Olausson and Bo Renander. The book is richly illustrated with both historical and recent photographs.Elin MankerAppell PublishingSelma Giöbel and Swedish Art Nouveau textilesOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The project 'Selma Giöbel and Swedish Art Nouveau textiles' examines Art Nouveau textiles as a commodity and design phenomenon in Sweden between 1885-1915. The fact that many craftsmen around the turn of the century 1900 worked in the borderland between an artistic career and an industrial practice is today a relatively well-known phenomenon. The fact that they also worked to a large extent through trading in various ways is less studied. Based on Selma Giöbel's (1843-1925) activities as a textile craftswoman and owner of various trading businesses, the project examines how textiles functioned as a commodity and design practice in Sweden. The project thus highlights a time and activity that laid the foundations for today's design culture. The study creates a deeper understanding of how design, crafts and trade had a synergistic effect on each other and shows how textile entrepreneurship around the turn of the century 1900 worked in practice. The research is based on studies of a wealth of previously unexplored archive material. Through a publication in book form, an in-depth picture of the practical work of textile design in combination with traders at the turn of the century will be conveyed to a wide audience.Karin ElfströmBook for children on Swedish architectureOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Today there is a lack of books for children about Swedish architecture. I am an architect SAR/MSA and have written the manuscript for a book on this subject. The main purpose of the book is to spread knowledge - to teach children about Swedish architecture and Swedish architectural history in a fun and interesting way. The main part of the book consists of stories about a number of houses, because I think it is easier and more fun for children to read about specific houses than to read general sections on architecture. The book ends with a summarizing factual part.I have written the book mainly for children aged 9-12, but my ambition is that younger children will also enjoy it. This is reinforced by the book's educational and playful illustrations and layout (see appendix). At the same time, the book should also be interesting and fun for adults reading together with children. A book on Swedish architecture should also be useful in schools. Architecture is included in the primary school curriculum for both history and art, but with the exception of some teacher's guides, teachers currently have no literature on Swedish architecture to use in their teaching.The book will be published by DIBB förlag, based in Linköping. Cartoon illustrations, photos and high quality design are of course an important part of a book on architecture. We will use a professional illustrator/designer, this project intends to enable us to use her and a professional photographer.Claes CaldenbyLandshövdingehuset. Typical Gothenburg!Other2020

Amount granted: SEK 80 000

Landshövdingehuset is a residential building with a brick ground floor and wooden second and third floors. It was introduced in the 1870s in Gothenburg to alleviate the housing shortage in the rapidly growing industrial city. The local building regulations allowed only two-storey wooden houses for fire protection reasons. The county governor granted an exemption for two-storey wooden houses with 'basem*nts above ground', hence the name. This type of house is unique to Gothenburg. In the 1930s, half the city's population lived in such houses. Around 1940, the construction of landshövdingehus was stopped and from the 1960s many of the oldest were demolished. Nowadays, the many remaining houses are mostly well looked after and are valued homes for many Gothenburg residents. Much has been written about Landshövdingehusen, but until now there has been no major book documenting what remains of the unique buildings. Nor is there any summary discussion of the qualities of this type of house. It is partly about larger wooden houses, which today have once again become possible to build with new rules for fire protection. On the other hand, it is also about the residential qualities of the narrow house and moderately exploited neighborhood development. The enclosed block is a building type that has also come back into use, albeit often with (too) high levels of development. This book summarizes the background history, makes a detailed review of the districts with landshövdingehus that remain in Gothenburg and discusses the narrow and light wooden house as housing and urban development and as a possible model today. Olle JosephsonSwedish Humanist AssociationSHF Yearbook 2021, Jakob Christensson 'Water worlds'Other2020

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

Jakob Christensson's book Water Creatures is an accessible account of the history of ideas and knowledge about animals that live their lives in the oceans and lakes or have their hunting grounds or reproduce there. It also describes how the West has viewed them from antiquity to the present day.After an introductory overview chapter, "At the edge of the water", each chapter describes twelve animals that have made their mark on the Western tradition of thought. It concludes with a chapter on Pliny the Elder, who had a major influence on scholars well into the 19th century.The crocodile, the leech, the eel, the crayfish, the shark, the sucker, the turtle, the octopus, the sole, the Steller's sea cow, the whale and the jellyfish are presented in turn. The reader will learn something new about humans as actors and observers in nature and about animals in their own right. The presentation crosses over between different subject areas and genres. Sometimes the emphasis is on aspects of the history of biology, sometimes geology or economics. In addition to non-fiction, sources include fiction, travelogues, newspapers, cookbooks and children's books.The book is about 320 pages long, abundantly illustrated (about 70 pictures, many of them in color), and is published in a hardcover book with a dust jacket. The book is published as a yearbook 2021 for the 2,200 members of the Swedish Humanist Association. The publisher is Bladh by Bladh AB.Marie ArviniusArvinius + Orpheus PublishingNorway in Sweden - Embassy of Norway in StockholmOther2020

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The Norwegian Embassy in Stockholm is perhaps Norway's most beautiful representative building outside its borders. The project is architect Knut Knutsen's masterpiece, and has attracted considerable attention since it opened in 1952. This book documents the embassy through new photographs and texts about the architect and the building, the collaboration with his wife Hjördis Knutsen, the interior and the art.Museum representatives from Stockholm, Norwegian architects and art historians contribute with texts to highlight the work of art that the embassy is. The book also contains in-depth texts on Norwegian artists and Swedish collectors, their collaborations and relationships at the turn of the century.The book "Norway in Sweden" is a Norwegian-Swedish collaboration and is intended to present a piece of Norwegian art from the 1950s in Stockholm. The book becomes an important messenger of the relationship between Norway and Sweden; history, cultural heritage, geographical proximity and fundamental values together form a unique platform for cooperation. This is manifested in the building. Through the book, more people will have the opportunity to discover this Norwegian treasure on Gärdet in Stockholm.The embassy building - Norway's window to Sweden has here also become a window to the world, showing Norwegian building art in Stockholm from the 1950s of international world class.Bengt NordqvistFinnestorp Archaeology FoundationTime of gold and Finnestorp sacrifice siteOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 454 000

In 2000-2004 and 2008-2012, investigations were carried out at the Finnestorp sacrifice site. A site that turned out to contain a find material that belongs to the category - 'the finest and most exquisite objects from Sweden's pre-Christian era' and it belongs to one of the most important remains from Nordic prehistory. At Offerplats Finnestorp, warrior after warrior has been sacrificed along with their battle stallions and valuable weapons. These mighty men whose arsenal consisted of magnificent gilded swords, lances and golden horse equipment. Magnificent objects of royal value, made by the most skilled craftsmen in Europe at the time. The ongoing research work includes international comparisons and publication of the research work in the form of a major scientific book (Vol. I, III) and a popular science book (Vol. II). During 2020-2021, work has progressed on the manuscripts for two book volumes on Finnestorp. These are practical work I - 'Fyndens i fokus' and practical work II - a "Coffee Table Book". In addition, Practice III presents the results of the side projects that concerned, among other things, the gold neck collar from Möne and the gold neck ring from Bragnum. The isotope analyses concern studies of horse and human teeth. A selection of analyses have been carried out and show that several of the sacrificed horses come from different regions, such as north and west of Västergötland. The osteological analyses concern 4000 skeletal fragments and the results have been compiled.Kristoffer ArvidssonGothenburg Art MuseumGothenburg colorism. Network, context, canonOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 252 000

In a research and exhibition project, the Gothenburg Museum of Art intends to deepen, broaden and nuance the image of Gothenburg Colorism, while examining the myths and historiography of the movement. The project will result in a research-based exhibition catalogue and an exhibition at the museum in the summer of 2023. Gothenburg Colorism is one of the most beloved art movements in the Gothenburg Museum of Art's collection, as well as the movement that is nationally most associated with Gothenburg's art scene in the 20th century. The Gothenburg Colorists have been featured in a number of exhibitions over the years but have not been shown in Gothenburg recently. Most recently, Ivan Ivarson was recognized with a solo exhibition at the Gothenburg Museum of Art in 2010, but without a catalogue. It may therefore be justified to present the direction to new generations of visitors, but also to broaden and update the perspective and critically examine some of the romanticizing myths that have flourished around the so-called Gothenburg colorists. The purpose of the project is to approach Gothenburg colorism from new critical perspectives, historiographical canon criticism and feminist perspectives, criticism of myth formation and artist myths, inclusion of a broader context chronologically and geographically and to study networks and relationships. In this way, the Gothenburg Museum of Art hopes to offer an updated, nuanced and in-depth picture of the direction.Göran UlvängFöreningen Bebyggelsehistorisk TidskriftJournal of urban historyOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift (BHT) is the leading Nordic journal in the field of building history. The journal is peer-reviewed and Open Access. All articles are published, with a six-month delay, in digital format in DIVA (Digitalt Vetenskapligt Arkiv) and are thus searchable via Google Scholar and other search sites.Over the past nine years, the editorial team has worked hard to improve BHT. As a result of better marketing, the number of subscribers has increased from 220 in 2013 to 300 today, and the number of submitted manuscripts has increased, especially from Finland, Norway and Denmark, which means that the relevance of BHT has increased in the Nordic region. In 2021, further measures were taken to increase accessibility and impact, including the digitization of all published articles since the start in 1981.BHT is one of the journals that for a long time (with the exception of 2014 and 2018-2020) has received support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and has during these years met all the high requirements set by VR for scientific journals in the humanities and social sciences area. However, the association is dependent on an external grant of about 100,000 annually to ensure publication.The funds go in full to cover the costs of design, distribution, website and printing. The 14 members of the editorial committee work entirely on a voluntary basis, putting in around 500 hours a year.Peter FischerThe Association of Friends of the Swedish Cyprus ExpeditionIntercultural relations in the Bronze Age: the geographical dimensionOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 595 100

The project aims to define the geographical dimension of trade in desirable goods and the spread of cultural and technological trends during the Bronze Age of Europe and neighboring cultures through new excavations in a trading metropolis in Cyprus.The Torsten Söderberg Foundation has been a key funder of the current excavations at the 50 ha Bronze Age city of Hala Sultan Tekke in Cyprus, which is reserved for Swedish research by agreement with the local authorities. The city is one of the largest in the Bronze Age and existed from 1650-1150 BC. The findings confirm cultural and material interactions within an increasingly large geographical area.Essential to the project are studies of locally produced and desirable goods, their distribution and the nature and origin of imports. Through previous excavations, we have identified three sectors that are suitable for the purposes of the project. In these, limited excavations can provide cost-effective results: 1. a district including textile and copper industries whose products were the basis of the city's trade; 2. an administrative area with large warehouses near the Mediterranean port; and 3. a cemetery with tombs containing imported luxury goods from a culture that has been continuously expanded by new discoveries.The project manager's experience in excavations in Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Palestine and the scientific and technical excellence of the participating researchers are crucial to the success of the project.Frederick WhitlingGustaf VI Adolf as archaeologist and patron of cultureOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 120 000

The project sheds light on Gustaf VI Adolf as an archaeologist, cultural patron and chairman of the board, and provides an overall picture of the emergence of Nordic, classical and East Asian archaeology and museum institutions in Sweden. Focusing on Gustaf Adolf's long period as Crown Prince (1907-1950), the project generates new knowledge about the patronage of individual actors. It is based on previously unpublished archive material, and contributes to a deeper understanding of cultural history, art and archaeology in Sweden and abroad. Following previous generous project support from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation, this application is for a publishing grant.Simon OlssonI hereby respectfully submitOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 35 000

The Swedish military preparedness of 1939-1945 claimed many casualties among the conscripts. In the spring of 1945, the media reported that 782 Swedish soldiers died, but statistics from Statistics Sweden show that 1 836 died during the same period. However, this figure does not include all categories in the armed forces and over 2 000 deaths is not unreasonable.Serious accidents such as Armasjärvi in 1940, the Hårsfjärd disaster in 1941, the Wolf in 1943 and Hansa in 1944 are well documented and remembered, but the vast majority of soldiers who died are little documented and today forgotten. Many of them died in drowning and traffic accidents. Others died more dramatically in plane crashes, friendly fire and explosions. A significant number died by suicide and a very large number of deaths were due to diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia. Some died at the hands of foreign powers.After several years of archival research, I have written a manuscript on these deaths, how they were investigated, how lessons were learned to avoid repetition, how relatives were treated and compensated, and how the memory of those who died has been preserved. However, the 2020 pandemic put an end to my studies and I will need to spend further time in the archives to supplement with data from investigations, courts martial and not least the contemporary press. The idea is to publish a book in 2022 that both draws attention to these forgotten victims and can serve as an archival guide for their survivors as well as for further research. Enel MelbergJaan Kross' work Between three plaguesOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

Jaan Kross, Estonia's greatest contemporary writer passed away in 2007, several of his books have been translated into Swedish and admired, but his great work "Kolme katku vahel", (Between three plagues) written in 1970-80, has not yet been published here. The novel is in four parts of about 1000 pages. It should attract special interest in Sweden, mainly because it is a major novel that gives Swedes an insight into the history of a neighboring country, but not least because it also touches on Swedish history: Sweden was very much a part of Estonian history during the period in question. The work is based on Balthasar Russow's (1536-1600) Livonian Chronicle and follows his life story: coming from the Estonian peasantry and with a father as a city coachman, he is given the opportunity to study (including in Germany) via patrons, to rise from the subjugated Estonian peasant class to the ruling German-Swedish one and finally to become a priest in the Church of St. John the Baptist in Reval (Tallinn). Today, as Estonia struggles towards a new independence that is under constant threat, it is all the more important to understand something of its history and culture. Kross's great work was produced with great effort and skillful navigation at a time when the written word was censored and could have fatal consequences; today it is just as important to keep it alive.Martina BöökLinnaeus UniversityDressed togetherness. The importance of outdoor clothing in Virestad parish 1750-1850.Other2021

Amount granted: SEK 66 000

Our clothes help us understand the world around us and ourselves. Some items can be dispensed with, but we all need clothes. If you want to understand a culture, clothing is a great way to get close to that culture. In the late 19th century, ethnologists went to Sweden to document ancient traditions that they believed were disappearing with the industrial revolution. Using clothing and other objects, they identified areas that were particularly old-fashioned, known as relict areas. Subsequent researchers found that there were no such areas that had remained stagnant, but everywhere there had been change.In her thesis, Martina tries to build a bridge between the older ethnologists and today's researchers. Using the clothing of the common people of the Virestad parish in southern Småland, Martina examines estate records from 1750 to 1850 to see what clothing people left behind. Together with many other sources, she creates a micro-historical puzzle.The analysis of the sources reveals different results than previously known. The local population has created an image of ancient clothing but their tradition has been renewed as needed. In terms of trade, economy and politics, the area is not old-fashioned, but rather at the forefront. In order to be modern, tradition is sometimes needed as a counterpoint and this can be seen in Virestad.People emerge who create their own tradition. Kåa WennbergMère Moreau - Gumman in GrezOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 90 000

In the artists' colony of Grez-sur-Loing, 70 kilometers south of Paris, there was a lady called Mère Moreau, also called "Gumman in Grez" by the Swedish artists. She was often used as a model by the Swedish artists, but also by artists from other countries living in Grez at the time, in the 1880s.The book will cover Mère Moreau with all the paintings in which she appears and biographies of the artists who painted her. It is a work in progress for many years - especially finding these works of art.I have also spent many years searching for information about Mère Moreau and have now managed to find everything I was looking for: where and when she was born, her parents, who she was married to, where she lived, what she did outside of modeling, and the year she died.I have also been collecting old photos and postcards from Grez for several decades which will be included in the book to get a clear picture of what the whole of Grez looked like at that time. Many of the photographs have never been published before.Jonas MattssonResearch & Progress FoundationPublication of the journal Forskning & Framsteg in 2022Other2021

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

The journal Forskning & Framsteg reports on research, research results and the role of research in society. The topics and research results that are highlighted should primarily be of interest to society and the individual in society. Forskning & Framsteg works at the forefront of knowledge, is general education, should always deserve high credibility and be made with the reader in focus. By reporting on research and research achievements, the magazine will contribute to strengthening democracy and increasing people's knowledge in society at large.Johan StenfeldtLund UniversityThede Palm, Jan Rydström and the liberal democratic paradoxOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 930 000

This project is about the Swedish intelligence service, its operational culture and internal norm system during the Second World War and the post-war period. The focus is on Thede Palm and Jan Rydström, two men with leading positions in the intelligence sphere, and their until recently classified documents. The aim is essentially political and philosophical, and is based on the paradoxical fact that liberal democracy accepts its opponents. Thus, the system has its allure but also its potential downfall. In order to protect themselves from destruction, the representatives of the democratic system are therefore sometimes forced to resort to non-democratic methods. In doing so, they run the risk of becoming like their opponent. What can be allowed in the name of prevention is therefore subject to individual opinions and attitudes and is in a gray area. Intelligence organizations have a constitutional protection goal, but achieving this goal sometimes requires unconstitutional, or at least dubious, means. Thus, the intelligence service has to deal with the grey area mentioned above, and different actors' - Palm's, Rydström's but also others' - perceptions of where the boundaries in this grey area lie reflect the culture that prevails within the organization. Which norm system should prevail? What can be allowed in the name of constitutional protection, and what cannot be allowed? Where does the line go? It is questions like these that the actions of Palm and Rydström can shed light on.Kay GlansResponses magazineRespons magazine - review journal for humanities & social sciencesOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The journal Respons focuses on reviewing non-fiction in Swedish, including translations, in the humanities and social sciences, although we also have some other material, such as interviews, reports and debates. Each year we review around 150 books. Our reviewers are experts and are given space to both explain and critique the book in question. The journal is designed to work on two levels: it guides readers to individual books, but because the reviews are so detailed, reading Responses is inherently educational; the reader can absorb the essence of the books and get a solid overview. The overwhelming majority of our writers are academic experts but the texts are written and edited to be read by a general audience and, of course, by academics in other disciplines. This makes the response both interdisciplinary and educational.Respons was launched in 2012 because it was clear that daily newspapers were no longer covering non-fiction to any significant extent, while small publishers were increasingly responsible for publishing interesting books. An important part of the infrastructure of the Swedish public sphere was collapsing, which meant that the interested public lost the opportunity to survey and evaluate the publication of non-fiction and book publishers found it increasingly difficult to find their audience. Respons works to recreate this infrastructure.Kent AnderssonSecrets big and small. More stories about the Iron AgeOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Ancient objects and other remains need to be interpreted in order to be understood. Often they contain multiple layers of knowledge that together increase our understanding of the past. "Big and Small Secrets" presents objects and remains from the Iron Age that hide "secrets", things that are not obvious at first glance. For example, the book tells how the Romans inspired the Norse to develop their own written language and how this was used in different ways by men and women. Later on, during the Viking Age, the runes can also be used to shed light on the literacy of the period in a slightly unexpected way. The book also shows how identity was created in different ways during the Iron Age. Through jewelry of various kinds, but also by grinding one's teeth. Individual objects can also be used to understand the development and change of political power and to trace political alliances and the like. Through thorough studies of, for example, burnt bones from graves, it is also possible to get close to individual people. Who they were, how old they were when they died, in some cases how they died and what their lives were like before they died. All in all, this makes the picture of the Iron Age a little clearer and brings us closer to the people of that time. The book will be richly illustrated with color photos of objects, ancient remains, etc.Anders JohanssonAcross the border: return trip Norway-Sweden 1940-45Other2021

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Over the Border" manifests the importance of Swedish soil for Norwegian irregular military resistance to Nazi Germany's occupation in the latter half of World War II. Europe's longest land border (160 miles), which both divides and unites the Scandinavian peninsula, does not prevent armed Norwegians from increasingly crossing the boundaries of Swedish 'hospitality'. Agents, commandos and saboteurs use Swedish borderlands for courier routes, staging areas, supply lines and even bases and weapons depots. Persecuted and threatened resistance fighters - and women - escape the Gestapo by fleeing to Sweden. All kinds of people in the border areas, from individual civilian Swedes to tax collectors, soldiers and customs officers, stand up for the "brotherly people".On the Swedish side, the informal response of the authorities during the last years of the war was to push the boundaries of the official neutrality policy and even in some cases to abandon it in favor of the Norwegians. At the end of World War II, US General Eisenhower even considered an Allied invasion of Norway - across the border from western Sweden - if the German armed forces refused to surrender. But after Hitler commits suicide in the bunker in Berlin, the resolution is peaceful - a miracle. Senior German officers realize that resistance is hopeless, despite numerically superior occupation troops in Norway. The book is based on the stories of a dozen personalities, Swedes and Norwegians, British and Germans, who all experienced the 'Border'.Hans MalmströmChalmers University of TechnologyTeaching in English, language proficiency and quality of educationOther2021

Amount granted: 263 500 SEK

The use of English as a language of instruction in higher education, commonly referred to as 'EMI' after 'English Medium Instruction', is becoming increasingly widespread throughout the world. In Sweden, for example, 64% of all education at master's level is now conducted in English. The overall knowledge of the consequences of EMI is inadequate, and particularly little is known about the effects of EMI on the learning of subject content. EMI typically means that neither teachers nor students have English as their first language, i.e. both teaching and learning take place in a foreign language. Consequently, teachers' English language skills are extremely important - a key factor for effective education is that students understand the content of the teaching.The overall aim of this project is to contribute to the long-term quality assurance of EMI by investigating the relationship between teachers' English language skills and the quality of teaching. The following two questions guide the work: (i) What are the English language skills of teachers teaching in EMI contexts? (ii) Is there a link between teachers' language skills and their attitudes to learning and the quality of learning? Data is collected in the form of language tests, teachers' description (self-assessment) of teaching and interviews with teachers. The study is a first step towards understanding what expectations universities can reasonably have of EMI teachers' English, and whether language proficiency is linked to the quality of learning.Olle JosephsonSwedish Humanist AssociationSHF Yearbook 2022 Sofia Häggman: mummiesOther2021

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Every year, the 2 200 members of the Swedish Humanities Association receive a newly written book in Swedish humanities research. For 2022, "Mummies" is planned by Sofia Häggman, antiquarian at the Mediterranean Museum in Stockholm. The book is about Egyptian mummies. It provides an accessible overview of the history and methods of mummification and summarizes the latest findings in mummy research. For the first time, Egyptian mummies are placed in a Swedish context.The first two chapters of the book describe the ancient Egyptians' views on life after death, mummification and the development of the art of embalming. The rest is devoted to Egyptian mummies in Europe, especially in Sweden. As early as the Middle Ages, ground mummy was imported into Europe, and in the 16th century it appeared in Swedish pharmacy lists. In the 18th century, whole mummies were exhibited instead. In the wake of Napoleon's military expedition to Egypt at the turn of the 19th century, a whole new interest in Pharaonic Egypt was awakened throughout Europe. The 19th century saw more or less public mummy exhumations. At the beginning of the 20th century, X-ray examinations were introduced. In the 21st century, advances in technology and medicine have opened up completely new opportunities to study the health status and dietary habits of the ancient Egyptians through their mummified bodies. Mummy research has thus been transformed from a hobby into a rapidly growing field of research.In a special catalog section, those interested can find more information about the mummies that are currently in Sweden.Christian MühlenbockUniversity of GothenburgThe pilgrimage church in EdsleskogOther2021

Amount granted: 465 000 SEK

The pilgrimage church in Edsleskog has long been known because it was dedicated to one of Sweden's first known saints, Nils. But since the church was destroyed in a fire in 1568, much knowledge about the building has been hidden underground. In 2019, staff at Lödöse Museum decided to carry out archaeological investigations at the site. After three seasons, the results are sensational to say the least. The church turned out to be a three-nave basilica that was one of the largest buildings in medieval Sweden in terms of size. Edsleskog is located in northern Dalsland, an area that in the Middle Ages was a forested and inaccessible place in the buffer zone between what became Sweden and Norway. The church was also built in brick and dates show that the church was already built at the end of the 12th century. The Pilgrim Church in Edsleskog is thus the oldest brick building in medieval Sweden. In the following research project, the aim is to go in depth with the pilgrimage church in Edsleskog. Through studies of the church's dating, design and style, I want to place the church in a Swedish and Scandinavian perspective. How and why did brick technology come to medieval Sweden and how was the new technology incorporated into church building? Coin finds and grave material, especially skeletons, will be used with the support of scientific analysis to investigate who visited Edsleskog and who was buried there. Finally, a model will be created for how Edsleskog fits into Sweden's religious and political landscape during the 12th and 13th centuries.Nilsson, PeterLinköping UniversityNew potential drugs for Alzheimer's diseaseMedicine2019

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, comprise some of our major public health problems and affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant efforts, there is still a lack of effective drugs to prevent or cure these diseases. The aim of our project proposal is to investigate whether a particular type of molecule can be used to stop the progression of Alzheimer's disease.Step 1 when developing a drug is to choose a target to which the drug will be directed. The targets we have chosen are two proteins, A-beta and tau, which occur in various forms of deposits (aggregates) in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. Several studies have shown that these aggregates spread between nerve cells and that the aggregates affect the function of the cells, leading to nerve cell death.In the project, we will produce molecules that selectively find A-beta or tau aggregates and the molecules will then be tested in different fruit fly models to see how they affect the spread and induced cell death of A-beta and tau aggregates. The overall goal of the project is to show that tailored molecules can selectively affect the negative effects of A-beta and tau aggregates. In the long run, the progress of the project may lead to a new generation of drugs that could be used to prevent the underlying disease process in Alzheimer's disease and other similar neurodegenerative diseases.Bejerot, SusanneÖrebro University HospitalRituximab: Immunotherapy for treatment-resistant severe mental illness. Pilot and multicenter studyMedicine2019

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affect ~3% of the population. The illnesses often begin in adolescence. Approximately 1/3 of patients are treatment-resistant, i.e. no known treatment is effective. These people have extremely low function, quality of life and a shortened life. Family members are also severely affected. Patients also have a higher incidence of physical diseases, especially autoimmune ones. While immunological diseases are traditionally associated with physical illness, recent research has shown that mental illness can also be explained by inflammation in the brain.Rituximab is a well-proven anti-inflammatory drug used in several autoimmune diseases. It consists of antibodies that block the function of a type of cell (B cells) that is part of the body's immune system. It inhibits the immune system.We will investigate whether severely ill and treatment-resistant adults with schizophrenia or OCD improve with rituximab. The treatment will take place on one occasion, then participants will be followed regularly for one year to evaluate the effect. The evaluations will be done using established evaluation instruments. We will also examine signs of inflammation in blood, spinal fluid, feces and brain (using brain imaging) before and after treatment to look for biological markers that can give us guidance on causality. If effective, treatment with rituximab could eventually revolutionize the understanding and treatment of these patient groups.Borén, JanUniversity of GothenburgSmall-molecule inhibitor to prevent liver obesity - our fastest growing public diseaseMedicine2019

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Today, more than half of the Swedish population is overweight or obese. Previously, it was thought that it was increased fatty tissue that was dangerous. Now we know that it is more important where the fat is stored. When fat tissue cannot store more fat, it is stored in other tissues such as the liver, heart and muscles.Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been increasing rapidly. Today, 20-25% of the population has the disease and among patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes the figure is 70-90%.Patients with NAFLD live on average 5 years less. They are mainly affected by cardiovascular diseases, but liver-related mortality is also increasing. This is because around 20% of patients develop liver inflammation and liver fibrosis. This condition is called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Patients with NASH are at greatly increased risk of developing cirrhosis and liver cancer.There are still no approved drugs for NAFLD/NASH. Our project is based on a novel concept, whereby systems biology analyses identify target molecules, and then we develop small molecules that can inhibit or activate these target molecules. In cell culture and animal experiments, we test whether they can reduce fat accumulation and fibrotization in liver cells. Through an iterative process, we improve our small molecule drug candidates. The research team combines complementary skills and we have already generated results that demonstrate the success of the research strategy.Sehlin, DayUppsala UniversityBispecific antibodies for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseasesMedicine2019

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's currently lack effective treatment. The most promising strategy is immunotherapy, where antibodies are administered to neutralize the proteins amyloid-β (Aβ) that clump together and form plaques in Alzheimer's disease and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) that forms so-called Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease.Our previously developed antibody mAb158 is selective for protofibrils, a toxic precursor of the Aβ plaque, and its humanized form (BAN2401) has shown positive results in a large clinical trial involving 856 Alzheimer's patients. We have developed similar antibodies for α-syn. However, antibodies are large molecules that have difficulty entering the brain, so high doses must be administered to achieve an effect.To increase brain uptake and thus the treatment effect, mAb158 has been linked to 8D3, an antibody that binds to the transferrin receptor, normally involved in the transport of iron. Like a Trojan horse, 8D3 then carries mAb158 into the brain, where it can neutralize the toxic protofibrils. Using imaging techniques, we have shown that this strategy leads to greatly enhanced antibody uptake in the brains of mice.With this project, we want to conduct therapy studies with modified antibodies against both Aβ and α-syn in transgenic mice, comparing its effect with unmodified antibody and studying treatment mechanisms. We believe that this new treatment strategy is a prerequisite for achieving effective immunotherapy in brain diseases.Eriksson, MariaKarolinska InstituteBase editing as a treatment for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndromeMedicine2019

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (progeria) is a very rare genetic disorder, which is almost exclusively (>95% of cases) caused by a specific mutation in the lamin A gene, LMNA c.1824C>T. This mutation leads to the expression of a defective lamin A protein in the cell called progerin. Children with progeria show symptoms of early ageing and die in adolescence due to cardiovascular disease. Progerin is also expressed in the tissues of people who do not have progeria and levels have been shown to increase with age. The underlying mechanisms of how progerin leads to the disease symptoms are still unclear. Despite this, more than a dozen different treatment strategies have been developed with several resulting in clinical trials in patients. However, the treatments have been disappointing with limited success in patients. Here we propose so-called adenine base editing as a possible therapeutic strategy for progeria. Base editing has the potential to correct hereditary diseases by eliminating the disease-causing mutation and the possibility of a permanent cure. The technology is based on a modification of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and enables direct transformation of a DNA base without the introduction of double-stranded DNA breaks with low non-specific editing. Our preliminary studies from treatment of cells from progeria patients and a tissue-specific mouse model have shown positive results. In the planned study, we hope to confirm and further substantiate these results.Nilsson, PerKarolinska InstituteAutophagy as potential treatment for Alzheimer's tau pathologyMedicine2019

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Alzheimer's disease affects 100 000 people in Sweden. There is no cure and the need is great. The disease is caused by the accumulation of the protein tau in neurons in the brain, which causes the cells to die. In addition, the cell's cleaning machinery - autophagy - is disrupted. Our hypothesis is that it is precisely the defective autophagy that causes the accumulation of tau. This project is about finding out if this is true by removing the autophagy function in mice with tau pathology and seeing if the pathology gets worse. As a therapy, we will try to see if increasing autophagy in brain cells has a positive effect and improves tau pathology. This has never been investigated in vivo before and we hope to contribute to the understanding of Alzheimer's.Andersson, MagnusUniversity of GothenburgEarly banking in Sweden 1850-1920, phase 3Economy2019

Amount granted: 108 500 SEK

The purpose of the study is to show the importance of the emerging banks in Sweden and their actors in the transition from merchant capitalist to industrial capitalist financing starting around 1850. The size and expansion of lending can be estimated, among other things, by studying the bank inspectors' assessments of different banks over time. The archive material makes it possible to carefully follow and analyze the banks' activities over long periods of time. This includes each bank's assets, liabilities and credit portfolios. The development of the borrowing companies was thus closely followed.In a first sub-study, I study the conditions in Gothenburg in particular, as a natural continuation of my previous studies in the area of credit, with trading houses at the forefront. Previously, trading houses and other informal actors had to a large extent handled the granting of credit and the mediation of goods and other services. A second sub-study examines the importance of the domestic exchange rate for banks' credit expansion. A third sub-study examines the three largest and most important banks for Sweden's industrial development during the period, Svenska Handelsbanken Stockholms Enskilda Bank and Skandinaviska Kredit AB. A fourth sub-study analyzes the 1907 merger between Skandinaviska Kredit and Skånes Enskilda Bank.Wengström, ErikLund UniversityEducation, social preferences and the gender pay gapEconomy2019

Amount awarded: SEK 3 130 000

Most of the gender pay gap is driven by men and women working in different occupations and sectors. A key factor in the gender segregation of the labor market is the educational choices of young men and women. Women tend to choose courses that lead to lower salaries, for example in health sciences, humanities and social sciences. This is while men are more likely to opt for science and technology courses that lead to higher-paying jobs. Why do women choose education and training courses that offer fewer opportunities for good career and salary development than men do? One possible explanation is that women's and men's social preferences differ and that women find it more important to be able to help others and contribute to a better society through their profession. Although this explanation is often highlighted in the media and in political contexts, no one has tried to test its relevance using scientific methods. We aim to fill this knowledge gap by answering three research questions. To what extent are educational and occupational choices influenced by people's desire to contribute to society and help others? Do women attach more importance to this social dimension when making their educational and career choices than men? How much of the gender gap in education, career and pay can be explained by such a preference difference? The project will answer these questions using a combination of experiments, surveys and register data.Andersson, OlaUppsala UniversityCan falling auction prices be explained by preferences and auction formats?Economy2019

Amount granted: SEK 2 182 000

Using auctions to allocate goods and services is a common practice. Its popularity is understandable as auctions are often an efficient way to allocate goods to those with the highest willingness to pay. For example, one sixth of Sweden's GDP was allocated through public procurement auctions in 2017. In many of these auctions, several identical or similar goods are to be auctioned and it is common to do this sequentially. For example, this format is used to sell flowers, timber, wine and school milk and paving contracts but also by online auction houses (e.g. eBay and Tradera).In a sequential auction, goods should have the same price. For example, if there are lower prices in later auctions, it is worth waiting to buy. This prediction has been rejected in several studies that found lower prices in later auctions. The deposits constitute an anomaly called the "afternoon effect" and require further studies to clarify. The overall aim of this project is to investigate both empirically and experimentally what can explain declining price trends in sequential auctions. A first step is to understand how bidders' preferences can explain negative price trends. We also aim to understand how the auction format can explain the anomaly.Norrgren, LisaUniversity of GothenburgTime preferences and medication adherence among Swedish HIV patientsEconomy2019

Amount granted: SEK 235 000

People have different preferences. Our preferences are part of our personality and allow us to be similar or different from other people. Time preferences determine how the individual values the benefits of something now, in relation to the future. Empirically, it has been found that impatient people are more likely to regularly smoke cigarettes (Harrison et al., 2018) and exercise less (Leonard and Shuval, 2017). Researchers have also identified a causal relationship between a high discount rate (impatience) and the likelihood that a person has an excessive BMI (Courtemanche et al., 2014).This study aims to investigate the relationship between time preferences and adherence to medical treatment. The regularity with which patients take their medication is crucial for the successful treatment of many diseases. Our goal is to measure time preferences in Swedish HIV patients. The information will then be linked to the InfCare HIV database, which collects virus and immune system information from patients. Using our collected data, we will then investigate the relationship between how often patients miss taking their medication, their actual disease outcome and their time preferences. This relationship can be used to provide further support for doctors to screen HIV patients who are not taking their medication - before virus levels start to rise. Finding and quantifying early risk markers for these patients is important to ensure patient health and reduce negative effects on others.Österdahl, IngerUppsala UniversityThe law of war in the Swedish constitution: a moving targetJurisprudence2019

Amount granted: SEK 620 000

Does a government always have the right to invite foreign troops to help it, even if the government is undemocratic, has no control over its territory and there is civil war in the country? Should a government have such an unconditional right?If a state is subject to a terrorist attack by a non-state group, does a right of self-defense arise for the state against the terrorist group? If so, which is currently the most common answer internationally, does the state have the right to retaliate militarily against the terrorist organization on the territory of a foreign country even if the foreign country cannot be held responsible for the attack? Should the attacked state have such a right?What rules of international humanitarian law, including human rights, are applicable to troops participating in a multinational military operation in an armed conflict? The rules (if any) that bind the organization leading the operation; the rules that bind the state leading the operation; or the rules by which the home state is bound? Which legal situation should prevail?These questions are examined in the light of Swedish experiences and positions. The starting point is Sweden's contribution to the US-led Operation Inherent Resolve in Iraq in 2014, Sweden's contribution to the UN-supported and NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan in 2015, the Swedish response to the terrorist attack in Paris in 2015, and the participation of Swedish troops in the UN-mandated and NATO-led International Security and Assistance Force in Afghanistan 2002-2014.Samuelsson, LarsUppsala UniversityInterest deduction limitation - Swedish rules in the light of EU lawJurisprudence2019

Amount granted: SEK 370 000

The aim of the project is to investigate the implementation of the EU directive against tax evasion in Sweden with a particular focus on the issue of limiting the right to deduct interest. The project thoroughly analyzes the background and purpose of the directive and the tax rules introduced to implement it in Sweden. Various application issues associated with these rules are identified and discussed. The research results obtained so far show that the implementation of the Directive has resulted in complex and difficult to access rules. The deductibility of interest expenses is determined by three different sets of rules: the general limitation, the targeted limitation and the rules for neutralizing hybrid mismatches. In addition, special rules apply to interest on financial leases. The accelerated legislative process has in some parts resulted in an insufficiently elaborate regulatory framework with a number of unresolved application issues and inadequate coordination between different rules. Within the continued project, an in-depth study will be made of the question of whether the Swedish implementing legislation is compatible with EU primary law (freedom of establishment and free movement of capital) and of the question of the application of the modified targeted restriction rules in the light of the motives and case law regarding previously applicable rules.Jänterä-Jareborg, MaaritUppsala UniversityCross-border recognition of formalized same-sex relationshipsJurisprudence2019

Amount granted: SEK 270 000

Several European countries have taken the step of allowing same-sex couples to legally formalize their relationship, through the institution of registered partnership or through a gender-neutral marriage institution. The Nordic countries are in the vanguard. In this way, the legal systems want to distance themselves from unequal treatment based on sexual orientation or gender. The process has been facilitated by a dynamic interpretation of rights guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, although these do not in themselves oblige states to 'marry' same-sex couples. At the same time, these developments have met with strong resistance in the Baltic region, particularly in Poland, Latvia and Lithuania, which reject hom*osexuality and emphasize traditional family roles. The lack of a unified European 'approach' results in legally 'limping' family relationships; a relationship is recognized in one country but not in another. This PhD project analyzes the ideas of free movement and equal rights of citizens and the right of each Member State to maintain its national specificity, in the context of same-sex relationships. The analysis takes into account on the one hand the new EU international family law regulations, primary EU law and the ECHR, and on the other hand the legal situation primarily in the Baltic EU states of Lithuania, Latvia and Poland. The central research question is to examine the potential of the Europeanization process to bring the countries' legal systems closer together.Volatility, JanneStockholm UniversityCriminal competition. Justice, good business and the free marketJurisprudence2019

Amount granted: SEK 740 000

The overall aim of the project is to study the possibilities of the Swedish legal system to combat companies that behave unfairly and thereby threaten free competition. This may involve various types of criminal or socially harmful actions to increase the company's profits, such as corruption, price cartels, tax crimes, human rights violations and environmental crimes. This crime puts good companies at a disadvantage; those companies that respect current legislation and accepted ethical guidelines. The conditions for them to do business are not on the same terms, which in an extreme situation can mean that the good companies are outcompeted. How does the Swedish legal system act to prevent this? To what extent is it possible to maintain a market with free competition between market participants? To answer this question, three complementary methods will be used: document and text analysis, interviews and participant observations. The texts and documents that will be studied include relevant legislation and preparatory work, as well as policy documents produced by the companies and their trade associations. Interviews will be conducted with the Financial Police, the Swedish Economic Crime Authority, the Swedish Prosecution Authority, the Swedish Competition Authority and the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise. Participatory observations will take place at the upcoming trials of two Swedish companies, Telia and Lundin Petroleum.Zamboni, MauroStockholm UniversityA Middle-Range theory of legislationJurisprudence2019

Amount granted: 465 000 SEK

Although legislation is the source of most modern law, it has not been the subject of deeper reflection by the legal community. Attention has mostly been directed to the macro-level of the legislative processes, i.e. discussing philosophical or political foundations and criteria for the "good" legislation, or the "necessity (or not)" of regulating a certain area by legislation. Alternatively, considerations have revolved around the micro-level of the legislative process, i.e. the structure, formulation and impact of different laws on a particular legal system and/or on society.Given this situation, the basic focus of the project will be the construction and analysis of the central link between political bodies and legislative action. There, legislative policies are formulated, i.e. legislative strategies to find the "best way" to implement a certain ideology in the form of legislative action. The various legislative policies are based on the roles assigned to the three traditional legal actors in the legislative process, namely legislative bodies, public authorities and judicial bodies. In particular, legislative policies must take into account the prominent role assigned to any of the three actors in the field under study.Lernestedt, ClaesStockholm University"Necessity has no law". A criminal law study of the emergency regulation.Jurisprudence2019

Amount granted: SEK 930 000

"Necessity has no law" is a well-known expression established in many languages (in German "Not kennt kein Gebot", i.e. "Necessity knows no commandment"; in Latin "Necessitas non habet legem"). The idea is that in certain exceptional situations one cannot be required to follow the commandments of the law as otherwise required. This includes situations created by humans as well as by other means (some examples are the hiker in the mountains who has to break into a cabin for shelter because of a snowstorm, the person who defends himself against attacking animals, and the person who breaks the traffic rules - speeding, driving drunk - in order to get a soon-to-be-born or seriously injured person to hospital quickly).In Swedish criminal law, distress was long unregulated by law, but since 1965 (when the Criminal Code came into force) it has been enshrined in law. The regulation in BrB 24:4 provides a right, within certain limits, to commit otherwise punishable acts if danger threatens "life, health, property or any other interest protected by the legal system". The statute has, in principle and potentially, a very wide scope of application, but it has (1) been applied to a much lesser extent than would be possible (and what is the case in many other countries) and (2) been given very little (almost non-existent) attention in criminal law research. The purpose of the project, which can be said to be of a basic research nature, is to contribute to giving the emergency regulation a firmer contour and development potential through various types of legal research.Ljungström, VivekaResearch and progressPublication of the journal Forskning & Framsteg in 2020Other2019

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The journal Forskning & Framsteg reports on research, research results and the role of research in society. The topics and research results that are highlighted should primarily be of interest to society and the individual in society. Forskning & Framsteg works at the forefront of knowledge, is general education, should always deserve high credibility and be made with the reader in focus. By reporting on research and research achievements, the magazine will contribute to strengthening democracy and increasing people's knowledge in society at large.Nilsen, AndrineUniversity of GothenburgWooden buildings and people in early modern societyOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 93 500

The dissertation focuses on early modern wooden urban settlements (c. 1400-1799) and their social aspects, mainly focusing on Swedish conditions but also looking at other countries. Swedish wooden buildings can in many ways represent a cross-section of society from the hut, to burgher houses and wooden castles. Wooden houses are often seen as hovels and unstable, even though houses have been preserved from the 13th century. Today there are only a few early modern wooden houses left in our cities, a consequence of the demolition frenzy of the 1960s, therefore archaeological urban surveys are our main source of knowledge about these environments. The survey includes houses built in; knotted timber, half-timber or cross-timber. Research on archaeological remains and antiquarian studies of the preserved houses can be combined. Farm environments in relation to the city plan and infrastructure are examined. Wood was ubiquitous and played a major role in the creation of early modern living culture. Other important aspects of wooden cities are their role in building the nation state. The period saw a change in urban society. Cities underwent regularization, meaning that houses and blocks had to be moved to fit into a new city plan with straight streets, some cities were relocated for defence purposes and a number of new cities were established. In the wake of this reorganization, combined with fires and wars, large-scale production of houses was required, with the movable wooden house being crucial.Nordqvist, BengtArchaeology Victim site FinnestorpTime of gold and Finnestorp sacrifice siteOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 485 650

During 2000-2004 and 2008-2012, investigations were carried out at the Finnestorp sacrifice site. This site contains finds that belong to the category "the finest and most exquisite objects from Sweden's pre-Christian era" and is one of the most important remains from Nordic prehistory. At Offerplats Finnestorp, recurring warriors have been sacrificed along with their battle stallions and valuable weapons. These mighty men whose arsenal consisted of magnificent gilded swords, lances and golden horse equipment. Magnificent items of royal value, made by the most skilled craftsmen in Europe at the time.The ongoing research work includes international comparisons and publication of the research work in the form of a major scientific book and a popular science book. The metallurgical analysis shows that the objects were made by highly skilled smiths. Lead isotope analysis shows that the copper ores used can be traced to the north of England.In 2018-2019, the manuscript for two book volumes on Finnestorp will be completed. These are Practice I - "Fyndens i fokus" (the section on horse equipment) and Practice II - a "Coffee Table Book". Paper III presents the results of the research on the gold neck ring from Bragnum, the gold neck collar from Möne, and several side projects. The upcoming isotope analyses concern studies of horse and human teeth. The aim of these analyses is to shed light on the important question of provenance and geographical mobility.Malmstedt, GöranUniversity of GothenburgEnchanted world/An enchanted worldOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

An English translation enables the publication of the monograph 'An Enchanted World. Premodern beliefs and Bohuslän witchcraft trials 1669-1672" (2018) by the prestigious international publisher Palgrave Macmillan. There are few international publications dealing with Swedish witchcraft trials and no single major work dealing with the Bohuslän trials. A publication of "An Enchanted World" by the aforementioned publisher would contribute to the internationalization of Swedish humanistic research and to an increased knowledge of Swedish conditions during the current era.Linde Bjur, GunillaWomen take their place. Architects in 100 years. Gothenburg 1920-2020Other2019

Amount granted: SEK 90 000

Gothenburg's architectural history over the past 100 years has been characterized by a large number of university-educated architects. In the early 1900s, the profession was practiced exclusively by men, while today more than half of all architects in Sweden are women. The working title of the project is Architects in Gothenburg in a hundred years. Women take place in the 20th century. The previous book Arkitekter och fasader. Göteborg 1850-1920 described the period until women in Sweden were allowed to train as architects in the 1920s. This project highlights some 40 architects, all women, whose work has shaped Gothenburg at different times and highlights the development of the architectural profession and Gothenburg's architectural history over 100 years. Archival research and in-depth interviews form the basis for a number of short professional biographies. Historical pioneers such as Dagmar Hall, Anna Lous Mohr and Ingrid Wallberg have been highlighted in previous research. Several living architects born as early as the 1920s and 1930s have been interviewed. For example, Ingegerd Ågren and her long activity starting in the 1940s is highlighted through interviews and documents. There is very little written about women architects in Gothenburg during the latter half of the 20th century and up to our time. Several of the youngest architects interviewed in the study will probably be active long after Gothenburg's 400th anniversary in 2021. The research will be published as a book in 2020, Kvinnor tar plats. Architects in 100 years. Gothenburg 1920-2020.Gunneriusson Wistman, ChristinaMuseum creation in the Swedish art field around the middle of the 20th centuryOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The research project deals with Swedish museums and museum creation in Sweden. It aims to investigate new museums in Sweden at the middle of the 20th century. A number of museums of different types were opened at that time: regional museums, personal museums and e.g. Moderna Museet. The starting point is the founding of Moderna Museet. How were the discussions conducted and what role may have been played by Prince Eugen's art collection and Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde, which opened in 1948. How and why were other museums established? The so-called Folkhem period roughly coincides with the time this project examines - is this relevant for interpretation and analysis? An important part of the investigation concerns the museums' art collections: what has the collection looked like, what significance does art have for the collections and for the museum? The social function of art is a particularly important factor. Art is obvious at Moderna Museet and Waldemarsudde, but has a different role to play in the regional museums. Are the museums and collections still important and relevant? These are some of the questions the study focuses on, and which, regardless of how they are answered, will contribute to the story of Swedish museums and museum education and provide answers of importance and value for our time as well.Shot, MiaWallpaper makers - self-sufficient and skilled in 18th-century StockholmOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 44 000

Eleven women were granted permission to print and paint wallpapers as manufacturers in Stockholm during the period 1739-1759. Based on existing research, wallpaper makers should not have existed. Professional skills in the capital's manufactories should have been an exclusive male monopoly, but this study shows that the wallpaper makers' performance was very much comparable to that of the wallpaper makers.The aim of the project is to provide in-depth and nuanced knowledge of women's agency and independent professional activity in the early modern period. Thanks to the microhistorical method and the biographical presentation, important and often surprising causes and driving forces behind women's independent professional activities have been identified. The comparison of wallpaper makers among themselves offers a colorful and varied palette of social identities, material resources and skills, from which three rather distinct profiles of female agency emerge that do not follow expected patterns.What remains is the editing of the collective biography of the wallpaper makers, which will be published by Stockholmia Research and Publishing in 2020.Åkerlund, AndreasSödertörn UniversityGerman anti-Versailles propaganda in Swedish newspapers 1919-1939Other2019

Amount granted: SEK 310 000

The project examines the activities of German actors in placing articles with propaganda content in Swedish newspapers during the period 1919-1939. The main object of study is the "Aufklärungsausschuss Hamburg-Bremen" at the Chamber of Commerce in Hamburg, which mainly distributed articles to the foreign press, including the Swedish. This 'information committee' was itself part of the German nationalist anti-Versailles movement. The central intermediary in Sweden was the journalist Paul Grassmann, who after 1933 became press attaché at the German legation in Stockholm. This also identifies an interesting continuity between interwar and Third Reich propaganda.Based on archive material in Hamburg, Stockholm and Berlin, the project will investigate how newspaper articles were conveyed to the Swedish press, which newspapers published these articles, and what image of the world in general, and Germany in particular, the German propaganda sought to spread in Sweden. This is possible because at least some of the records relating to the Aufklärungsausschuss Hamburg-Bremen have survived the war, and because Paul Grassmann's heirs have recently made his personal archive available at the National Archives in Stockholm.Christensen Sköld, BeatriceAssociation of Women AcademicsBiography of Karolina Widerström, Sweden's first female doctorOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 112 000

This is a biography of Sweden's first female doctor Karolina Widerström (1856-1949) in the form of an anthology. Seven authors, all with research degrees, will contribute to the book, which will have twelve chapters. The editor of the book will be Ann-Katrin Hatje, Professor of History. The authors of the different chapters are Beatrice Christensen Sköld, Christina Florin, Lena Hammarberg, Ann-Katrin Hatje, Ulrika Nilsson, Gunnel Svedberg and Lisa Öberg.A common thread running through the anthology is Karolina Widerström's great contribution to popular education. She propagates hygiene, she is a pioneer in sex education and sex education in schools, she works for better child care and greater opportunities for working mothers to take care of their children's health. She spreads knowledge about how legislation prevents female academics from being employed by the state. Important arenas included the Fredrika Bremer Association, the National Association for Women's Political Suffrage, the Stockholm City Council and many other associations and institutions. Her books, pamphlets and writings were widely distributed. For example, her book Kvinnohygien went through seven editions between 1899 and 1932.Haglund, TuvaPhD studentTogether in Engelsfors. Social fiction use in digital fan communitiesOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 93 500

Fan cultures are a widespread phenomenon in social media and have over the last decade become an increasingly important context for readers to meet and discuss literature. The dissertation project Tillsammans i Engelsfors, is the first major study of Swedish fan communities about Swedish literature, specifically the Engelfors trilogy by Sara Bergmark Elfgren and Mats Strandberg (2011-2013). The project identifies a popular cultural practice that today engages more and more, especially young readers and audiences to take an active approach to the culture they consume.The thesis deals with material published in the 2010s, and thus the study captures the new forms of communication and social interaction made possible by digitalization and especially social media. The sharing of users' own texts, images and films constitutes an important structure. Within fan culture, there is a particular tradition of disseminating one's own creative works of art (such as fan art, fan fiction and fanvids), created with inspiration from the fictional world. This practice has benefited from the digital infrastructure.In addition to a more general mapping of communicative patterns, the thesis project also includes close readings of the fans' own artworks and collective fiction creation. The readings are based on fan-specific genres such as "shipping" and "fluff", but also include perspectives such as fictionality, literariness, emotional readings, and types of girls and femininity.Rech, CarinaStockholm UniversitySelf-images of Nordic women artists in the late 19th centuryOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 66 000

"Artists are migratory birds without a permanent city", writes the artist Jeanna Bauck in a letter from 1883 to her friend Hildegard Thorell. Bauck and Thorell are two less well-known names among the many Nordic women artists who traveled to the continent to train as professional artists at the end of the 19th century. They exhibited extensively abroad, studied at private women's academies, established friendships and maintained their own studios. Within a few years, they evolved from bourgeois girls living in their parents' homes to independent professional women. This free and independent life eventually takes on completely new expressions in painting: suddenly the women depict themselves in simple work clothes or a painter's coat, sitting on the floor in the studio or in a nightgown and slippers in the company of the model in relaxed privacy. The thesis examines these multifaceted self-images in relation to the professionalization and cosmopolitan lifestyle that characterized the artists in question. Selected self-portraits, pictures of peers and studio interiors by Eva Bonnier, Mina Carlson-Bredberg, Hanna Hirsch-Pauli, Asta Nørregaard and Bertha Wegmann, among others, are analyzed in detail in a comparative study, where the central role of community and collaboration, as well as the importance of the studio for the artists' identity creation, is highlighted. Alongside known and unknown works of art, the study also presents extensive, hitherto unpublished archive material from across the Nordic region.Kozma, CeciliaRoyal Institute of TechnologyA starry sky in the basem*ntOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 625 000

The starry sky is something that is not at all obvious to today's urban children. Many have never marveled at the multitude of stars, tried to distinguish the different constellations, followed the course of the planets or experienced the Milky Way's path across the sky. Astronomy and space physics are areas that fascinate most children and young people, and are a good gateway to science and technology in general. We need more scientists and engineers in our companies, but we also need more general education in science and technology for everyone for a sustainable development of society.Vetenskapens Hus runs activities for pupils and teachers in primary and secondary schools. Every year we meet about 80,000 teachers and students in various hands-on activities in science, technology and mathematics with the aim of increasing interest and knowledge in these areas.We want to invite children, young people, teachers, student teachers and to some extent also interested members of the public to get acquainted with the starry sky in a more tangible way in a planetarium. We estimate that about 5000 visitors per year will be able to take part in our activities in a planetarium. Today, there is no opportunity for children and young people to visit a planetarium in Stockholm to get acquainted with the starry sky and be fascinated by the universe we can see with the naked eye. By bringing a planetarium to Vetenskapens Hus, we want to contribute to an increased fascination, interest and knowledge of astronomy and natural science in general.Vesterberg, KarlHistorical reconstruction of Gothenburg in 1713Other2019

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

In 1917, second city engineer Arvid Södergren began work on producing a Historical Map of Gothenburg, depicting the development of the city from its foundation to 1923, when the city celebrated its 300th anniversary. The work includes a map showing the approximate appearance of the city's plots and parts of the buildings in the 1790s, making it the only representation of all the city's plots in the 18th century.Is it possible to produce a similar map of Gothenburg's plots and buildings in the early 18th century for the 400th anniversary of Gothenburg? The purpose of the following project is to visually reconstruct Gothenburg's plots and buildings in the early 18th century. Between 1717 and 1721, the first city engineer Johan Eberhard Carlberg produced about a hundred small plot and block maps of Gothenburg. The maps are fragmentary and difficult to interpret, but in combination with contemporary written and visual source materials can be used to compile a representation of the city's appearance in the early 18th century, based on empirical research.The results of the project create the conditions for conducting in-depth microhistorical research on cultural, economic and social variation in the city center of Gothenburg, with an innovative methodology that can contribute to the development of the city's history. The project will be presented in a book publication where the method for reconstructing the city's appearance is described in detail.Josephson, OlleSwedish Humanist AssociationSHF Yearbook 2020 Jan Retsö: From Sinai to EthiopiaOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

Every year, the 2200 members of the Swedish Humanities Association receive a newly written publication in Swedish humanities research. For 2020, a book is planned by Jan Retsö, Professor of Arabic, "From Sinai to Ethiopia - the legend of the Israeli Ark of the Covenant". The Ark of the Covenant is first mentioned in the Old Testament Book of Exodus (Exodus 25:10-16), where the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments of God are kept, and the Ark contains supernatural powers that give the Israelites success in battles with other tribes. The Ark of the Covenant disappears relatively early in biblical history, but lives on in Jewish and Christian legends. In popular culture, it played a central role in the first Indiana Jones movie. There are reports today that the Ark is preserved in the Zion Cathedral in Axum, Ethiopia.Retsö's book provides an account and critique of the stories of the Ark up to the present day. The (tentative) 20 chapters of the book are grouped into three sections: The Ark in the Old Testament; The Ark in post-biblical early Jewish and Christian tradition; The Ark tradition in the Red Sea countries. The reader not only learns about the stories of the Ark, but above all how science - religious history research, archaeology and text-philologically oriented oriental studies - has dealt with these stories since the end of the 18th century. The book thus also provides a historical perspective in today's discussion of factual resistance and the responsibility of research.Stenfeldt, JohanLund UniversityPolitical culture in Swedish intelligence services. Thede Palm and Jan RydströmOther2019

Amount granted: 232 500 SEK

The project is about the Swedish intelligence service studied from a political-cultural perspective. More specifically, the project focuses on a dispute between two intelligence officers in the early post-war period, Thede Palm and Jan Rydström, studied as a dispute about the internal norm system of the organization. The purpose is basically philosophical, and is based on the paradoxical fact that liberal democracy accepts its opponents. Thus the system has its allure but also its potential downfall. In order to protect themselves from destruction, the representatives of the democratic system are therefore sometimes forced to resort to non-democratic methods. In doing so, they run the risk of becoming like their opponent. What can be allowed in the name of prevention is therefore subject to individual opinions and attitudes and is in a gray area. Intelligence organizations have a constitutional protection goal, but achieving this goal sometimes requires unconstitutional, or at least dubious, means. The intelligence service thus has to deal with the grey area mentioned above, and different actors' perceptions of where the boundaries of this grey area lie reflect the culture that prevails within the organization. Which normative system should prevail? What can be allowed in the name of constitutional protection, and what cannot be allowed? Where is the limit? These are questions that a close study of the relationship between Palm and Rydström can shed light on.Lindblad, ThomasPierre Forssell - designer in silver, stainless steel, aluminum and brassOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

Pierre Forssell was a student at Konstfack's metal department between 1943 and 1949, when he received his journeyman's certificate. Erik Fleming was his teacher and mentor. Between 1952 and 1960, Forssell taught metal at Konstfack. He was involved in building up contacts between Konstfack and industry. Forssell was also involved in the Slöjdföreningens Facksektion. From 1953 to 1965 he was a designer at Gense. In 1956 he succeeded Erik Fleming as designer at Skultuna, in the aluminum cookware department. During the fifties he taught at the handicraft teacher seminar in Nääs and he was involved in setting up the handicraft teacher seminar in Linköping in 1960.Some brass products that he made for Skultuna in the 1950s led to a job at the brass factory there in 1965. Forssell was given a free hand to renew Skultuna's brass production. A rich and very special world of forms is now emerging. Basic stereometric shapes in brass: balls, spheres, cones, dice, cubes, cylinders, etc. become vases, candlesticks and boxes. Forssell worked there until he retired in 1986. His brass has experienced a renaissance in recent years and has been shown in several exhibitions, most recently at the Västerås Art Museum. While working on the book, I had access to Pierre Forssell's archive, which is in the family's possession. The photographs in the book are partly taken by him and most of them have not been published before.Gloss, KayResponses magazineRespons magazine - review journal for the humanities and social sciencesOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The journal Respons is aimed at academics and interested members of the public who want to keep abreast of informed debate in the humanities and social sciences. It has a circulation of 1800, geographically concentrated in the university cities. Respons provides readers with orientation, not least in the publications of small publishers, and gives Swedish academics an opportunity to communicate with other disciplines and a wider readership. The journal is also a forum for cultural debate and discussion of research issues in the humanities and social sciences.Response thus takes place at an intersection where several needs are met. The review activities of daily newspapers have deteriorated dramatically in recent years. Either non-fiction is not reviewed at all, or it is written briefly, often by someone without in-depth knowledge. It is becoming increasingly difficult for the general quality-oriented audience to find their way around and increasingly difficult for small quality-oriented publishers to find readers. The academic world, for its part, risks losing contact with the national audience and with other disciplines, partly because it lacks platforms in the Swedish public sphere and partly because the focus is now on publishing in English in specialist journals. The journal thus also plays an important role in protecting the Swedish language against English in the humanities and social sciences.Werkelid, Carl OttoSignum 100 yearsOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

The magazine Signum, in its first decades Credo, celebrates its 100th anniversary in 2020. The magazine provides information on church, culture and society from a Catholic Christian perspective. It constitutes a forum for reflection and exchange of ideas, where an international conversation on science, culture, social issues, philosophy and theology also takes place, and strives for accessibility without compromising a qualified level of appeal and stylistics. The anniversary anthology "Signum 100 years" contains a dozen thematically organized texts and reflects the journal's areas of interest. The writers are drawn from outside the journal's staff with the aim that their independent texts will give an idea of Signum's publishing in an appropriate social and cultural context and in a historical perspective. Topics covered include religious freedom, literary monitoring, dialog, integration/immigration, Catholicism and intellectuals.Svensson, AndreasLund UniversityBy the anvil and out of the crucible - Iron Age metalwork in south-eastern ScandinaviaOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 155 833

The dissertation project "Vid städ och ur degel" deals with the complex metal craftsmanship of the Iron Age, its actors and landscape and economic conditions. The project analyzes metalworking sites where traces of several different types of metalworking can be found. Are different types of metal crafts or metal handling spatially separated or do they occur together? What role did the metalworking sites play in the overall cultural landscape of the Scandinavian Iron Age and the socio-economic climate this reflects? These basic questions are addressed by analyzing raw materials, production and waste products, and how these are distributed in the landscape. The results are then interpreted from the perspective of economic theory and socio-economic interpretation of society.Metals and metal craftsmanship have always played a central role in the interpretation of the social structure of the Iron Age. The By the anvil and out of the crucible project tests many long-established models of the socio-economic structure of the Iron Age, while adding new perspectives on metal handling actors - from producers, to distributors and finally consumers - to the picture of Scandinavian Iron Age society.Björk, TonyKristianstad Regional Museum/South Swedish Archaeology Big Free FarmOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 78 000

In the 1950s and 1960s, an unusually large burial ground was investigated at Store Frigård on Bornholm, which was in use from about 500 BC to about 400 AD (Pre-Roman and Roman Iron Age). In total, more than 1200 sites were examined, mostly graves, with a large number of objects. Some of the objects contain textile remains and there are also human remains in the form of burnt bones. Almost all individuals had been cremated. Unfortunately, the archaeologist who led the investigation died prematurely and there is still no comprehensive analysis or publication of the rich material. Store Frigård is valuable for knowledge of the pre-Roman and Roman Iron Age in the southern Baltic Sea area. A project has therefore been initiated that will result in a scientific publication within the next few years.Bornholm is rich in finds, as are the other large islands in the Baltic Sea. The material from Store Frigård has interesting parallels, not least in Skåne, Öland and Gotland. The islands have been important for contacts across the Baltic Sea, which is reflected in the burial conditions and grave goods, which have features of surrounding regions. An important category of finds is ceramics. There are clay vessels from about 340 graves. The pottery provides great opportunities to date individual graves, to show the changes in burial customs and to discuss contact patterns in the Baltic Sea region.Andersson, TommyFoot figures on rock carvingsOther2019

Amount granted: 108 000 SEK

Foot figures, also called foot soles, footprints etc., are a common type of figure on southern Scandinavian rock carvings. In some areas they are the dominant representational figure. There are different variants of foot figures, from naturalistic carvings with toes, to contour carved ovals. They can be in pairs or as individual feet. In this project I will describe, analyze and try to date and explain the foot figures. The geographical area that I mainly focus on is the landscapes Bohuslän, Dalsland, Skåne and Västergötland. From there I will also look in other directions.Gräslund, BoUppsala UniversityThe Beowulf story. The Nordic backgroundOther2019

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

Translation into English of the book "The Beowulf Words. The Nordic Background".Josephson, OlleSwedish Humanist AssociationSHF Yearbook 2019 "The Word and the Wine"Other2019

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

The Swedish Humanist Association's yearbook 2019, Professor Johan Stenström's "The Word and the Wine". The book is distributed to SHF's approximately 2300 members and is also sold in bookstores.Since ancient times, the use of wine has been a recurring motif in fiction. In Sweden, certain authors such as Bellman or Strindberg stand out; in others, wine plays a lesser role but is nevertheless frequent, sometimes as a sign of social status, often to describe festivities and important turning points in the plot: Almqvist, Runeberg, Bremer, Benedictsson, Lagerlöf, Söderberg. In French literature, wine is naturally a frequent feature. Ties between Britain and the wine-producing eastern parts of France have existed since the Middle Ages and have left many traces in English literature.In Ordet och vinet, Johan Stenström describes in 19 chapters how wine is depicted in Western literature, from antiquity to the present day. Stenström has been Professor of Literature at Lund University since 2009.Sotiriou, GeorgiosKarolinska InstitutePhoto-activated antimicrobial nanocoatings on medical devicesMedicine2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Ohlsson, ClaesUniversity of GothenburgA new mechanism for regulating body weightMedicine2018

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Obesity is a growing public health problem worldwide with more than one billion overweight and 300 million obese according to the WHO. Obesity contributes to serious diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several reports have shown that people who spend much of the day sitting are at increased risk of obesity and diabetes. Our results suggest that increased leg loading, which occurs when standing up, may lead to more activation of a 'body wave' in the weight-bearing long tubular bones, which in turn leads to more activity in an anti-obesity system and hence reduced weight. There is already a well-known system that aims to keep fat mass constant. The anti-obesity hormone leptin is released into the bloodstream from adipose tissue in proportion to the size of the fat mass. Leptin exerts a negative feedback loop in the brain leading to reduced appetite and obesity. Unfortunately, for unknown reasons, most obese people are insensitive to leptin's anti-obesity effect. We have now shown in the prestigious American Academy of Sciences journal PNAS that inserting weights into the abdominal cavity or under the skin of obese mice reduces their food intake, body weight and fat mass independently of leptin. This effect seems to involve a specific cell type in the long tubular bones. We now want to study the exact mechanism of how the 'body wave' in the legs affects fat mass and appetite, probably via an effect on the brain. We also want to investigate the importance of this novel system for fat regulation in humans.

Cerebrospinal fluid flow and its role in Alzheimer's diseaseMedicine2018

Amount granted: SEK

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the accumulation of toxic molecules, often in the form of proteinaceous waste. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is mainly produced at night, has a great capacity to dispose of these toxic waste products from the brain. However, many aspects of the diurnal CSF variation in disease, dietary modulators of CSF, and the significance of CSF dynamics for disease progression are poorly characterized.

In this project, we will investigate CSF production volume and flow rate in the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We will recruit participants from several, including: AD patients, the patient with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), elderly controls, and young controls. All participants will undergo a non-invasive phase contrast MRI in a state-of-the-art 7T MRI system to measure CSF production volume and flow rate. Furthermore, using different modalities of MRI scans, we wish to evaluate how these parameters are affected by the consumption of commonly used dietary products such as alcohol and caffeine, which have been shown to induce CSF movement in the brain. Finally, we want to determine whether there is a correlation between CSF production and cognitive abilities, and we will specifically investigate whether low CSF production is predictive of poorer prognosis.

Kiessling, RolfKarolinska InstituteCell therapy for malignant melanoma with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and Dendritic cell vaccineMedicine2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

The aim of the project is to develop a new immunotherapy approach for the treatment of malignant melanoma, a malignant skin cancer.

Immunotherapy, which aims to activate the body's immune system to eliminate cancer cells, has made great progress and treatment with immune-activating antibodies prolongs survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. However, a majority (70-80%) of patients do not respond to this treatment. Cell therapy with white blood cells produced from the patient's cancerous tumor, called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which are then multiplied in large numbers and returned to the patient, has a very good effect on the disease. Tumor vaccination with a special type of immune-activating cells extracted from the patient's blood, called Dendritic Cells (DC), has also been shown to be effective against certain types of cancer. Design and methods: A clinical study, approved by the Swedish Medical Products Agency and Ethics Committee, is ongoing with the administration of TIL cells combined with Dendritic Cells (DC) vaccine to patients with advanced melanoma disease. Three of the four very seriously ill patients in the study that we treated with the combination of TIL and DC have responded very well with complete or almost complete regression of the cancer, even though they no longer respond to other types of cancer treatment. We will now be able to treat another 10 patients with this method, as well as to improve our methods for the production of high activity TIL and DC and to measure the effect immunologically.

Hansson, Göran K.Kungl. Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Academy Chair in Medicine 2019Medicine2018

Amount granted: SEK 10 168 000

The Torsten Söderberg Foundation currently funds seven academic professorships in medicine at the level of SEK 2 million per year for five years. There is a great need for this type of research position, where proven outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further strengthen and develop their research. It is an important part of further strengthening Swedish research in the light of international developments.

The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis is placed on research carried out during the last five-year period. The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed.

Erlandsson, AnnaUppsala UniversityRole of astrocytes in spreading amyloid-beta pathologyMedicine2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

The overall goal of the project is to investigate how the brain's support cells, the astrocytes, contribute to Alzheimer's disease and how we can influence them with different treatments. Interesting results from our previous research show that astrocytes influence processes that can lead to the spread of the disease in the brain. With this new approach, we hope to identify future treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease.

More specifically, we will

  1. Investigate how astrocytes contribute to the spread of Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  2. Identify strategies to increase astrocyte degradation of amyloid-beta and thus limit the spread of the disease.
  3. Study how astrocytes are involved in the extensive nerve cell death in the brain in Alzheimer's disease.

To study the role of astrocytes in the spread of Alzheimer's disease pathology, we will primarily use mouse and human cell cultures, but we will also perform complementary animal studies and analyze patient tissue. Currently, there is no drug treatment available to prevent nerve cell death in Alzheimer's disease or to limit the spread of the disease in the brain. Our results will provide important insights into the role of astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease and thus promote the development of new therapies.

Brodin, PetterKarolinska InstituteInflammatory complications in premature babiesMedicine2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Newborn babies have immature immune systems and an increased risk of infections, especially those born prematurely. Very preterm infants are also at risk of other complications such as necrotizing colitis (NEC), retinopathy (ROP) and chronic pulmonary disease (BPD), and all of these dreaded complications are inflammatory conditions involving the infant's immune system. At present, we do not fully understand the factors that give rise to these inflammatory conditions, nor can we predict with certainty which preterm infants will be affected. In this project, we conduct the most detailed mapping of the neonatal immune system to date in order to better understand the immunological processes associated with inflammation (NEC, ROP and BPD) and severe infections in preterm infants. Our goal is both to understand these processes better, but also to identify markers that can help us predict the risk of infection in a given preterm infant. In this way, we hope to optimize the care of preterm infants in the future with reduced risk of complications and increased survival in this vulnerable patient group.

Flower, AnnaLund UniversityNew treatments for infections based on pathogenic bacteria's strategies to escape the complement systemMedicine2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Our study focuses on clinically important bacterial pathogens, for which the ever-increasing antibiotic resistance requires new treatment options. Every successful pathogenic bacterium must defend itself against the complement system, a central part of the innate immune system. We have previously shown that many bacteria thus cover their surface with human complement inhibitors as a defense and we now want to investigate whether this property can be used for the development of new treatment with recombinant fusion proteins. These fusion proteins should prevent interactions with complement inhibitors while initiating complement attack on the bacterial surface. An advantage of the therapeutic use of these molecules is the low risk of resistance development, as the ability to bind complement inhibitors that our fusion proteins exploit provides a survival advantage. We will investigate whether our fusion proteins are effective against infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (a common STD) and gram-negative bacteria that infect burn wounds. Clinical isolates will be used to estimate the proportion of these infections that could be successfully treated with our fusion proteins.

Hagberg, AxelStockholm School of Economics, EHFFShadow banking in Sweden part 2 - experiences from the early 20th centuryEconomy2018

Amount granted: SEK 930 000

The project aims to highlight the Swedish issuing company era and see it in a new light. The intensive period for the Swedish capital market discussed here can be said to have started after the "1901 Banking Committee" presented its proposal for independent industrial publishing banks (in modern parlance, investment banks). The Banking Committee's report was followed by a political debate for almost a decade until 1909 when new legislation in the area was adopted by the Riksdag. No "bank of issue" as intended by the legislators was ever created. Instead, financial market participants preferred to operate in the form of a "limited liability company". This was thus a form of organization outside the current banking supervision.

The issuing companies played an important role in creating the Swedish optimism of the 1910s. The deflationary crisis of 1922 brought an abrupt end to the boom period on the Stockholm Stock Exchange, which formed the basis of the companies' activities. Most of the major issuing companies, with a few exceptions, appear to have survived the crisis, but were in decline or changed their business focus. The basic reason for this was that access to capital via the stock market seems to have virtually ceased after 1919 in connection with the economic turnaround.

No attempt at a more comprehensive study of the history of issuing companies has ever been presented. It can be concluded that the issuing company era has only been selectively examined, and the overall empirical knowledge is now rather inadequate.

Sandgren, FredrikUppsala UniversityInnovation and institutional change in Swedish goods trade 1920-2010Economy2018

Amount granted: SEK 496 000

The project will analyze the transformation of the Swedish goods trade in the 20th century. The ultimate aim is to write a synthesis of the history of Swedish goods trade from 1750 to the present. The period 1750-1920 already exists in manuscript form. At the center of the analysis is institutional change and important innovations. By institutions I mean legislation, but also the more informal agreements and rules that have influenced trade in goods and its conditions. With regard to innovations, i.e. new technologies and new forms of organization, I will examine how general innovations such as cars, telephones, computers, factories and Taylorism have affected trade in goods. But an important task is also to examine how new ways of conducting goods trade such as fixed stores, department stores, self-service, single-level warehouses, etc. have been introduced and spread within the Swedish goods trade. The major shifts in terms of institutions and innovations that I identify will form the basis for the periodization that is made.

Much is known about the history of goods trade. However, much of this knowledge is scattered across many different books and essays and needs to be compiled. But there are also a lot of knowledge gaps that need to be filled by primary research. For the 20th century, it is mainly the early activities of the wholesale trade, the specialist trade and the trade organizations that need to be researched.

Strömsten, TorkelStockholm School of Economics, SiRGraduate School of Accounting - FIREEconomy2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 860 000

The Research School in Accounting (FIRE) was initiated in 2015 as a response to the shortage of accounting researchers and teachers reported by the Swedish Association of Graduate Economists (2017). The lack of PhD researchers and teachers in accounting threatens the quality of teaching at universities and colleges and, by extension, the development of Swedish industry. FIRE's overall aim is to ensure and develop the quality of postgraduate education in accounting. We want to make postgraduate education more attractive and act as a network node. FIRE currently has 23 active doctoral students and a strong network between doctoral students and faculty has been established.

We want to continue on this path. In 2018 and 2019, the first FIRE doctoral students will graduate. We therefore see a need to support and develop the careers of post-doctoral researchers in accounting as well. We are convinced that FIRE can serve this purpose very well.

Agndal, HenrikUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawManagement of complex business relationshipsEconomy2018

Amount granted: SEK 380 500

One way of understanding complex business relationships is to consider them as consisting of more or less interconnected arenas where companies carry out various activities. These arenas must be controlled, but the ability to control one arena is affected by firms' actions in other arenas, so-called spillover effects. However, research on corporate relationships rarely considers this dynamic and we therefore ask "what strategies do firms use to manage negative and positive spillover effects in complex corporate relationships?". International business relationships are further complicated by the fact that the parties to the relationship are in different institutional contexts. Unconscious as well as active resistance to governance systems perceived as inappropriate in a local context may give rise to the emergence of hybrid forms of governance. Although research on international business has begun to take an interest in hybridization, studies focusing on governance are largely lacking. We therefore ask, "what do hybridization processes (with a focus on governance) look like in the context of complex international business relationships?". We will address these questions through empirical research, mainly in the form of in-depth, complementary interviews within ongoing studies.

Nyberg, KlasStockholm UniversityFashion, luxury, credit and trustEconomy2018

Amount granted: SEK 178 000

The project 'Fashion, luxury, credit and trust. From early modern to modern bankruptcy" was funded in 2017 to analyse the importance of the reform of the bankruptcy institution 1767-1830 for the modernization of the pre-industrial credit market. In 2018, the researchers wrote their papers and the project was presented at two international conferences. The project organized a well-attended session at ESSHC in Belfast and was invited to participate with a paper on the project at the two-day symposium "Wealth and Debt Accumulation in Informal Financial Markets. A Marcus Wallenberg Symposium". This was attended by a number of specialists in this current area of research.

Two additional contributors have been recruited: doctoral student Mia Skott, who already has her own funding from the Foundation and who is contributing another chapter to the anthology on the conditions in Stockholm regarding wallpaper makers. Dr. Riina Turunen and Professor Kustaa H. J. Vilkuna at the University of Helsinki. J. Vilkuna at the University of Jyväskylä who contributes a study on wigmakers, also funded.

Tåg, JoacimInstitute for Business ResearchCompanies and employees in a changing labour marketEconomy2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 972 500

In recent decades, the Swedish labour market has undergone extensive structural changes as a result of technological developments that have driven digitization and globalization processes. In parallel, there have been major changes in the ownership structure of Swedish companies: foreign ownership has increased, state and municipal companies have been privatized, venture capital ownership has become a common form of ownership, and entrepreneurship has become a significant feature of the modern economy. Digitalization, ownership changes and globalization have all had major consequences for the way the labour market works today.

The aim of this project is to analyze how these structural changes have affected different types of employees, entrepreneurs and firms in Sweden over the past decades. Specific questions we seek answers to include how digitalization, ownership changes and globalization have affected wages, wage dispersion, work environment and the risk of employees losing their jobs; how the allocation of talent in the Swedish business sector has been affected; and what determines decisions to start new businesses and what characterizes successful careers in the Swedish labor market. These questions will be addressed through empirical analyses using extensive register-based information on the Swedish labor force linked to firm and owner data for the period 1990-2015.

Ek, ClaesUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawThe benefit of temptation? Self-control, self-confidence and financial choicesEconomy2018

Amount granted: SEK 282 500

People sometimes choose to voluntarily limit their scope of action in order to better resist immediate temptations that conflict with long-term goals. For example, many people are willing to open a savings account with limited withdrawals in order to commit to increased savings. The use of such tools is often actively encouraged to improve people's personal finances or health, for example. However, there is a lack of research on whether the tools can also be overused, which can be expected to happen if a person underestimates their own willpower or overestimates the strength of the temptation. It may also be beneficial to expose oneself to temptations if successful resistance to them strengthens belief in one's own willpower and leads to an increased ability to resist other temptations in the future.

The project consists of two laboratory experiments. The first examines whether participants' willingness to pay to avoid a tempting situation accurately reflects the loss incurred when they are actually exposed to the temptation. The second experiment studies whether resisting temptation in an initial situation gives rise to stronger resilience at a later stage, for example by making the outcome in the initial situation a signal of one's own willpower. Both experiments will generate knowledge about the potential benefits of being exposed to temptation and have implications for the extent to which restrictions on people's choices are justified in society.

Rovira Nordman, EmiliaStockholm School of Economics, SIR"It's a retail revolution": The international challenges of digitalizationEconomy2018

Amount granted: SEK 2 152 000

Despite the fact that Sweden has long provided a breeding ground for global success concepts such as H&M and IKEA, we find that today's Swedish retailers are experiencing difficulties in scaling up their operations internationally. Our preliminary studies show that e-commerce can be an underutilized factor for creating international growth among small firms because it is rarely conducted efficiently or clearly strategically anchored.

This project aims to investigate how smaller retail companies can develop their sales channels and create international growth through e-commerce. Reaching out to foreign customers in a way that is both efficient and creates customer value is important for the long-term survival of Swedish retail companies. By continuing to build on the databases that we have created within the framework of our ongoing project, we will in the continuation project collect data that specifically reflects Swedish retail companies' international e-commerce. This data enables clearer comparisons between companies that have managed the structural transformation towards e-commerce better with companies that have managed it worse. The project can thus contribute with new insights on how a smaller company should act to succeed with its digitalization strategy and thus increase its international growth. The ambition of the project is to both contribute to the international research front and to generate new and useful knowledge for practitioners in the retail industry.

Husebye, AlexanderThe Center for Business History AssociationOlle Söderberg - a biographyEconomy2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 766 929

This project aims to portray, through two biographies, the Söderberg family's journey from entrepreneurship to philanthropy during the late 19th and much of the 20th century. The project includes research, listing and digitization of archival material located in a number of different places, but also the establishment of a closed family history website as a resource for future research and knowledge transfer. Two biographical volumes, published by Förlaget Näringslivshistoria, will be produced.

The project builds on an ongoing archive and book project on the life and work of Pelle Söderberg (1836-1881). The intention is to build on this knowledge base with a biography of his son, the entrepreneur and consul general Olof Söderberg (1872-1931). We see the project as an important task to document and analyze some of the key figures in an important phase of Sweden's modernization, and thereby make a significant contribution to business history research.

Bos, MariekeStockholm School of Economics, SHoFFinancial Economics: 'Markets, firms and information flows'Economy2018

Amount granted: SEK 350 000

The Swedish House of Finance organizes an annual conference on a theme in financial economics. This year's theme is "information flows between financial markets and firms". The conference is based on a dialogue between academic economists and representatives from the financial industry. We intend to address the following three major issues:

  1. How much do corporate decision-makers learn about the prices and quantities they observe in financial markets, and how valuable is this information? Has the flow of information from markets to firms changed over time, e.g. through an increased use of passive management and index products?
  2. How important are company strategies and structure for investment decisions? Do e.g. hedge funds and pension managers use such characteristics for investment, and do classical valuation variables (such as size, profitability and value) capture the underlying corporate strategy of companies?
  3. Business managers often use a discount rate (e.g. CAPM) to determine the cost of equity. A large literature has documented the CAPM's limited ability to explain real expected returns. What are the real-world consequences of policy makers using an outdated valuation model? How should companies best determine the cost of equity?
Andersson, MagnusUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawEarly banking in Sweden 1850-1920, phase 2Economy2018

Amount granted: SEK 930 000

The purpose of the study is to show the importance of the emerging banks in Sweden and their actors in the transition from merchant capitalist to industrial capitalist financing starting around 1850. The size and expansion of lending can be estimated, among other things, by studying the bank inspectors' assessments of different banks over time. The archive material makes it possible to carefully follow and analyze the banks' activities over long periods of time. This includes each bank's assets, liabilities and credit portfolios. The development of the borrowing companies was thus closely followed.

In a first sub-study, I study the conditions in Gothenburg in particular, as a natural continuation of my previous studies in the area of credit, with trading houses at the forefront. Previously, trading houses and other informal actors had largely dealt with the granting of credit and the mediation of goods and other services. A second sub-study examines the importance of the domestic exchange rate for banks' credit expansion. A third sub-study examines the three largest and most important banks for Sweden's industrial development during the period, Svenska Handelsbanken Stockholms Enskilda Bank and Skandinaviska Kredit AB. A fourth sub-study analyzes the 1907 merger between Skandinaviska Kredit and Skånes Enskilda Bank.

Trenta, CristinaÖrebro UniversityThe new EU consensus on development: sustainability and the role of tax lawJurisprudence2018

Amount granted: SEK 858 500

In 2015, the UN adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This was a sign of change, making the upholding of human rights one of the core issues of sustainable development and pointing to taxes and other forms of revenue collection as a means of achieving these goals. A similar reassessment of the role of tax law can be found in the Joint Declaration on the New European Consensus on Development presented in 2017 by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission. The document also marks an important shift in the way the EU institutions frame the role of tax law and also more general public financing within the EU framework.

The aim of this research is to examine, in the light of the Lisbon Treaty and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, how the transition from the MG to the SDGs affects policy; to analyze how the SDGs shape the role of tax law in achieving sustainable development: to reflect on how the SDGs affect the rights of minors, and remaining gender issues as reflected in the different tax systems; to identify which tax measures could have a more positive impact in different problem areas and better support sustainable development models; to propose practical guidelines on how the EU should amend or implement regulations in this regard and to better achieve the SDGs.

Ruotsi, MikaelUppsala UniversityThe Swedish press and freedom of expression regulation - a sustainability analysisJurisprudence2018

Amount granted: SEK 205 333

There are two patterns of development that in recent decades have changed the conditions for the Swedish constitutional regulation of freedom of the press and freedom of expression. Firstly, technological development has meant that the way in which opinions are disseminated and consumed has undergone a minor revolution. A clear shift from traditional media to the internet is taking place at an accelerating rate. On the other hand, the impact of international law at national level has increased significantly, in particular through the growing international judicial cooperation based on the principle of mutual recognition.

My focus is primarily on the impact of international law, but the challenges of technological development are so great that they cannot be ignored. The Swedish Freedom of the Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression have been largely separate from the transformation of domestic law brought about by the impact of European law. In some respects, this seems reasonable. The principles on which the Swedish regulations are based constitute a clear constitutional core that cannot simply be waived with reference to international obligations.

However, developments show that the rules of the Constitution do not always give effect to the principles that constitute its justification. If the protection of rights is distributed inconsistently and in some cases does not even have an internal logic, is it really justified that the regulation prevents, for example, the rights protection of the European Convention on Human Rights from having an impact on the constitutionally protected area?

Mares, RaduRaoul Wallenberg Institute for Human Rights, Lund UniversityRWI library's collections for improved human rights research environmentJurisprudence2018

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

In today's climate of increasing questioning of human rights, solid, independent research in the field is needed more than ever. The Raoul Wallenberg Institute has long conducted some of Sweden's most solid research and education in human rights. In addition, in collaboration with Lund University, we run Sweden's oldest master's program on human rights.

The Raoul Wallenberg Institute's library is the leading library in Sweden and northern Europe in the field of human rights research. Thanks to a generous grant from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation, the library has been able to maintain an up-to-date, broad collection of literature, enabling advanced international research in human rights. The library serves as an important resource for researchers in the field, both from the Raoul Wallenberg Institute, from the surrounding area, including Lund and Malmö Universities, and as a national resource with users from all over Sweden. In addition, the library is widely used by foreign researchers whom the Institute collaborates with and supports in developing countries.

Mahmoudi, SaidStockholm UniversitySelf-defense in relation to "unwilling or unable" statesJurisprudence2018

Amount granted: 124 000 SEK

The prohibition of violence in Article 2 (4) of the UN Charter is today considered a cornerstone of international law. The prohibition is universal and has only two exceptions: the right of states to self-defence against armed attack by another state (Article 51) and with the authorization of the Security Council (Article 42).

A novel situation is when a non-state actor (e.g. a terrorist organization), operating in the territory of one country, directs armed attacks from that country against another country. When the 'host' country is unwilling or unable to prevent the attacks, it is not uncommon for the attacked state to invoke the 'unwillingness or inability' argument as a legal basis for using force in self-defense. Russia's use of force in Georgia in 2002, Uganda in Congo in 2003, Turkey in Iraq and Syria in 2015-2018 are some examples. The use of force is directed against a non-state actor, but leads to the violation of the territorial integrity of the 'host' country.

In two high-profile cases in 2004 and 2005, the ICJ ruled that the prohibition of violence in Article 2(4) remains in place and that the fight against international terrorism has not changed the legal situation. State practice shows the opposite. International law doctrine is divided on the issue. The purpose of this project is to examine the background and development of the concept of 'unwilling or unable states' and its status in contemporary international law. The ultimate aim of the study is to examine whether a new legal basis for the use of force in interstate relations may be emerging.

Göthlin, SaraStockholm UniversityRanking of claims within the same preferential categoryJurisprudence2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 760 000

Swedish companies finance their operations with a mixture of equity and debt. When several lenders have lent money to the same company, it is common for the lenders to enter into agreements between themselves about which claims are to be prioritized and which are to be subordinated. Such agreements, usually called "intercreditor agreements", have not yet been addressed in Swedish legislation, court practice or legal research. It is not clear how a bankruptcy administrator in the borrower's bankruptcy should act when faced with such agreements. At the same time, they are regularly entered into in larger financings.

While differentiation of risk through contractual ranking of claims is a given in corporate finance, the legal situation in Sweden is such that we lack tools to assess and enforce agreements in this area in accordance with the parties' intentions. Subordination as a phenomenon is also of great importance for financial institutions in relation to regulatory requirements.

The purpose of my work is to contribute to greater predictability regarding the conditions for ranking claims within the same preferential category. This would benefit legal certainty and predictability both in terms of the conditions for corporate financing and the compliance of financial institutions. The study will be carried out from each of the perspectives of claims law, insolvency law, comparative law and commercial law.

Dahlman, ChristianLund UniversityRobustness of forensic evidenceJurisprudence2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 076 000

The standard of proof in criminal cases states that the charge must be proven 'beyond reasonable doubt'. This standard of proof includes a requirement of 'robustness'. The robustness of the evidence means that the facts of the case have been sufficiently investigated. If the evidence is not robust, the prosecution must be dismissed.

With regard to forensic evidence (DNA, fingerprints, mobile phone data, etc.), there are two main reasons for lack of robustness: 'subjectivity' of the forensic method and 'insufficient reference data'.

It is important for legal certainty that courts correctly assess the robustness of forensic evidence. There are two types of misjudgments:

  • First, the court may overestimate the robustness. This can happen when the court takes the forensic results uncritically. For example, the court does not notice that the result is based on insufficient reference data. This can lead to the defendant being convicted even though the evidence does not meet the standard of proof.
  • Secondly, the court may underestimate the robustness. For example, the court may decide that a certain forensic result is completely worthless because the investigation has some elements of subjectivity. This may lead to the acquittal of the defendant even though the evidence is actually sufficient for a conviction.

The aim of the research project is to contribute to the development of a legally sound method for the assessment of robustness in forensic evidence.

Cejie, KatiaUppsala UniversityIncome taxes and social security contributions in cross-border situationsJurisprudence2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 067 000

Economic growth benefits from high international labor mobility. In order to make a decision to work abroad, you need to understand what it means for your economy. Taxes and charges and their impact on net income play an important role here. Not being able to foresee the consequences hampers labor market mobility and thus economic growth.

Countries levy taxes in different ways and for different purposes. There are international principles and established research on how different tax systems interact. The same applies to some extent to social security contributions. However, there is very little research on the combined effect of the two areas. A first review shows that the complexity is so great that not only employees and employers apply the regulations incorrectly, but also authorities. For example, some contributions may fall between systems, leading to double burdens for individuals, or governments may not collect the right taxes and contributions.

The aim of this project is to contribute to greater predictability (legal certainty) in cross-border situations by:
- identifying how workers moving across borders can be affected by, or take advantage of, the fact that taxes and charges are levied in different ways and for different purposes.
- proposing and analyzing solutions to address these problems at national and international level.
- build an international research network on these issues.

Brännström, LeilaLund UniversityThe Transformation of Property Protection: A Legal History and Theory StudyJurisprudence2018

Amount granted: SEK 665 000

The overall aim of the project is to take a holistic approach to how property rights and property protection have changed in Swedish law since the mid-1980s. The effects of the transnationalization of law and the development of biotechnology and information technology will be highlighted in particular. A first step in the project is to map these changes. The lines of development identified by the survey will then be analyzed on the basis of a number of influential theories of how property rights arise and why they should be protected. These theories are essentially normative but in the context of this project the theories will be used diagnostically to explore the legal developments.

The project's central research questions are: How have property rights and property protection changed in Sweden since the mid-1980s? How does this legal development relate to influential theories on how property rights arise and why they should be protected?

The project will be structured around three concrete and topical questions: 1) whether property rights include the future return of property, 2) the meaning and scope of Sami land rights, and 3) the ownership of personal data collected by applications such as apple watch and facebook. Each of these issues will be highlighted historically, discussed in relation to the development of technology and transnational law, and provide an entry point for the legal philosophical analysis of property rights and their protection.

Zamore, GustavStockholm UniversityBotulf of Gottröra and the hunt for heretics in the European peripheryOther2018

Amount granted: 108 375 SEK

Botulf of Gottröra (d. 1311) is, as far as we know, the only person executed for heresy in the Swedish Middle Ages. The only document that testifies to Botulf's fate is his death sentence issued by Archbishop Nils Kettilsson, but this text contains important information about the inquisition process and how a heretic was perceived in Sweden in the early 14th century. Although Botulf's case is well known among Swedish historians, there are only a few studies that analyze the source text in detail, and these are only available to a Swedish-speaking audience.

My project examines Botulf's death sentence based on the last decades of research on medieval heretic movements. In particular, I examine how the heretic Botulf is constructed in this text based on literary and rhetorical themes that existed in medieval antiheretical literature. I also show how the procedure was inspired by continental practices and in what respects it deviated from them. A comparison of Botulf's case with similar cases in the European periphery also demonstrates the links between heresy trials outside the areas where the Inquisition was mainly active. The article is accompanied by the source text in Latin with an English translation to make this unique event in Swedish history accessible to international researchers and students.

Whitling, FrederickGustaf VI Adolf as archaeologist and patron of cultureOther2018

Amount granted: 190 000 SEK

The project is a study of Gustaf VI Adolf (1882-1973, King of Sweden 1950-1973) as archaeologist, cultural patron and chairman of the board; it aims to provide a comprehensive and contextual picture of Gustaf VI Adolf's archaeological activities and interests, with a special focus on the late crown prince period, 1920-1950. The project has a historical as well as ideological profile and character, and is based throughout on previously unpublished archive material. It is expected to contribute to a deeper understanding of classical archaeology in the Mediterranean region and of Gustaf VI Adolf's role in Swedish ancient studies and in the history of Swedish science. The project analyzes national aspects of the extensive search for origins and identity after the turn of the last century, and for the first time draws a comprehensive picture of the emergence of Nordic, Classical and East Asian archaeological projects under Swedish auspices in the first half of the 20th century, by exploring Gustaf VI Adolf's hitherto largely unexplored role in the history of Swedish science as an initiator, organizer and common denominator in a large number of simultaneous decision-making networks. The project also places earlier archaeological research tasks and results in their contemporary contexts and respective intellectual history contexts, and demonstrates change over time and the impact on prevailing social structures.

by Ehrenheim, JacobGrönsöö CastleEveryday life on GrönsööOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

The idea of the 2019 book and exhibition is to highlight the everyday, unglamorous life on Grönsööö, as it was lived behind the facades. The theme naturally includes everything from the careful care and maintenance of the house and furnishings to clothing and personal hygiene. These perspectives on high society environments are quite rare, so it is important to publish an issue in the series entitled "Everyday life on Grönsööö", which is estimated to comprise about 100 pages, based on Carl Gustaf von Ehrenheim's detailed memories, relevant material in the Grönsöö archive, and records in the Nordic Museum's archive.

Trossholmen, NinniEthnological Association of West SwedenPartille mansion through the ages - cultural-historical considerationsOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

My interest in Partille and its mansion was awakened during my several years of work with the district of Utby, which until 1928 belonged to Partille before it was incorporated into Gothenburg. While working on Utby, many people and events that could be directly linked to Partille Manor appeared, which increased my curiosity about the building and its history. While other mansions in western Sweden appear to be fairly well documented, Partille Manor does not seem to have attracted the same attention.

The emergence and development of the manor over time and not least the varying ownership conditions, which in turn may have left their mark on the design of the building, its inherent atmosphere and life in the surrounding community, seems to be a fascinating story and very important to document and tell for posterity.

Through our research, my colleague Dr. Eva Wolf and I intend to shed light on the unique cultural-historical character of Partille Manor.

Strannegård, ClaesChalmers University of TechnologyFrom special to general artificial intelligenceOther2018

Amount granted: 256 000 SEK

Today there are AI programs that can drive a car, beat the world go champion and write summaries of medical research papers. There are also industrial robots that can work very efficiently in precisely designed environments. These successes are largely due to the relatively new technology of deep learning, which is based on artificial nervous systems.

Despite many impressive advances, deep learning and current AI techniques have major limitations. Problems that are simple for humans are often impossible for today's AI programs. For example, there are no household robots today that can help with dishes, laundry and cleaning in our homes. Building such robots requires a radical increase in the adaptability of AI systems. One difficulty in this context is that deep learning generally uses fixed architectures that must be tailored by programmers for each individual application. In this way, severe limitations are built into the systems from the start.

In projects, we start from the unique ability of animals to adapt to different environments. Our approach is to mimic a number of fundamental mechanisms for how animals learn and make decisions. In particular, we mimic the malleability of natural nervous systems, resulting in a dynamic architecture that constantly adapts to new situations. The project is a collaboration between researchers in cognitive science, dynamical systems and biology from Chalmers, Harvard University (USA) and Deakin University (Australia).

Quinlan, MeghanUppsala UniversityPolitical songs in France 1226-1270Other2018

Amount granted: 247 500 SEK

Louis IX of France (reigned 1226-1270) is one of France's most idealized kings, a position confirmed by his canonization in 1297. Nevertheless, his reign was affected by controversies and challenges from the nobility, which gave rise, among other things, to political songs (serventois) preserved in songbooks from the end of the 12th century. These serventois were created from existing trouvères (the northern French equivalent of the troubadours in the south) and not only used the original melodies, but also quote and allude to important parts of the original text of the melody in a way that transforms the court songs into political rhetoric.

My project examines these political songs during the reign of Louis IX, 1226-1270. During this time, the kingdom was at times ruled by the queen mother Blanche de Castile while the king was still a minor and later when he was on crusade. Therefore, several songs are aimed at Blanche and her policies. Both Louis and Blanche implemented a number of controversial centralizing reforms that undermined the nobility. The nobles responded by, among other things, creating satirical songs that attacked the king and his advisors, portraying Blanche as a gender hybrid and a powerful ruler who challenged the masculinity and traditional values of the nobility.

Pihlgren, VictoriaLinköping UniversityFarriers and veterinarians in Swedish regiments in the 19th centuryOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 320 000

The application concerns a historical research project on the activities of regimental farriers and veterinarians in 19th century Sweden. Horses were a central part of the 19th century infrastructure, not least in the military, before mechanization finally took over in society. The horse was a resource that to a large extent provided the conditions for many activities, but has nevertheless been largely forgotten in historiography. The first trained veterinarians in Sweden were often employed by regiments and could also serve as farriers, but we do not know enough in detail about their activities. At the beginning of the 19th century, these professions were not entirely distinct from each other. The aim is to deepen the picture of how the military activities shaped the development of the farrier and veterinary professions and also how the interaction with the surrounding civilian society worked, including the relationship with the medical profession. The 19th century saw profound social, technological and scientific (medical) changes in society. Military activities still permeated society to a large extent, both at local and national level. The research project therefore contributes to linking military history with cultural and medical history. This knowledge is needed, partly to understand how a particular activity, its practice and specific needs, shape the development of knowledge and society, and partly to be able to reconstruct and understand how boundaries and interfaces between professions and different disciplines arise.

Parker, KerstinThe Jews in Linnaeus CityOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

During the period 1850-1914, a Jewish group immigrated to Gothenburg from Russia and settled in Linnaeus City. The Russian Jews were fleeing pogroms, anti-Semitism, poverty, poor living conditions and military service. Because they were so poor, many of them had to stay in Gothenburg to earn the money for the ticket and some of them stayed.

The group differed from the Swedish Jews who had immigrated around a century earlier. They were poor, orthodox, spoke Yiddish and had a colorful folklore culture. Initially, many settled in Haga and rented beds. Later, when their financial situation improved, they moved to the stone houses on Linnégatan, Olivedalsgatan and other addresses. Many of them also continued with the work they had done in Russia, i.e. as craftsmen and farm traders. Eventually they were able to open shops and businesses, some of which became successful.

The Russian immigrants left their mark on the neighborhood. They built an Orthodox synagogue, known as a minyan, which was located at Andra Långgatan 6 for a long time. There was also a kosher shop, a bakery, several Jewish shops and associations, and not least an amateur theater group that put on plays in Yiddish. The Russian Jews left their mark on the neighborhood.

Despite the harshness of life in Russia, culture flourished. It was here that Yiddish writers, Isaac B Singer and Marc Chagall had their roots and brought Russian Jewish culture to the West.

Olsson, AgnetaVästra Frölunda pastorateStyrsö Chamber SoloistsOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

To support new activities in the field of folk and world music, particularly aimed at new audiences.

Olsen, KimUniversity of GothenburgThe bailiffs, the networks and the collection institutionOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 124 667

In 1693, shortly before his death, the then Governor-General Rutger von Ascheberg wrote an account of his time as Governor-General of Scania (1680-1693) and the efforts of his predecessors (1658-1679) in the same post. Ascheberg pointed out that the time before him, i.e. the first period under Swedish rule after the Peace of Roskilde in 1658, when Scania was transferred to Sweden from Denmark, had been fraught with hardship when the governor-general's office was to be established in Scania. This changed when Ascheberg took over as governor-general, and by the time he wrote his report, the governor-general's office had already been successfully established. In plain language, this meant that Scania had been provided with a fully functioning Swedish administration and the traces of the previous Danish administration had been virtually swept away. In a contemporary European perspective, this was something quite unique, as the norm was that newly conquered areas kept large parts of their administration intact and in cases where attempts were made to adapt the administration, it took a long time and many compromises had to be made along the way. The success in Skåne thus needs to be explained. Previous research has clarified Skåne's formal Swedification, but little is known about how it happened in practice. The following doctoral project aims to do this through a case study focusing on the work of the bailiffs - strategies and opportunities - to introduce and establish a Swedish tax system in Skåne 1658-1700, the very foundation of other state activities.

Nyberg, KlasStockholm UniversityElsa Gullberg - textile pioneerOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The book Elsa Gullberg - Textile Pioneer is probably Dr. Elisabet Stavenow-Hidemark's last book. Gullberg was a family friend and a guest at the many parties for artists, museum people and architects held in the Stavenow home. Elisabet got to know Elsa's children and they met regularly for many years. During Gullberg's last active period, Elisabeth made visits and took the opportunity to collect material.

Elsa Gullberg (1886-1949) studied at the Technical School and worked at the Association for Swedish Handicrafts. She spent her money on study trips in Europe, and in 1913 she visited Germany with the Deutscher Werkbund in Hellerau. There she came into contact with the radical aesthetic ideas of creating industrial goods of the same quality as handmade ones. In 1917 she was hired by the Svenska Slöjdföreningen to put these ideas into practice. She was appointed head of Förmedlingsbyrån, the Slöjdförening's tool for a 'more beautiful everyday product' for the people. Together with Erik Wettergren, she brought Edward Hald to Rörstrand's porcelain factory, Wilhelm Kåge to Gustafsberg's porcelain factory, Edvin Ollers to Kosta Glassworks and Arhur Percy to Gefle's porcelain factory. For the Kåberg wallpaper factory, she arranged for Carl Malmsten, Gunnar Asplund and Uno Åhrén to make designs. In 1927, Elsa Gullberg founded Sweden's first modern interior design company. The book is based on an extensive archive, textile samples donated to the National Museum by her daughter Medann G. The interior design archive is stored in the National Archives.

Nyberg, GudrunCrafts & Design - One hundred years in GothenburgOther2018

Amount granted: 136 000 SEK

In preparation for Gothenburg's 400th anniversary in 2021, a series of nine volumes will be published, depicting the city's development over the last hundred years. They cover Medicine, Fiction, Learning & Education, Art, Cityscape, Sports, Crafts & Design, Small Industries and the Stage. The book on arts and crafts begins with an overview of the Röhsska Museum's changing policy on collecting and exhibitions during the period. In addition, six art historians discuss crafts at the 1923 Jubilee Exhibition in Gothenburg, the home furnishing company Boet, the development of jewelry art, fashion exhibitions at the Röhsska Museum, textile art and crafts collectives. The book will be richly illustrated in color.

Norrhem, SvanteLund UniversityAlliance partner or subject? Sweden and French subsidies 1630-1800Other2018

Amount granted: SEK 148 000

The manuscript deals with French subsidies to Sweden in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is known that Sweden received subsidies from France during parts of the 17th and 18th centuries, but most people do not know that it was 89 out of a total of 166 years from 1631 to 1796. The present study deals with the reasons why France during the period 1631-1796 repeatedly and for long periods gave Sweden subsidies, and the reasons why Sweden received them. Furthermore, the manuscript deals in detail with the effects of the French-Swedish subsidy relationship in Sweden in particular. Subsidies were part of the early modern period's way of creating alliances and therefore the French-Swedish relationship is placed in a larger international perspective where alliances with Sweden became part of a French great power strategy.

Nordqvist, BengtArchaeology sacrifice site FinnestorpTime of gold and Finnestorp sacrifice siteOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 495 900

During 2000-2012, research investigations were carried out at the Finnestorp sacrifice site. A site that turns out to contain a find material that belongs to the category - "the finest and most exquisite objects from Sweden's pre-Christian era" and it belongs to one of the more important remains from Nordic prehistory. At Offerplats Finnestorp, warrior after warrior has been sacrificed along with their battle stallions and valuable weapons. These powerful men whose arsenal consisted of magnificent gilded swords and shiny gold horse equipment. Magnificent objects of royal value, made by the most skilled craftsmen in Europe at the time. The ongoing research work includes international comparisons and publication of the research work in the form of a major scientific book and a popular science book.

The metallurgical analysis shows that the objects were made by highly skilled smiths. Lead isotope analysis shows that the copper ores used can be traced to the north of England.

Two book volumes on Finnestorp will be completed in 2018. These are the magnum opus (I and II) - "Fynden i fokus" (section horse equipment) and - a "Coffee Table Book". The third publication presents the results of the investigation of the gold neck ring from Bragnum, the gold neck collar from Möne, and several side projects. The upcoming isotope analyses concern studies of horse and human teeth. The purpose of these analyses is to shed light on the important question of provenance and geographical mobility.

Nilsson, IsabellaRoyal Academy for the Liberal ArtsPublication of the 1806 Library of the Academy of Fine ArtsOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 300 000

Thanks to generous grants from the Söderberg Foundations in 2001 and 2007, the internationally important art and architecture library at the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts was preserved and housed in the room furnished by member Åke Axelsson. The collection has a unique core of study and teaching material from the 18th and early 19th centuries, and the 1806 library contains around 1200 books of considerable value.

An important cataloging of the collection is currently being completed, which has been made possible by support from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation. The fact that this cataloging can then be the subject of a publication also increases our country's reputation in international research, in cultural history with its various branches of art, learning and book history, but also in libraries, antiquarian bookshops and auction houses worldwide. The publication would offer an overview of a representative selection of the more important older art and architecture literature that contemporary databases can never provide. The printed publication of around 600 pages will be illustrated with beautiful photographs and will begin with a short text on the history of the Academy and the collection.

Neuding Skoog, MartinThe National Defence CollegeMilitary entrepreneurs in 16th century SwedenOther2018

Amount granted: 465 000 SEK

This research project studies mercenaries as economic actors in the Baltic Sea region's early modern recruitment market. In recent years, the study of military entrepreneurs has received considerable international attention. The aim of the research is to study the market with a focus on the Scottish, English, German, Livonian and Dutch mercenaries who served the Swedish crown during this period.

The role of military contractors in the Baltic Sea region is a relatively unresolved issue. The study examines the contracts, service conditions and profit margins of military contractors, their careers, social conditions and geographical mobility, the function of recruitment agents and the role of international political networks in the procurement of soldiers during the many wars of the period.

The overall objective is to try to move away from the national perspective that has long dominated military history research. Instead, I want to highlight the function and importance of the international military market for the expansive foreign policy in the east, which the Swedish crown initiated during this period. The study generates new knowledge about geographical and social mobility, about economic and fiscal problems, and about changing political networks in the Baltic Sea region. The results also shed light on the dynamics of the older Swedish state formation process, with the potential to redefine the usual picture of Sweden's path to great power.

Maassen, BarbroDiary of an Ingarö farmer, 1860-1914Other2018

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

In the diary, we follow Axel Wennberg in his daily work, meet the girls he loved, read about dancing and card games, about the happiness of his young children, about illness, death, grief and worry. He went to Stockholm to sell herring, medicinal plants and agricultural products and to make his own purchases. He rowed, sailed, skated and walked. He traveled by steamboat all or part of the way, by horse and cart on bad roads, and by sled across ice-covered bays. The steamboats brought summer guests to the farm. As director of the poorhouse and foster father, he lets us meet the vulnerability of many people. It was a time of migration and emigration. A time of great change, but where most things at home on the island remained the same. The notes give the reader fragments of life on Ingarö. Wennberg wrote for his own sake, to give structure to his everyday work and for his desire to tell stories. Based on the notes, other sources, literature and contacts, I have created a context and give the reader a picture of people's everyday life and living conditions in a Stockholm archipelago during the years 1860-1914, a time of great social change. Dr. Hedvig Schönbäck writes "the manuscript deserves to be a book because it is a story not only about the individuals but also about a Sweden that no longer exists".

Ljungström, VivekaResearch and ProgressPublication of the journal Forskning & Framsteg in 2019Other2018

Amount granted: 49 280 SEK

The project concerns the publication of the journal Forskning & Framsteg in 2019. The purpose of the journal is to report on research and research results and the role of research in society. The topics and research results that are highlighted should primarily be of interest to society. Forskning & Framsteg should operate at the forefront of knowledge, be general education, deserve high credibility and be made with the reader in focus.

Lagerkvist, CajsaMölndal Municipality/Mölndal City MuseumTime travel 3: Fylgia for the futureOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 520 000

In the fall of 2011, the Mölndal City Museum launched the digital adventure game Fylgja, based on the project Tidsresan, with support from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation. The aim of the game was to bring ancient worlds to life through experience-based learning. The player is taken on an adventure in the Bronze and Iron Ages. The starting point of the story is two existing archaeological sites and all the material in the game is based on solid research work, where museums, archaeologists and experts from all over the Nordic region have contributed their expertise and material.

The game was developed for Mac and PC computers and has been widely used in schools since its launch. Fylgia continues to attract an audience and is requested by schools as well as other museums in the country. However, technological developments have meant that the game is no longer adapted to either tablets or touchscreens, so its use is slowly declining. Therefore, the game now needs to be translated into the tools used today through reprogramming. Fylgia will then be available for download as an app in the App-Store. The purpose of the project Tidsresan 3: Fylgia for the future is thus to secure the solid work that has been done in the Tidsresan project and make the Fylgia game ready to accompany the digital journey for several years to come.

Kvicklund, KarinTjolöholm CastleThe book about Tjolöholm CastleOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 400 000

The purpose of the project is to clarify and make accessible the significance and special position of Tjolöholm Castle in Swedish architectural and cultural history through in-depth texts and illustrations compiled in book form. The Tjolöholm estate is a remarkable facility created with clear visions and artistic goals, rooted in an exciting art history. In 1898-1904, the castle and its associated workers' village and church were built as a work of art based on the trends of the time: Arts and Crafts, National Romanticism and the Aesthetic Movement. Today it is a well-visited and growing destination with a high ambition to convey its unique cultural history. The facility is unique in Sweden and attracts international interest. To deepen and broaden the knowledge of the Arts and Crafts movement's impact in Sweden and the uniqueness of Tjolöholm Castle, a book should be compiled about Tjolöholm. The intended author is Elisabeth Svalin Gunnarsson, a well-known writer/author in the field. The ambition is to investigate Tjolöholm from several perspectives: architectural, cultural history, art history of the garden and interiors, and personal history of both the lords and servants. Within these areas, the author highlights Tjolöholm with the help of in-depth discussions and interviews with researchers and relevant people. The book is also intended for an international audience through a parallel English text.

Klackenberg, DayThe Swedish History DaysThe Swedish History Days 2019Other2018

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The Swedish History Days is a non-profit organization with the purpose of creating annual opportunities for contacts between representatives of historical research, practitioners in the museum world and archive institutions, history teachers and a public interested in history. The purpose of the association is to, in collaboration with member organizations and other co-organizers, be responsible for the program activities within the framework of the history days and develop these into an annual opportunity for contacts and thus increase the historical knowledge of as many groups in society as possible. The ambition is therefore to present historical subjects and historical research in a way that is at a popular science level but also accessible to participants without specialist training.

For many history teachers, the History Days have become the main, even the only, opportunity for continuing education, especially in terms of reconnecting with the research community, and for historians, this forum provides a unique and widely appreciated opportunity to make new research results available. Several of the lectures are published in printed form.

Johnny, HagbergSkara Stiftshistoriska SällskapThe Old Swedish Legend. Edition and translationOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

With the edition of the Old Swedish Legend, in translation and with commentary, this important medieval work is published for the first time in its complete form. The text is a cornerstone in our knowledge and understanding of the early Swedish language and writing. It is also an early work of church history that is important both in Sweden and internationally.

That one of our country's foremost connoisseurs of the early Swedish language, Professor Per-Axel Wiktorsson, has now translated this large and important work can be considered a significant scientific achievement. It is published in four solid volumes totaling 1600 pages by the Diocesan Historical Society of Skara. In this way, a medieval text will become possible to study and get to know for a wider public.

Johansson, AndersMalcolm Munthe - myths and mysteries of the Anglo-Swedish war heroOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Hell, Ann-CharlotteKungl. Musical AcademiesPublication of works by Wilhelm Stenhammar in source-critical note editionsOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The pianist and conductor Wilhelm Stenhammar (1871-1927) is one of Sweden's foremost composers of all time. He was also one of the driving forces behind the development of 20th century modern music in Sweden, not least in Gothenburg, where he became chief conductor of the Gothenburg Orchestra Society in 1907.

His works for orchestra, his chamber music, his songs and his piano works are of the highest international standard and belong to the very best of the Swedish musical heritage. Despite his high artistic level, large parts of his musical creation are unknown territory for most people. This is largely due to the fact that his music can be difficult to obtain, and in many cases is only available in autographs. Several of his most important works still exist only in manuscript or in older - not always reliable - editions of sheet music. It is therefore extremely important to make these treasures from our Swedish musical heritage available and bring them to life in a professional and modern way.

The promotion of Wilhelm Stenhammar's music through source-critical sheet music editions will not only benefit Swedish music at home and internationally, it will also put Gothenburg even more clearly on the map as a cultural city of rank.

Günther, StefanMölndal municipality/Gunnebo castleFurnishing the garden cave in the Gunnebo orangeryOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 300 000

Gunnebo Castle was built in 1782-1796 for the merchant John Hall to the designs of Gothenburg city architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg. It was one of Sweden's most lavish mansions with surrounding gardens and pavilions at the end of the 18th century, but the estate fell into disrepair after a bankruptcy in 1807. The last surrounding buildings disappeared in 1833, beginning a long period of decay. Carlberg's surviving drawings have enabled parts of Gunnebo to be recreated throughout the 20th century and into the present day. In 1996, the project "Gunnebo back to the 18th century", now more than two decades long, was launched and since then the wings, servants' quarters, greenhouses, kitchen gardens, trellis, balustrades and urns in the French garden and the castle's façade have been reconstructed.

The most ambitious reconstruction, the recreation of the Gunnebo Orangery, started in 2013 and is expected to be completed in 2020. The orangery was the main park pavilion, a building for both utility and pleasure. In the southern wing with two corner pavilions, exotic plants were overwintered. The western wing contained lavish parlors with an ornate portico facing the park and a garden grotto in the northern pavilion.

Preserved drawings show that the cave's brickwork and flat dome (completed in 2015) will be covered with stucco in the form of dripstone, rocailles and a mixture of minerals, fossils, shells, glass and reliefs. Gunnebo Palace and Gardens is now recreating the interior of the orangery's garden cave.

Fischer, PeterUniversity of Gothenburg, Friends of the Swedish Cyprus ExpeditionThe Söderberge expedition: the economic center of a Bronze Age cityOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 1 191 000

The 2010-2018 South Mountain Expedition excavations have been carried out at Hala Sultan Tekke in Cyprus, which with a size of 50 hectares constituted one of the largest Bronze Age cities in the Mediterranean. The results of the excavations are now published in book form (Åströms förlag, Uppsala, 2018). The findings have attracted considerable international interest (TV, radio and newspapers). Geophysical exploration in 2017-2018 led to the discovery of the largest continuous city block to date (at least 120x100 m): a rectangular street system leading to the nearby harbor connects massive stone buildings. Their size suggests that they served a function as administrative complexes. Test excavations in 2018 exposed a bathroom with an advanced hydrological structure and a 20 m long corridor with a large number of 1-2 m high ceramic vessels for olive oil, wine and water. Purple paint, one of the most expensive products of the time, was also stored there. The findings suggest that the economic heart of the city has been found. Trade was the backbone of the city's economy, based on locally produced copper and purple cloth and access to the most protected port in Cyprus. Imports point to trade with Egypt, the Levant, Anatolia, Greece/Crete, Italy and Central and Northern Europe in the period 1600-1100 BC. Cypriot copper was found in Sweden and Denmark, for example, during the Bronze Age. The expedition now plans to uncover some of the buildings to study the city's economic system and trade with other cultures.

Bortolozzi, AnnaNational MuseumCatalog of the Italian architectural drawings in the Cronstedt collectionOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

The purpose of the application is a scholarly catalog of 180 Italian architectural drawings from c. 1575-1620 previously owned by the architect Carl Johan Cronstedt (1707-1777). The catalog presents new proposals for identification and attribution based on current research and careful examination of the material properties of the drawings. The publication will contribute significantly to the knowledge of architecture in Rome around 1600. The first section (110 issues) documents ancient Roman buildings (the Pantheon, the temples of the Roman Forum, the Marcellus Theater, the Triumphal Arch of Constantine and others) as well as works by the most famous architects of the modern Renaissance, such as Bramante and Michelangelo. The second main group of the catalog consists of 70 original projects by Roman architects, including Carlo Maderno and Francesco da Volterra, dated around 1590-1620. These are projects for churches, palaces, gardens, fountains and more, which constitute almost completely unknown sources of Roman architecture. The intention is to publish the volume in 2019 with the German publishing house Hatje Cantz, with which Nationalmuseum has established a collaboration on research publications for some years.

Borgehammar, StephanFrontside Chamber Music AssociationFrontside - Gothenburg International Chamber Music FestivalOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Björk Lindahl, MajaGothenburg City MuseumCatalogue for an exhibition on fashion from a cultural and historical perspectiveOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 205 000

The City Museum's warehouse holds a treasure in the form of a very extensive collection of clothes. Rarities from the 17th century are interspersed with dozens of items such as bodices and well-worn v-jeans. The sensitivity of the textiles to light, climate and wear makes the collection very demanding to exhibit.

The museum is now investing heavily in an upcoming exhibition and catalog on the theme of historical fashion. By following fashion from 1850 to 1970, we can show a collective history. On an individual level, it has gradually given us greater freedom to express ourselves on our own terms through our clothes. We move from the 1850s industrialization and migration from the countryside to Gothenburg, and on to the 20th century's continuing tug-of-war between tradition and modernity. The catalog and exhibition will explore the link between fashion and the difference in living space that people from different parts of society have had.

The catalogue plays an important role in the documentation of the exhibited objects, especially after the end of the exhibition, when the objects are made available for research purposes and a larger audience for a longer period of time. Supporting texts are written by the museum's experts and the texts are edited in a popular science style to reach a wide audience. High-quality photography and printing are essential for this type of image-based product.

Bjerrhede, StaffanKållereds hembygdsföreningKållereds hembygdsarkivOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

To enable local and genealogical research based on Kållered parish, Mölndal, the newly built archive will now be furnished with archive shelves. In the homestead Långåker, an archive of about 40 square meters has been built to accommodate the association's current collections and also for future archive documents. The main part of the archive consists of farm documents and farm monographs arranged by Karl Bjernerstad through a grant from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation. A second grant was awarded to Staffan Bjerrhede, who organized the large archive from the Sagered farm and researched its connection to the East India Company in Gothenburg. The association's approximately 4000 photos will also be added to this. Thereafter, the archive can be kept open for research by local and genealogical researchers and hopefully by others interested in history.

Bergman, LarsRiksföreningen SverigekontaktCensored letters of the Carolinian prisonersOther2018

Amount granted: 449 000 SEK

After the Swedish defeats in 1709 in what is now Ukraine, 23 000 Carolinians were taken into Russian captivity. They ended up in various parts of Russia, including Siberia. Many were well educated and were needed for various tasks. They organized building projects and founded schools that also attracted Russian students from leading families. The Swedes were generally appreciated. Many went into hiding after the end of the peace, while others remained voluntarily. The vast majority, however, were constantly longing for home. Some fled, many died of starvation and hardship.

The Carolinians' life in captivity is described in diaries and letters, some of which have been published. However, several letters never reached their addressees in Sweden or Russia because they were caught up in the censorship. But many were archived, and these can now be studied after the Russian archives were opened in the 1990s.

The project was carried out with financial support from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation in 2015, 2017 and 2018. Previously unknown letters have been located in Russian archives, copied and digitized. Scientific analysis is ongoing. More letters than expected have been found. These are of a state law and national policy nature or purely private. They are written in Swedish and German, some in French or Latin. Since their content was previously unknown, they can be expected to shed new light on the conditions at the time. After the peace of 1721, a new Sweden was emerging. The letters were written during a crucial period of change.

Aspeborg, HåkanLund UniversityThe emergence of a central place - actors, settlements and landscape around UppåkraOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 440 000

Uppåkra is a unique Iron Age site. It is Sweden's largest settlement from the period and has existed for about 1000 years. In Uppåkra, an enormous amount of finds have been found and with great variety. These include outstanding exclusive finds of precious metal, glass and other materials. The finds are partly made on the site but also come from the surrounding area, neighboring regions and the continent. The site has been a political and religious center of the highest order. It was the residence of a chieftain or king. Why does this site emerge in the century before Christ and how did it persist throughout the turbulent Iron Age? These are the questions I will try to answer. I will do so by studying Iron Age settlements in the vicinity of Uppåkra. The people on these farms and villages should have been influenced and interacted economically and socially with the rulers of Uppåkra. My thesis is that these farms are an important part of the background to the existence of Uppåkra.

Andersson, StigA history of health care from a primary care perspective with Värmland as an exampleOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The major epidemics and common diseases are described. For most of history, academic doctors served only the elite. When ordinary people fell ill, they turned to local healers and midwives or to itinerant clerks, barbers and medicine men. In the 18th century, priests were made responsible for the health of the population. Until the end of the 19th century, doctors and midwives worked in patients' homes. Hospitals and clinics served mainly as places of detention. From the turn of the 20th century onwards, modern, specialized hospitals emerged. During the 19th century, a number of biomedical discoveries were made and new examination methods were developed. The nursing profession was established and midwives were employed across the country. A lively debate on sexuality, prostitution, abortion and contraception took off and reached its peak in the following century. The great fight against tuberculosis in the 20th century is given a lot of attention. The discovery of sulfa, penicillin and insulin and the development of drugs for cardiovascular diseases are described, as is the plight of the mentally handicapped and the mentally ill. The role of women in the predominantly patriarchal history of health care is highlighted. A number of strong players among midwives, early female doctors and nurses are presented.The final part describes the emergence of contemporary primary care with its opportunities and challenges. It also presents the criticism that modern medicine has been subjected to.

Ahlbom, KatinkaThe Royal LibraryGesta Danorum with notes by Olaus and Johannes MagnusOther2018

Amount granted: SEK 480 000

Churchman Olaus Magnus' handwritten account of the Stockholm bloodbath has been found in a unique and previously unknown copy of the Danish chronicle Gesta danorum. The Gesta danorum ('The exploits of the Danes') was written by the historian Saxo Grammaticus, who worked in Denmark in the 12th century. The work itself is one of the most important sources of early Danish and Scandinavian history, but the copy of the first edition from 1514 acquired by KB is also of great importance for Sweden. It was used by the brothers Olaus and Johannes Magnus, who later published their own important works on Swedish history.

Extensive marginal notes in Latin reveal which parts of the Gesta danorum were of particular interest to the two history-writing brothers. Even more remarkably, the book contains Olaus Magnus's handwritten account of the Stockholm bloodbath of 1520 - probably one of the earliest sources on the event. It can be related to a similar passage in his great work 'History of the Nordic Peoples'. Moreover, both Olaus and his brother John, who published the 'History of all the kings of the Goths and Swedes', frequently refer to Saxo Grammaticus in their works. In 1519, their working copy was donated to the Birgitta House in Rome. Subsequently, the book ended up in a Carthusian monastery in Avignon. During the French Revolution, the monastery library was seized, and the volume probably hit the book market in the mid-19th century.

Zierath, JuleenKarolinska InstituteIdentification of metabolically important factors secreted by muscles during exerciseMedicine2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a strong resistance to the hormone insulin in the body's tissues and a reduced production of insulin in the pancreas. Exercise affects the muscles, increasing insulin sensitivity and preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes. However, exercise has effects on almost every organ in the body through the need to adapt them to the increased mechanical, metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of increased body work. Skeletal muscles are known to secrete specific proteins, called myokines, to communicate this to other organs including the adipose tissue. This project focuses on systematically identifying factors that are secreted by muscles during exercise and that are important for increased metabolism in the body. These factors can be proteins but also other substances such as various metabolites. By combining cellular models of exercise with organ models (intact muscles) and with serum from humans (both healthy and type 2 diabetes patients) who have undergone short exercise sessions, we will be able to identify factors that are important in humans and in type 2 diabetes. Ultimately, these factors may form the basis for new biomarkers of response to exercise and new treatments for type 2 diabetes.

Wahlgren, MatsKarolinska InstituteUnknown epitopes and cause of diseaseMedicine2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Here we propose to create an intelligent set of randomly selected "disease structures" (peptides) to identify mainly tertiary and quaternary epitopes seen by the human immune system. The binding of immunoglobulins to peptides depends on its shape and charge, not the amino acid sequence, which likely allows us to also detect unknown antigenic carbohydrates and lipids. We have recently studied randomly generated peptides in silico for theoretical antigenicity based on previously identified B-cell epitopes. This was done by creating a new mathematical formula that applies the "Markov" and "Yen's K-shortest path" algorithms We can thus screen and rank an "infinite" number of peptides for theoretical reactivity but have started with a subset (10-6). In the first round we have studied 172,943 synthetic peptides for practical reasons as they fit on an array grid. In preliminary experiments, we have screened human sera from patients with 'discrete and defined' neurological disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and identified novel and uniquely reactive sequences. We now propose to develop diagnostic assays to study these and other diseases where the causes are unknown together with experts in the field. In later stages, this should lead to an increasing understanding of the origin and prevention of the diseases.

Pekny, MilosUniversity of GothenburgAstrocytes - a new target for CNS regeneration in stroke and ALSMedicine2017

Amount granted: SEK 2 300 000

During human ageing and in diseases and injuries affecting the brain and spinal cord, such as stroke and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), cells in the brain and spinal cord die, leading to disability. We have found that astrocytes are key to slowing or even reversing this process. When neurons are damaged as a result of disease, astrocytes are activated and focus on minimizing and limiting the damage, especially in the acute phase after a brain injury. However, highly activated astrocytes, which form a scar of cells, can prevent the return of function in the long term by, among other things, inhibiting the formation of new connections between neurons. In transgenic mice, we have now managed to avoid harmful scarring and thus new connections have been formed between the remaining cells. The goal of this project is to pharmacologically control astrocyte activation and thus improve recovery after stroke. In preliminary studies, we have thus been able to slow down the course of the disease in mice with ALS. Increased knowledge of astrocyte activation and pharmacological control of their function offers great opportunities to develop new treatments for stroke and for neurodegenerative diseases.

Mahlapuu, MargitUniversity of GothenburgMolecular mechanisms and new treatment strategies for type 2 diabetesMedicine2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing dramatically and T2D has become one of the major global health threats. Intensive research over the last decade has shown that ectopic lipid storage outside the adipose tissue, particularly in the liver and skeletal muscle, actively contributes to the development of insulin resistance, which in turn leads to T2D. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control the storage of ectopic fat is therefore of paramount importance in order to find novel approaches that

effectively prevent the occurrence, as well as improve the treatment, of T2D.

Our latest research in extensive patient material, human cells and unique animal models has shown that the kinase STK25 is a new key regulator of lipid metabolism. Our studies show that STK25 binds to lipid droplets inside the liver cell and controls lipid accumulation and inflammation in the liver, and regulates the body's insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, we have identified selective and potent pharmacological inhibitors of STK25, which could potentially lead to a new unique treatment for T2D.

The aim of the project is to map the molecular mechanisms that regulate lipid storage and the development of insulin resistance in the liver, focusing on STK25. The study contributes to the understanding of the complex and integrated signaling pathways that regulate insulin sensitivity and the changes that lead to T2D. The project may also form the basis for the development of new treatments for T2D and related metabolic diseases, based on pharmacological inhibitors of STK25.

Ingelsson, MartinUppsala UniversityDevelopment of antibody-based immunotherapy for Parkinson's diseaseMedicine2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 487 000

In Parkinson's disease, alpha-synuclein accumulates in brain neurons and medium-sized forms of this protein, known as oligomers, are particularly harmful. We have produced antibodies against oligomers and shown in a mouse model that, after injection into the peritoneal cavity, these can be transported to the brain and reduce the amount of harmful alpha-synuclein and also reduce the risk of severe late motor disorders.

In one study, we have shown that mice show subtle gait and behavioral disturbances as early as two to four months of age. In an ongoing study, we are therefore investigating whether these early symptoms can also be prevented with antibodies. The treatment will be completed in January 2018, followed by a series of brain tissue analyses.

In addition to this study, we are mapping another mouse model and investigating whether we can get even better effects by using a harmless virus that allows antibodies to form directly in the neurons. Preliminary data suggests that treated mice get high levels of antibodies in the neurons and we are now planning a larger study to see if this strategy can also reduce pathology and symptoms in the mice.

This research program represents important steps in the development of new treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease. We believe the prospects are realistic. Immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease is being tested clinically, including with an antibody developed by the research group.

The project is led by Professor Martin Ingelsson and will be carried out at Uppsala University in 2017-2019.

Hökfelt, TomasKarolinska InstituteBrain's galanin and substance P systems are altered in depression: Opening for new treatmentMedicine2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Depression is a life-threatening (suicide), common and costly disease (affecting 300 million people worldwide, costing a staggering €380 billion in the EU). Unfortunately, current treatments such as Prozac do not help in many cases. We want to develop new drugs based on neuropeptide antagonists by studying the postmortem brains of people suffering from depression. There are >100 neuropeptides with even more receptors (the same type as many current drugs). The focus is on the neuropeptides galanin and substance P, both of which play a role in depression-like behavior in laboratory animals. Our question is: does this also apply to humans? After all, medicines for humans should be developed through human studies. We have shown changes in the 'galanin genes' in patients with depression, and also seen differences in the galanin system in the brains of deceased people with depression (suicide). We now want to see if similar changes exist in the substance P system and also in other peptides (84 to be scanned). Preliminary findings show substance P changes, in areas that control emotions. We also want to use microscopic techniques to study in which brain cells these changes occur, and search for neuropeptide-related biomarkers of depression in the blood. Our results suggest that galanin antagonists are potential antidepressants and that substance P antagonists should be further investigated. Finally, we hope to diagnose certain types of depression using peptide markers in blood samples.

Hansson, Göran K.Kungl. Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Academy Chair in Medicine 2018Medicine2017

Amount awarded: SEK 10 100 000

The Torsten Söderberg Foundation currently funds six academic professorships in medicine (the latest of which is in the process of being filled) at the level of SEK 2 million per year for five years. There is a great need for this type of research position, where proven outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further strengthen and develop their research. It is an important part of further strengthening Swedish research in the light of international developments.

The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis will be placed on research carried out during the last five-year period.

The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the impact on the development of medical research will also be assessed.

The Academy is therefore requesting an additional grant of SEK 10 million to enable a five-year Academy Chair in Medicine to be established in 2018.

Collin, MattiasLund UniversityStreptococcal modification of antibody glycosylation in severe infectionsMedicine2017

Amount granted: SEK 700 000

Most proteins in our immune system are glycoproteins where carbohydrates (glycans) influence function. Antibodies are central to our acquired immune system and glycans are very important for their proper interaction with white blood cells. Not surprisingly, bacteria have evolved enzymes (glycosidases) that destroy or alter these glycans. We have discovered the first enzyme, EndoS from Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which very specifically removes the glycans on IgG antibodies. GAS only infects humans and causes mild infections like strep throat and swine pox, but also serious life-threatening infections. The role of bacterial endoglycosidases in the infection process is currently unknown. In this project, we want to try to answer this question. We have access to a very sensitive and accurate mass spectrometric method where we can study the glycosylation of antibodies directly in samples from blood, throat and infected tissue. Preliminary experiments show that antibodies lose their glycan both locally in tonsillitis and in the blood in severe disseminated infection (sepsis). We will also examine antibody glycosylation in mice infected with the original bacterium and those lacking EndoS or similar enzymes. The results from our studies are important for understanding the basic mechanisms of how bacteria evade our immune system, but also open up new ways to diagnose and treat severe infectious disease.

Åkerman, AndersStockholm UniversityThe impact of the internet on productivity, labour markets and globalizationEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 885 000

One of the biggest questions of our time is how accelerating technological developments are affecting the way our economies work. The internet, the 'third industrial revolution', is fundamentally changing the way modern economies work and the project focuses on this. The first part looks at how labour markets are being affected and the fact that information technology is seen as particularly beneficial to highly educated workers. In most countries, the income gap between low and highly educated people is widening, but it is difficult to know how much is due to technological change. And what kind of education, experience and other characteristics are required when technology is renewed? The second part of the project looks at the impact on firm productivity and how changes at the firm level affect the development of aggregate productivity in society. The third part examines how globalization is affected by the internet. Will the role of geography in trade diminish with the development of the Internet, leading to the so-called "death of distance"?

This application is specifically for a continuation and extension of this project. The first of the three sub-projects has been completed and published in the Quarterly Journal of Economics. This sub-project has also received an important follow-up project focusing on how to empirically measure technological change at the firm level. In addition, the sub-project on international trade has been extended to include a theoretical model and a more structural empirical basis for discussion.

Wahlström, GunnarUniversity of GothenburgExternal accounting and corporate relationsEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 015 000

The project relates to part two of the Part One Foundation funded project "External Accounting and Corporate Relations in the Capital Market". Three collections of data in the form of annual reports, the public debate and interviews show that part of the problem with external accounting is that accounting practice delivers solutions based on "more of the same". No new dimensions are offered. This continuation application intends to create an alternative to the numerical presentation in external accounting from an interdisciplinary point of view.

In interviews conducted, management illustrates the use of external accounting with various events or cases. These show that management initiates and motivates actions based on values that create patterns of action. They differ between companies and can thus help to explain the phenomenon that two companies in the same industry can have diametrically different profitability. This project application intends to: 1. Create an alternative to the numerical presentation in external reporting by coding values expressed by managers in interviews already conducted. 2. Complete articles already started in the project.

Strömsten, TorkelStockholm School of Economics, SIRResearch School in Accounting - FIREEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 940 000

The accounting profession has been under great pressure for a long time. Several key players such as FAR and the Swedish Association of Chartered Accountants are explicitly talking about a crisis for the subject. The survival of accounting is seriously threatened. Based on these starting points, in 2014 the Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm University and Uppsala University jointly applied for funding (from Handelsbanken's research title and from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation) to establish a graduate school in accounting (FIRE). In 2015 and 2016, FIRE has admitted two cohorts of doctoral students, given three doctoral courses and organized four internal workshops. We now have thirteen active doctoral students within FIRE and a strong network between the doctoral students is being created. Another important effect of FIRE is that the cooperation between teachers and researchers at the universities has been developed and deepened. A third effect is that international researchers are linked to FIRE in various ways.

So far, FIRE can be described as a great success. We are now seeking additional funding to develop and strengthen FIRE. As of fall 2017, the Gothenburg School of Economics at the University of Gothenburg will join FIRE.

Sandberg, RickardStockholm School of EconomicsRetail data ("Big Data") and predictive analyticsEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 720 000

Today, most retail companies have access to very large amounts of data - so-called 'Big Data'. This data can consist, for example, of customer, product, transaction, sales channel, geospatial, text and image data (observed over time). The interest in Big Data among retailers is huge for obvious reasons, and with adequate analytical methods, e.g. consumer behavior can be predicted.

However, the shortcomings in both theory and methodology, among both users and researchers, regarding retail data and predictive analytics are evident. In fact, much of the information value of Big Data is not utilized, and often people simply do not know what to do with all the data. Predictive analytics based on Big Data also faces additional challenges with the upcoming EU General Data Protection Regulation [GDPR] and how data may de facto be used in the future. The need for research on how theory and method can be combined to extract the informational value of Big Data, under GDPR, is thus extremely urgent.

To address this need, an interdisciplinary project has been initiated at the Stockholm School of Economics, where leading researchers from the Center for Retailing [CFR] and the Center for Economic Statistics [CES] collaborate. The project is unique in the sense that access to Big Data is provided by leading retail companies in Sweden. The project team also includes two PhD students.

Rylander Eklund, AnnaUniversity of Gothenburg, GRIOrganizing design and designing organizations for changeEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 2 640 000

Design has come to be seen as a strategic competence in an increasing number of large companies, which are investing heavily in the recruitment of designers. It is hoped that the approach and working methods of designers can form the basis of new forms of managing and organizing companies and public activities. However, there is a lack of research that can guide actors seeking to integrate design(s) into organizations to create change. With this project, researchers in the Business & Design Lab want to process and further develop the results of a large number of recently completed international studies that have focused in different ways on the encounter between designers and other professional groups. Overall, our previous studies indicate that it is designers' special values and practices, their aesthetic expertise, that are at the core of their contribution to innovation and change, while at the same time these are an obstacle to achieving radical and sustainable change in other organizational contexts. The project aims to make theoretical and methodological contributions by clarifying how designers' aesthetic expertise contributes to creativity, learning and change, and what organizational conditions are required to be able to leverage this expertise and realize organizational change. This would constitute a strong and much-needed contribution to the field of Design Management and consolidate the Business & Design Lab's position as an internationally leading center for research in the intersection of design and management.

Nyberg, KlasStockholm UniversityFashion, luxury, credit and trust. From early modern to modern bankruptciesEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 480 500

The project aims to publish a scientific anthology with an international publisher. The anthology analyzes the significance of the reform of the bankruptcy institution 1767-1830 for the modernization of the pre-industrial credit market with the credit market in Stockholm as a case study. An aristocratic lavishness on credit was replaced by merchants' increasingly commercial lending. The results are presented in a Swedish part of the anthology and then compared with contributions from international specialists. They will be recruited at an already accepted session with the name of the project at the social science historians' conference ESSHC in Belfast 2018. The Swedish part of the project has its background in a historical interactive database, www.tidigmodernakonkurser.se of the bankruptcy institute in Stockholm. The project participants have participated in three international anthologies and presented even more papers at symposia and conferences and are part of several research networks in the field. Our latest book was published this spring under the title "Economic Cultural History" (see note in Axess No. 5: 2017). Among other things, we have a range of evidence for the modernization of the bankruptcy institute in Stockholm (streamlining, industry distribution, changes in practice, etc.) which we now intend to compile into a whole and compare with other countries in Europe and North America. One important finding is that state lawyers played an important role in the implementation of the extensive legislation after 1767. Another finding is that conditions differed between industries.

Lapidus, JohnUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawNew funding options for key welfare servicesEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 663 750

The Swedish welfare model is undergoing changes. This often refers to the extensive operational privatization of central welfare services that began in the early 1990s. But the financing of welfare has also changed to some extent. Among other things, this has taken place via various types of additional services in health care, education and care. At the same time, these additional services are a form of semi-private welfare solutions, as the consumer can reduce the private cost via tax deductions (gross salary deductions for private health insurance, Rut deductions in elderly care and to some extent education).

How has increased private and semi-private financing been made possible? What are the consequences for the welfare model in general? Does the design of additional services contribute to relieving or undermining the traditional welfare model? Is there a link between operational privatization and privatization of welfare financing?

The purpose of the research project is to study a certain type of change in the Swedish welfare model. First, it is about understanding and analyzing the relatively unexplored relationship between privatized operation and privatized financing of central welfare services. Secondly, it is about understanding and analyzing the social consequences of a welfare model that is increasingly based on privately financed welfare services. Thirdly, it is about being able to say something about where the Swedish welfare model is and where it is heading.

Kjellberg, HansStockholm School of Economics, SIRThe spatial and conceptual domain of markets. A study of Freeport'sEconomy2017

Amount granted: 970 000 SEK

This PhD project studies the contemporary phenomenon of Freeports - warehouses located in free trade areas where valuable items are stowed away indefinitely to avoid taxation and identification - and the economic exchanges that take place within and across their borders. The aim of the project is to understand the relationship between the market as an abstraction and a concrete phenomenon. More specifically, the project aims to understand the link between the legal regulation of markets and their material and spatial manifestations. How do actors in markets affect the conceptual framing of the law and how does the law affect the activities that take place in markets? To address these questions, a number of sub-studies of the phenomenon of Freeports are carried out. The project is thus based on a methodological approach in the social sciences that seeks insights through studies of opaque and shady activities, in order to better understand today's society. The project contributes with new knowledge about the organization of regulated markets, by highlighting the interaction between the legal and material dimensions and by paying attention to the political and economic reasons for actors to act outside the usual social structures.

Häckner, JonasStockholm UniversityExpanding guest researcher and seminar activitiesEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

In order to make better use of our international contacts, we hereby apply for a grant for our guest researcher and seminar activities in 2018.

Husebye, AlexanderCenter for Business HistoryPelle Söderberg - a biographyEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 1 545 643

The Centre for Business History is conducting a book project where the life of Per Olof (Pelle) Söderberg (1836-1881) is told and highlighted in its industrial history context. The purpose of the project is to document and tell Per Olof Söderberg's biography based on new research. He is one of several successful entrepreneurs who shaped the Swedish business community in the 19th century, as well as a leading figure in the Söderberg family and one of Sweden's first commercial agents at the national level. The project also aims to fill a gap - Sweden's economic development in the 19th century has been studied from a number of perspectives, but biographies of individual entrepreneurs, in which the role of individuals is analyzed in a larger historical context, are all the more rare.

The project is divided into two stages, the first of which is research focusing on a number of primary sources, identified within the framework of a research preparation project in 2017 with the support of the Torsten Söderberg Foundation. These sources (private material, public archives, various utility archives, newspaper material, etc.) have largely not been analyzed before. In connection with the research work, text production takes place. The second stage of the project is book production with editorial work, image research, layout and printing. During the project, two seminars will be organized with representatives of CfN and other stakeholders to evaluate sources and manuscripts. The book about Pelle Söderberg will be published by Förlaget Näringslivshistoria and will be presented at the Gothenburg Book Fair in 2019.

Hardardottir, HjördisLund UniversityEveryday stress and its effect on time perception and time preferencesEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 56 250

The study investigates whether everyday stress caused by intellectually demanding tasks that need to be done simultaneously affects people's perception of time and thus also their time preferences, given that individuals' preferences about time are based on their own perception of time. The study tests the link between stress and time perception and the link between stress and time preferences experimentally in a computer laboratory by exposing the participants in the experiment to different degrees of stress in the form of tasks of varying difficulty that jump up while time perception and time preferences are estimated. The study differs from other studies investigating the link between stress and time preferences in that we study time perception as a medium while others have justified the link with the negative effect of stress on working memory and thus the ability to think logically about intertemporal decisions. While we expect everyday stress to increase patience by making time seem to pass more quickly, the opposite is true according to the theory that stress affects time preferences through a negative impact on working memory. We will also examine whether there is a level of stress that is high enough that the negative effects of poor working memory on patience dominate the positive effects of perceiving time as faster. The study could potentially explain the mixed results shown by previous studies on the subject.

Hallén, PerUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawMan and fish - phase 2Economy2017

Amount granted: SEK 297 750

Phase 2 of the project Man and Fish. West coast fishing and the national economy 1700-2015.

Ekström, Karin M.University of BoråsThe role of art museums in valuing contemporary artEconomy2017

Amount granted: 612 000 SEK

The purpose of this study is to investigate how contemporary art is valued at art museums in Sweden through exhibitions and purchases. The focus is on the present, but it is also interesting to be able to make some historical comparisons to see how contemporary art has been valued at different turning points in the expansive development of consumer culture from the 1950s onwards. Contemporary art is important for reaching new visitors as it is often more accessible. The value of art has long been a controversial topic in the social debate and is visible in the tension between economy and culture. Art displayed in museums not only reaches the attention of the museum visitor, but often has a higher economic value. Key research questions are: What role do art museums play in creating value in contemporary art? Which contemporary art is highlighted in exhibitions and museum purchases? The study intends to focus on approximately 3-4 art museums and is based on an ethnographic method. Interviews are conducted with museum directors, curators/curators, educators, communication managers, etc. as well as studies of documentation. In addition, a limited number of people outside the studied art museums will be interviewed who have insight into these museums, such as artists, representatives of auction houses and art galleries.

Campos-Mercade, PolLund UniversityHelping behaviour and group sizeEconomy2017

Amount granted: 153 250 SEK

When a person needs help, is he or she more likely to get help when there is one or more people who are able to help? Results from several psychological experiments suggest that the answer to this question depends entirely on the situation. In this project, I use game theory to predict in which situations an individual is more likely to get help when only one other person can help compared to when several people can help. I also investigate in which situations the opposite is true. The theoretical model concludes that in situations where there are few people willing to help, help is more likely to be given when many people are able to help. However, in situations where most people are willing to help, help is more likely to be given when only one person is able to help. I am seeking funding to conduct a study to test this theoretical model through a laboratory experiment and to disseminate the results of the study.

Bos, MariekeStockholm School of Economics, Swedish House of FinanceConference on finance and sustainable performanceEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 360 000

The Institute for Financial Research (renamed the Swedish House of Finance) organizes an annual conference on a theme in financial economics. This year's theme is financial decisions and sustainable outcomes. The conference is based on a dialog between academic economists and representatives from the financial industry. We intend to address the following questions, among others: Can we reduce the climate impact of banks without risking financial stability? Can we offer green investment products that do not make unsustainable promises to households? Is it realistic to promise higher returns in assets or strategies designed to encourage sustainable business models? Are investors willing to accept lower returns for the sake of the planet?

Berglund, BengtVolvo 1956-2001. From domestic group to global automotive playerEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

The project on Volvo's development from group to global automotive player 1956-2001 starts at the time when Gunnar Engellau took over as CEO in 1956 and extends to the turn of the century 2000, when the group had just streamlined its operations and made the dramatic decision to sell its passenger car production to Ford. This was a period in Volvo's history characterized by great drama and also describes how Sweden's largest engineering company met the challenges faced by the automotive industry during almost half a century of structural transformation and changing production conditions. The focus of the study is on the choice of strategies within the group's various industrial parts, i.e. primarily Passenger Cars, Trucks and Commercial Vehicles, and their relationships with each other and the market. The international perspective is highlighted.

The project, which is a continuation of an earlier study of the group's history up to the mid-1950s, is based primarily on various written sources taken from the Volvo Group's archives. The focus is on the board minutes of the various business areas, supplemented by internal material in the form of reports, correspondence and speeches from a number of Volvo managers. Access to this material has previously been very limited, so this is the first time that a more in-depth examination of the Volvo Group's development during the latter part of the 20th century has been possible. The project is expected to take three years.

Ax, ChristianUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawAccounting and social trends IIEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 592 800

A leading direction in accounting research focuses on accounting in its organizational context, i.e. its practice, role and effects within firms. However, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in studying issues related to the external environment. Particularly distinctive are studies of the relationship between social trends and accounting. The central argument for this is that it increases the timeliness and social relevance of research. This project, which consists of a number of sub-projects, focuses on a number of current societal trends - the pursuit/demand for sustainable development, financial crises, globalization and changing market conditions - and relates them to equally current accounting issues - harmonization and globalization of accounting, accounting quality, integrated reporting, the link between management/governance and the impact of crises in and on firms (especially banks), and the development/testing of methodologies/approaches to deal with increased business complexity. The project aims to contribute not only to the research community but also to other accounting stakeholders, primarily standard setters and regulators (e.g. International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), EU and FAR), companies (e.g. management and accountants) and financial market participants. The knowledge the project is expected to generate is also highly relevant for education in the subject.

Andersson, DavidLinköping UniversityCompetition and intellectual property rightsEconomy2017

Amount granted: SEK 867 600

This legal economics project aims to shed light on how uncertain intellectual property rights can affect the competitive situation of different actors through the possibility of opposition to granted patents and trademarks. Secure and well-defined intellectual property rights are crucial for effective competition between market players, as in the simplest theoretical model an opposition procedure has the potential to transform a market from a monopoly to a duopoly.

The project focuses on a hitherto neglected aspect in the literature, opposition proceedings against patents and trademarks during the period, 1977-2016. An empirical analysis of how these oppositions are related to the type of intellectual property rights and their owners can provide insight into how firms act strategically to create uncertainty about competitors' intellectual property rights while protecting their own.

Österdahl, IngerUppsala UniversityThe law of war in the Swedish constitution: a moving targetJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 885 000

The project aims to examine the interplay between international law, EU law and the Instrument of Government in the area of international military force. The project will examine the official interpretation of the Constitution's provisions on self-defense and the sending of Swedish troops abroad for other purposes, in light of the intensified Swedish participation in various international defense-related cooperation and in international military operations of various kinds and on various international law grounds. The project will analyze the provisions concerning "Defence of the Realm" (RF Chapter 15, Section 13) and "Deployment of Armed Forces" (RF Chapter 15, Section 16). The research in the project takes place against the background of the conflicts in Iraq and Syria and the Swedish involvement in various forms in these conflicts, but examples will also be taken from other conflicts, e.g. in Afghanistan, Libya and Mali. The deepened defence cooperation with Finland raises questions about collective defence arrangements of various kinds within the framework of the Instrument of Government. What scope is there for collective defense arrangements, either non-legally binding arrangements such as those envisaged with Finland or binding arrangements as in the case of the EU Treaty Article 42(7)? The legal - and real - question of when Sweden can go to war arises both in the case of international operations and in the case of collective self-defense. "War and danger of war" in the sense of the Instrument of Government is once again being taken seriously.

Svensson, OlaLund UniversityStandard setting and application of law in contract lawJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 610 000

A characteristic feature of Swedish law is that regulations must be issued by law if they relate to the economic relationships of individuals. This means that contract law may not be formulated by government ordinances and official regulations. However, this does not prevent the courts from determining the legal situation in more detail in their application of the law, which can be done, for example, by interpreting general standards of assessment, introducing certain exceptions to a statutory rule and further developing the law in the absence of statutory rules. The Supreme Court also has a normative power in that its decisions constitute precedents and are important for guiding the application of the law. It is my intention in the project to investigate whether it is possible to create an appropriate division of labor between the legislator and the courts when it comes to the development of contract law, which means that a central question will be to what extent the regulation of contract law should be done through legislation and statutory reasons and to what extent it should be done through precedents. The more the legislator uses general standards of assessment, leaves exceptions to the courts and refrains from legislating on certain aspects of contract law, the more power is given to the courts. The project also aims to examine whether the courts should be guided by a purposive approach to interpretation. The work is an extension of a previous project on a court's competence to deviate from the law in contract law.

Samuelson, LarsUppsala UniversityEuropean Union measures against BEPS in a Swedish legal perspectiveJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 935 000

The aim is to examine the European Union (EU) measures against BEPS - i.e. erosion of tax bases and shifting of profits through advanced tax planning in the corporate sector - from a Swedish tax law perspective.

Intensive work against BEPS is taking place within the OECD/G20, which has produced recommendations for action in 15 different areas. The EU also supports the OECD's measures, but believes that there is a need for common and flexible solutions at EU level, coordinated implementation within the Union and that the needs of the internal market are taken into account. A package of measures was presented in 2016, including a special directive against tax evasion, which will be applied in Sweden and other Member States on 1 January 2019. In addition, a number of legislative changes related to BEPS have been implemented or proposed in the EU. Further proposals are expected.

There is a great need for a comprehensive scientific study of how EU measures against BEPS affect Swedish national tax law. Such a study is also urgent as the EU measures are mandatory and in several respects differ from those recommended by the OECD. Both constitutional and substantive aspects and practical application issues will be identified, highlighted and discussed. In particular, the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive will be analyzed.

The knowledge gained from the study should be useful to the legislator as well as to various legal practitioners. The results of the study will be presented in the form of a monograph.

Refors Legge, MariaStockholm UniversityBullying in schools - responsibilities and enforcementJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 785 867

All children in Sweden have the right to education. This is guaranteed to them in both Swedish law and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. While children are in school, they must be protected from various forms of abusive treatment and discrimination (known as bullying). This protection is very important because children in Sweden not only have a right to education but also an obligation to participate in it. Despite the statutory protection against harassment, many children are subjected to such harassment during and after school hours. The abuse can take the form of both physical and psychological violence and have both short-term and long-term consequences for the children involved.

The idea of this research project is to examine the legal responsibility of schools to protect children from abusive treatment in schools. In the research project, relevant legal sources will be studied together with both court practice and authority decisions. A study of all cases received and decided by the Ombudsperson for Children and Pupils during one year will also be made to further examine the practical application of the law. Based on these studies, it is hoped that the project will deepen the understanding of how children who have suffered violations are treated by schools, authorities and courts. The idea is also that the research will form the basis for discussions on how the law can and should be reformed to strengthen children's right to safe schooling and participation in cases of abuse that concern them.

Olsen, Lena K.Uppsala UniversityElectronic contractsJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 223 000

This is an application for continuation funding. The original project was based on a book "Kommunikationsrätt i det elektronisk medielandskapet" from 2013 but was particularly focused on issues concerning agreements and contracts. One paper has so far been prepared within the framework of the project, namely Näthat, which was published in Svensk Juristtidning. Furthermore, a small book is being finalized that is related to the above work. Furthermore, a new publication of the above book is in progress, which can be assumed to go to print in the middle of 2018. Conclusions that have been drawn from the research to date are that the communication perspective is particularly valuable for, for example, comparisons between similar rules in different legal subject areas. Legislative work is also underway in the EU regarding the provision of digital content (COM(2015) 634 final) and certain aspects of contracts for the sale of goods online and other distance sales of goods (COM(2015) 635 final), and a final position is expected to be taken in the fall of 2017. The last part of the research project, which focuses specifically on contractual issues, is therefore expected to be completed in 2018.

Nordlöf, KerstinÖrebro UniversityYoung offenders with serious mental disorder at the time of the offenceJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 205 000

Under Swedish criminal law, unlike most other legal systems, a person who was suffering from a serious mental disorder at the time of the offense can be held accountable. In order for the requirements of due process to be met in such cases, the court, as in other criminal cases, can only impose criminal liability if it is established beyond reasonable doubt that the act alleged by the prosecutor was committed by the defendant with intent or negligence. The reasoning of the court in the event of a conviction must be set out in the reasons for the conviction. In criminal cases where the defendant suffers from a serious mental disorder, the evaluation of evidence can be problematic. If the defendant is also young, this can be an additional aggravating factor for the court when assessing the defendant's guilt. The purpose of the project is to investigate legal certainty in these criminal cases and with the following question: How does the court reason in relation to intent or negligence in cases where a conviction has been handed down where the defendant is young and has undergone a forensic psychiatric examination showing that he or she was suffering from a serious mental disorder at the time of the offense. The material in the project consists of all judgments during a ten-year period, 2004-2013, concerning young offenders who underwent a forensic psychiatric examination in connection with prosecution.

Modéer, Kjell Å.Lund UniversityThe Binding Memory: The History of the Law Faculty at Lund UniversityJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 400 000

In connection with Lund University's 350th anniversary, the Faculty of Law has published a history of the Faculty, written by the undersigned Professor Emeritus of Legal History Kjell Å. Modéer. It comprises 560 pages, is richly illustrated and covers the history of the Faculty from its inception in 1666 to the present day, and is the Faculty's first ever history. The presentation is based on a legal cultural theory that seeks to investigate the importance of tradition and deep structures in the creation of legal knowledge structures, especially among the lawyers working in academia in Lund. I wish to revise this manuscript and translate it into English. As a research topic, university history is based on knowledge transfer, legal networks, and translations of internationally used concepts. Thus, the work connects to current national and international discourses on academic knowledge cultures.

The manuscript will be reduced and revised for an international audience to approximately 250 printed pages and will be submitted for acceptance and publication by Lund University Press.

Kleist, DavidUniversity of GothenburgInformation requirements for tax advisorsJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 532 000

Several states, including Sweden, are considering introducing rules on the duty of disclosure for tax advisors, and in some states such rules have already been introduced. Rules on the duty of disclosure for tax advisors mean that under certain conditions a legal advisor must provide information directly to the tax authority, i.e. in addition to the information provided by the taxpayer in his or her tax return. For the tax authorities, this can constitute a new source of information that can enable more cost-effective taxation than traditional review of tax returns and investigation in connection with so-called tax audits. However, it is considered a fundamental right in a state governed by the rule of law to be able to seek legal advice without having to worry about the legal advisor passing on information about what has been said to someone else. Rules on the duty of information for tax advisors risk being in conflict with this right. This study aims, among other things, to investigate the possibilities of designing such rules so that they do not infringe on fundamental rights.

Johansson, JesperStockholm School of Economics, SIRThe thirteen rules in situations involving foreign residentsJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 949 000

There are an estimated 100 000 active Swedish limited liability companies with an annual turnover of more than SEK 1 million. The owners of these companies are, to varying degrees, subject to the so-called three-tier rules, which are intended to manage the community of interest in smaller ownership groups. The three-tier rules are complicated. Since

since the 1990 tax reform, they have been amended 25 times and a new review was announced in the 2014/15 budget bill. Among other things, the rules discourage owners from appropriating the value of the work they perform in the company's operations as dividends and capital gains rather than as wages, which is justified.

due to the fact that marginal tax rates on service income are often significantly higher than the straight tax rates applied to capital income.

The aim of the project is to investigate and evaluate how different income derived from work, ownership and other dealings with limited liability companies is taxed in situations involving foreign resident individuals. The choice of topic is motivated by an increasingly globalized environment and a partly unclear legal situation.

Foreign residents are almost always subject to more limited taxation than other taxpayers and it is unclear how Swedish tax treaties should be applied to income covered by the three-stage rules. Furthermore, the development of EU law has led to pressure to change the so-called exit tax rules, which in turn has affected the possibilities for taxpayers to circumvent the three-stage rules in cross-border situations.

Hoffmann, JeannaÖrebro UniversityCoercive care of pregnant drug users - a comparative legal science studyJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

When a pregnant woman consumes alcohol or other drugs, the substances are transferred through the placenta to the fetus. Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy has been shown to pose a greater risk of significant and more permanent birth defects than other drugs. Fetal damage as a result of a woman's use of alcohol during pregnancy has been described as the third major fetal damage tragedy of modern times. The purpose of the thesis is to define the legal status of the fetus in relation to the need for and possibility of compulsory care of a pregnant addict in accordance with current law, and, if necessary, to discuss a change in current law, taking into account corresponding legislation in other legal systems. In Swedish law, there is no jurisprudential survey of the legal status of the foetus to draw on. The legal status of the foetus will therefore be examined from a broader perspective. In addition to so-called formal legal sources such as laws, preparatory works, customs, case law and doctrine, lower court judgments will also be studied. These are cases under the Act (1988:870) on the care of addicts in certain cases, LVM, where the woman was pregnant when the compulsory care was examined. The purpose of the study of lower court decisions is to analyze in more detail the application of the law with regard to compulsory care of pregnant substance abusers.

Eriksson, JoelLund UniversityPrivate judicial proceedingsJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: 87 500 SEK

Private adjudication - an analysis of new and emerging forms of contractual dispute resolution. It is by no means a new phenomenon that commercial parties choose to solve their legal problems through private alternatives to the state administration of justice in public courts. The most established form of private dispute resolution, arbitration, is well established and has been so for a long time. However, when a commercial dispute arises, or when disputes between commercial parties can be foreseen in advance, it is also increasingly common for parties to choose newer forms of private dispute resolution to deal with their disputes. Instead of bringing the dispute before a state court or an arbitration board, the parties contract a private judge to settle their dispute. Examples include parties contracting a Dispute Board for dispute resolution, or UK parties submitting to Statutory Adjudication, or US parties choosing to settle their dispute with a Rent-a-Judge. Private adjudication arrangements of this kind are also occurring closer to home. For example, Dispute Boards have been used in the construction of the Öresund Bridge and the City Tunnel in Malmö. These procedures are in a borderland between procedural law and contract law and raise both procedural law and contract law issues. Central overall questions are how contract law from different aspects handles procedural law - and not least how the legal system handles this type of agreement.

Ekholst, ChristineUppsala UniversityAtoning for one's crime. Female criminal responsibility in late medieval lawJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 258 125

Court records from the Middle Ages show that the courts were reluctant to sentence some female criminals under the law. An example from the City of Stockholm's Book of Thought may clarify this. On June 27, 1489, Peder Andersson's wife was on trial in the Stockholm City Hall; she was accused and convicted of theft. The brief entry in the book shows that the woman was sentenced to be banished from the city. The writer has since added that if she returns to Stockholm she will "stand thief's right," in other words, she will receive the correct punishment for theft. The statutory punishment for theft was to be buried alive if the criminal was a woman; a convicted male thief, on the other hand, was to be hanged. The late medieval court records for Stockholm show that the court often sentenced men to death for theft while women were spared execution. What is the explanation for this? Did the court not think that women should be held responsible for their crimes like a man? My project aims to examine how the courts thought about female criminals in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. It will show if and when men and women were treated differently in medieval jurisprudence. The project further aims to examine how the punishment affected the sentence, that is, perhaps the court hesitated to sentence a woman to live burial because they thought the punishment was too harsh. My project will thus also investigate how the late medieval courts related to the law.

Berglund, MikaelStockholm School of Economics, SIRProhibition of nutrition - an important unfinished multidisciplinary legal topicJurisprudence2017

Amount granted: SEK 778 000

The prohibition of economic activity was first introduced in the context of bankruptcy, but was then gradually extended to other areas of law, today also in relation to violations of prohibitions in competition law, criminal offenses and failure to pay taxes when a prohibition of economic activity is called for in the public interest. Tasks in the area of business prohibitions include: courts, the Swedish Competition Authority, the Enforcement Authority, the Police, the Tax Agency, the Public Prosecution Service and also bankruptcy administrators.

The issue of disqualification is also frequently raised in the business world, for example in the context of credit assessment by banks or in the activities of commercial companies or of financial and legal advisers.

Disqualification has gradually expanded into an increasingly multidisciplinary legal topic where disqualification law increasingly interacts with relevant legislation from other related areas of law. As a result, developments in the field as a whole have become more confusing and knowledge-intensive not only for courts and authorities but also for business people who need to know about disqualification in different situations.

The main purpose of the research project is to investigate, analyze and clarify key issues regarding substantive and procedural criteria and requirements for cooperation under legislation, case law, including the ECHR and EU law.

Ralph, BoThe Swedish AcademyOlaus Magnus 'Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus', original edition 1555Other2017

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

Josephsson, OlleSwedish Humanist AssociationAround the Roman Empire in 480 days. Yearbook Svenska Humanistiska Förbundet 2018Other2017

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The book Around the Roman Empire in 480 Days is arranged as a fictional journey through virtually the entire Roman Empire. The aim is to offer readers an easy-to-read description of the ancient Roman Empire in its size and diversity.

The two main characters of the text, Quintus and Sextus, have not been given clear character traits but are mainly used to focus the reader's attention on different places along the journey. At the same time, they are both allowed to react to what they see. In doing so, they help the reader to perhaps empathize with the reality that the two fictional travelers may have experienced during the journey.

The men's journey is believed to take place during the latter part of the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius (he reigned from 138 to 161 AD), i.e. the journey took place sometime in the 150s AD. At that time, the Roman Empire was still at the height of its power. The two travelers themselves would have considered that they traveled in the early 9th century, counting as the Romans did from the foundation of Rome (which they dated to 753 BC).

Images and maps have been included in the text to help understand what the two men experienced on their journey. Obviously, however, the images reflect what can be seen today, not what the travelers saw during their journey. Similarly, the maps presented are the result of modern knowledge. The book has 18 chapters.

Hansson, Ulf R.The Swedish Institute in RomeProfessor Axel Boëthius, Gothenburg and (the study of) antiquityOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 240 000

The application concerns a pilot study on the classical archaeologist Axel Boëthius (1889-1969) who was one of the main actors in the establishment of the study of antiquity and its early professional and institutional history at the University of Gothenburg, later the University. Boëthius was also the university's rector during the period 1946-51, during an important phase shortly before its transformation into a university. The project is based on extensive unpublished archival material (correspondence, notes, photographs, etc.) of considerable institutional, disciplinary and local historical interest. As Boëthius was, and still is, a major name internationally, the study is expected to attract both national and international interest. However, the pilot study focuses on his broad leadership, research and educational activities at the University of Gothenburg and in local cultural and educational circles in Gothenburg. Special interest is given to Boëthius' extensive network of contacts and involvement in the transformation of the college into a university. The results will be presented in a scientific article and an exhibition in conjunction with the celebration of the 400th anniversary of the City of Gothenburg and the 130th anniversary of the University of Gothenburg in 2021. The pilot study is a stand-alone part of a larger, multi-year project that aims at a systematic mapping and critical analysis of Boëthius' broad institutional and professional achievements and legacy, as well as the full digitization and electronic open access publication of Boëthius' personal archive.

Strannegård, ClaesChalmers University of TechnologyFrom special to general artificial intelligenceOther2017

Amount granted: 414 000 SEK

Alan Turing laid the foundation for the modern computer in the 1930s, building machines that could break secret codes and play chess. In doing so, he also founded the field of artificial intelligence (AI). The 2010s have seen significant developments in AI. For example, there are now programs that can drive a car, beat the world go champion and write summaries of medical research papers.

Despite many impressive advances, modern AI programs still have major limitations. Problems that are easy for humans to solve are often impossible for AI programs. For example, there are no household robots today that can help with the dishes, laundry and cleaning in our homes. On the other hand, there are industrial robots that can work in precisely designed and predictable environments. The problem is that modern AI programs have very limited adaptability. This is because they are equipped with a fixed architecture that is then trained once and for all to perform a specific task. Thus, severe limitations are built into the systems from the start.

In this project, we start from the unique ability of animals to adapt to different environments. Our approach is to mimic a number of fundamental mechanisms for how animals learn and make decisions. In particular, we mimic the plasticity of natural nervous systems, providing a dynamic architecture that constantly adapts to new situations. The project is a collaboration between researchers from Chalmers and Harvard.

Gustafsson, SofiaLinköping UniversityJoen Petri Klint's book of yarnsOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 152 625

Texts from the second half of the sixteenth century often express the idea that natural phenomena such as comets, the northern lights and weather suns are omens that warn of coming misfortunes. Deformities in humans and animals could also be perceived as signs of doom, as could fictional visions of dragons or fighting Turks in the sky.

Recent research has highlighted that texts on the signs of the zodiac were mostly written by representatives of the Protestant church, expressing the view that the signs were sent by God to warn of the coming punishment of sin and ultimately the apocalypse. From being regarded as a ridiculous interest among older peoples, the doctrine of signs has been recognized as a central component of early Lutheranism.

In Sweden, there is a manuscript created by Joen Petri Klint, a vicar in Östergötland at the end of the 16th century. In 400 pages, it describes iron signs in words and pictures. My studies have shown the clear connection between this and other similar texts from different parts of Europe at the same time. The leaves of the manuscript have been bound in a completely different order than they were originally. Therefore, I have tried to restore the order digitally and found that the manuscript mainly deals with iron signs between 1550 and 1601, presented in chronological order. The project aims to complete a transcription of the manuscript and to present my research on Joen Petri Klint and his book of yarns.

Kärfve, FannyLund UniversityRoman greetings. A study in Pompeian entrance mosaicsOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 205 000

For those familiar with Pompeii, the mosaic with the guard dog and its Latin inscription Cave canem (Warning of the dog) is a well-known symbol of the Roman city that was fatally buried in the eruption of Vesuvius in 79. Less well known is that this entrance mosaic is not the only one of its kind from Pompeii.

For the Roman official, the atrium was a place for both private life and public light. In the morning, the doors to the house could be left open and show the entrance fauces as well as the atrium, for example during the salutatio when the house owner was being courted by his clients. Some house owners chose to present themselves at the threshold with a mosaic floor, as is the case with some 30 in Pompeii.

In my doctoral thesis in Ancient Culture and Society, Greeting the visitor in Pompeii. Roman fauces mosaics contextualized, I have collected all the fauces mosaics in Pompeii with the aim of gaining new knowledge about the entrance of the atrium house as a borderland between the street space and the private property - both public spheres, albeit in different ways. The black-and-white mosaics are dated from the Late Republic to the Early Imperial period (c. 80 BC-79 AD). The iconography includes both figurative and ornamental motifs as well as Latin inscriptions. Based on studies of mosaic iconography, the function of the entrance and the location of the houses in the city, I ask the main question of whether the mosaics, more than other art forms, reflected the house owner's own voice in a dialog with the outside world.

Shot, MiaUppsala UniversityWallpaper makers - self-sufficient and skilled in 18th-century StockholmOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 116 667

The thesis "Tapetmakerskorna - Självförsörjande och skickliga i 1700-talets Stockholm" contributes with new and in-depth knowledge about women's independent professional activities in Swedish early modern times. One of the most important results is that gender influenced the activities of the wallpaper makers to a much lesser extent than would be expected from previous research.

In the middle of the 18th century, women painted and printed wallpapers in Stockholm, in their own name and with the permission of the Hall- and Manufakturrätten. This authority's rich source material includes records of the form and sometimes conditions of the permits, the organization and workforce of the wallpaper makers, and how many wallpapers were produced. With additional material from the Manufakturkontoret and Kommerskollegium, as well as biographical sources, I can draw individual portraits of the wallpaper makers and conduct a deep comparative gender analysis.

Using this thorough source review, I answer questions about both law and practice:- What was the legal context of the wallpaper makers and how was it gendered?- who were the wallpaper makers and what were their activities?- how can the possibilities and limitations of the wallpaper makers be explained (using gender and intersectionalist theory)?- from a larger theoretical perspective, why did the wallpaper makers exist at all in a seemingly male-dominated professional world?

Jönsson, LoveBook on the ceramicist Ryozo MikiOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The project aims to publish a book on the ceramicist Ryozo Miki, a Japanese-Swedish ceramicist born in Osaka in 1942 and active in Sweden and Denmark since 1966. Despite his half-century of activity in Scandinavia, Ryozo Miki still works in a typically Japanese style. His well-turned, resilient stoneware vessels are often adorned with quickly executed calligraphic decorations. In his sculptures and reliefs, he cultivates a somewhat lighter, sometimes humorous spirit with people, birds and fish as recurring motifs. During his years in Sweden and Denmark, Ryozo Miki has had solo exhibitions at major institutions such as the Museum of Decorative Arts in Copenhagen, the Röhsska Museum in Gothenburg and the Porcelain Museum in Gustavsberg. Yet he has remained something of a doldrums in ceramics. No book or even exhibition catalog about his work has ever been published.

It is urgent that Ryozo Miki's work be documented in book form. The book would fill a gap in the existing literature on post-war Swedish ceramics and introduce a distinctive and original artist to a wider audience. The planned book on Ryozo Miki will describe both his upbringing and education in Japan and his professional life in Sweden and Denmark. Authors Love Jönsson and Petter Eklund have both followed the artist's work for several years, and have previously, both individually and together, published several books on modern and contemporary ceramics.

Malmstedt, GöranUniversity of GothenburgAn enchanted worldOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

"An Enchanted World" examines the Bohuslän witchcraft trials of 1669-1672 and the ideas about the world that formed the basis for belief in witchcraft and other supernatural powers, both before and after the time of the great witch trials. The presentation is based on the many statements made by witnesses and accused in the detailed protocols of the searches. The design and course of the Bohuslän trials are dealt with in the introductory part of the book, while other parts deal with various aspects of the world of imagination and the perception of reality at the time. Among the topics covered are perceptions of the relationship between dream and reality, notions of shape-shifting, supernatural soul forces and the magical power of words, and the images of God and the devil that appear in the accounts of witnesses and the accused.

Botwid, KatarinaLund UniversityCemeteries and farms - life and death in the Swedish Bronze AgeOther2017

Amount granted: 143 500 SEK

In the project Grave Fields and Farms - Life and Death in the Swedish Bronze Age, grave field ceramics are being revitalized through studies of material from the Norrköping area. New settlements are currently being excavated. The possibility of linking the new excavations with previously researched burial sites such as Fiskeby and Ringeby and large Bronze Age settlements such as the nearby Pryssgården makes the project particularly interesting. The investigation sheds new light on the craftsmen who worked and lived on the farms and who placed their cremated relatives in burial urns. The area around Bråviken's inlet from the Baltic Sea is known for its extensive Bronze Age remains and, not least, it is a rich rock carving area. The new method used in the project is craft interpretation, which provides knowledge of the ancient potter and the craft. The analysis is carried out by the applicant himself, who is both a doctor of archaeology and a professional potter. Investigating the level of knowledge of ancient potters has yielded interesting results, including an earlier study of artifacts from Pryssgården, which showed that a Bronze Age child had already developed good craftsmanship at the age of nine. The method has enabled completely new interpretations of how knowledge was transmitted and the importance of children in society to gain a foothold in our picture of the Bronze Age in Sweden. The practical research field is linked to a long tradition of interdisciplinary cooperation and, together with natural science disciplines, has opened up a new and exciting archaeology.

Bagge, MartinJohan Runius' songs and hymnsOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 158 000

Edition of Johan Runius' songs and hymns, with melodies. Runius' songs were intended to be sung, but most of the melodies are lost. He himself provided some of the melodies - other melodies have been sought in contemporary sources. A songbook with the melodies has so far been lacking, we now want to put Runius in his proper context for the first time, and give people interested in music and culture an opportunity to get to know his life and poetry properly, to sing the songs again. Therefore, a biographical overview of his life is provided, as well as an explanatory section on the musical context and the environments in which Runius worked. Illustrations and facsimiles provide the necessary period accuracy. A CD with ten songs accompanies the book.

Andersson, TommyGotland's rock carvingsOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 73 500

The aim of the project is to investigate, document and discuss the rock carvings on Gotland, and to publish them. There are currently about 60 known rock carvings on Gotland, of which three are pictorial carvings. The others are bowl pits. In a quick review, I have been able to see that Gotland's rock carvings have a different location and distribution compared to, for example, Orust's rock carvings in Bohuslän. This is despite the fact that the rock carvings on Orust also consist predominantly of bowl pits.

Sjöberg, DanielThe National ArchivesFish in researchOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The book Fisken i forskningen is geographically based on West Sweden and its natural interaction with the sea areas of Kattegat, Skagerrak, the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and the associated coastal areas.

The West Swedish and interdisciplinary perspective on the history of fishing opens up a research area that has been neglected since the Second World War. The major herring fishing periods have been highlighted, but the history of fishing is more complex and is characterized by mobility and adaptation and the ability to cope with extensive economic fluctuations.

Olof Hasslöf's 1949 dissertation Svenska västkustfiskarna: studier i en en yrkesgrupps näringsliv och kultur (Swedish West Coast Fishermen: Studies in the Economy and Culture of a Professional Group) remains the standard work on the history of fishing. Hasslöf's work is encyclopedically detailed in terms of the importance of fishing for social organization and values. However, it lacks a new problematizing and multidisciplinary perspective on the history of fishing that highlights the importance of the many and crucial links between countries around Skagerrak and Kattegat.

The publication will highlight fishing practices and how the fishermen themselves perceived their work situation. In the same spirit, the publication will also highlight the gender perspective and the need to highlight the role of women in maritime culture in research.

It is high time that the problems of fisheries are highlighted from different subject perspectives and that knowledge of the multifaceted archive material is broadened.

Due, NinaMunicipality of Gothenburg, Röhsska MuseumDigitization of the Otto Schulz archive in the Röhsska Museum's collectionsOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 520 000

This project digitizes and makes available collections in the Röhsska Museum's archives. The aim is to enable design history research so that researchers and the public can study Schulz's activities as a designer, interior architect, writer and publicist. Today, Schulz is best remembered as the owner of Firma Boet, a long-established interior design firm in Gothenburg. Its heyday was in the 1920s and 1940s and the shop had few equivalents in Sweden. Many of Schulz's interiors were published in the magazine Boet, an influential monthly magazine in the fields of home decoration, crafts and art industry, published between 1927 and 1938. Schulz was the magazine's editor and he also published colleagues' designs, articles on design exhibitions and other coverage of the field. Several of the leading critics of the time contributed texts and, along with the journal of the Swedish Crafts Association, the journal Boet was an important forum for debate on design and interior design-related topics. For a period, Schulz also ran his own training program, Bo-studio, where young couples could train in home decoration. The project aims to make the legacy of Otto Schulz and Firma Boet - 1600 watercolors and Boet magazines - searchable on the Röhsska Museum's website. The content of the journal Boet is also made available through lectures and introduced articles published on the Röhsska Museum's website.

Nordqvist, BengtArchaeology sacrifice site FinnestorpTime of gold and Finnestorp sacrifice siteOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 396 000

During 2000-2004 and 2008-2012, research investigations were carried out at the Finnestorp sacrifice site. A site that turns out to contain a find material that belongs to the category - "the finest and most exquisite objects from Sweden's pre-Christian era" and it belongs to one of the most important remains from the prehistory of the Nordic region. At Offerplats Finnestorp, warrior after warrior has been sacrificed along with their battle stallions and valuable weapons. These mighty men whose arsenal consisted of magnificent gilded swords, lances and golden horse equipment. Magnificent objects of royal value, made by the most skilled craftsmen in Europe at the time. The ongoing research work includes international comparisons and publication of the research work in the form of a major scientific book and popular science book. The metal analyses carried out show that the objects are made by highly skilled blacksmiths. The isotope analyses show that the ores used probably come from parts of the British Isles. In 2017/2018, two book volumes on Finnestorp will be completed. These are the practical work (I and II) - "Fyndens i fokus" and - A "Coffee Table Book". The upcoming isotope analyses are intended to perform analyses on horse teeth and on human teeth and bones. The purpose of these analyses is to shed light on the important question of provenance and geographical mobility. A website about Victim Site Finnestorp will be completed in the fall of 2017.

Hasslöf, J.O. RuneBohuslän Defense MuseumRiders in BohuslänOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

The project "Ryttare i Bohuslän" deals with the period 1685 ̶ 1727 and complements previously published documents by Bohusläns Försvarsmuseum . The research, which has been going on for about three years, has been done voluntarily by former officers at Bohuslän's regiment.

Information about Rutger von Ascheberg's enlisted riders and newly recruited men, who were enlisted in 1685 in Bohuslän as the northern squadron of the Queen's Life Regiment on horseback, is the starting point for the project's documentation. The information has been followed up by the divisions in 1689 and 1696. Further on, information on officers and riders, homesteads, root or armorers and other facts have been collected by district from rolls up to and including 1725. Lantmäteriet's maps and documents have provided facts about homesteads and villages. An account of the Bohuslän horsem*n's participation in wars has been collected in a separate chapter.

Eliasson, RogerAeroseumThe Flying Barrel - a unique educational interactive exhibitionOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

The Aeroseum Foundation operates an aviation experience center in a 22,000 square meter underground mountain hangar. The mountain is classified as unique in the world by the National Defense History Museum. For the third year in a row, the facility is number 1 on "Trippadvisor" (the world's largest travel site) of all museums in western Sweden. The exhibition concept is designed to trigger children and young people's interest in science and technology.

Husebye, AlexanderThe Center for Business History AssociationSwedish industrial design pioneers - A&E designOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 138 000

A&E Design is the oldest independent industrial design office in Sweden. The two founders, in 1968, were Hans Ehrich and Tom Ahlström. In addition to ergonomic design, this office has contributed greatly to making Swedish design known internationally. A&E Design has had and still has a large number of clients both in Sweden and abroad. Their designs have attracted attention for their aesthetic and innovative qualities, resulting in numerous design awards and magazine articles, as well as purchases for the permanent collections of many museums, such as the Röhsska Museum in Gothenburg, Die Neue Sammlung in Munich, MoMA in New York and the National Museum in Stockholm. Their work has been featured in most international surveys in the field of design. So far, however, nothing has been published in book form about this interesting era in Swedish industrial design history. One of the aims of this book project is to place A&E Design's activities in a context, describing the relationship to societal changes and to the design debate that has taken place during the almost 50 years of A&E Design's existence. Another aim is to provide an in-depth insight into the design process, which is rarely done in a time as obsessed with trends as ours. Several of A&E Design's products from the 1970s and 1980s are still in production today - examples of sustainable design. The Museipallen Stockholm, commissioned by Helena Dahlbäck Lutteman, then head of the crafts department at the National Museum of Denmark, is in thousands of museums and art galleries around the world.Wennberg, KåaAllan Österlind - the Swedish artist who became FrenchOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

Allan Österlind (1855-1938), painter, draughtsman, graphic artist and sculptor. After studying at the Academy of Fine Arts in 1874-76, Osterlind went to Paris in 1877 where he became a student of the sculptor P. J. Cavelier at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He then worked in France until his death, with the exception of study trips to Italy and Spain and occasional visits to his home country.

Österlind was initially most active as a sculptor, but in France he soon switched to painting and became above all a skilled watercolorist. He can best be characterized as a good representative of the French naturalistic plein air painting as represented at that time by Bastien-Lepage and others. He painted figures and portraits as well as landscapes.

August Strindberg was one person who really appreciated Osterlind's painting and he expressed his enthusiasm for Österlind, who he considered to be perhaps Sweden's greatest painter, 'peut-être le premier peintre de Sude'.

On January 15, 1895, it was announced that Allan Osterlind had been awarded the Legion of Honor - France's highest order, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte.

Günther, StefanCity of Mölndal/Gunnebo CastleGunnebo Castle and the neoclassical villa's artistic programOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 360 000

When Gunnebo Castle was completed in 1796, it was one of the country's most lavish mansions, with architecture and decoration inspired by the latest developments on the continent. The architecture followed different models than the more studied Stockholm-based architecture. The decoration followed an artistic program carried out in 1786-96 by the architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg and the Italian sculptor Gioacchino Frulli and constitutes one of the most significant decorative cycles of the second half of the 18th century in Sweden. Gunnebo's architect C.W. Carlberg developed an independent design language in relation to the architects in Stockholm - but who were Carlberg's role models? Ever since the Renaissance, complex iconographic programs - celebrating the political, economic and intellectual ambitions of the client - formed the basis of a building's decoration. These programs were developed in collaboration between the client and his advisors, of which Gunnebo is a lavish example - but what was Gunnebo's artistic program? Despite its importance, the background to one of the most prominent Swedish buildings of the 18th century remains largely unexplored. The aim of the project is to describe and analyze the architectural history of Gunnebo and the artistic program behind its decorations based on an iconological and comparative study of contemporary developments in Europe. The study will culminate in a monograph. The ambition is to publish a richly illustrated volume to increase knowledge of the site and its value.

Melberg, ArneMadame de Sevigné in selection and translationOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

Madame de Sevigné (1626-1696) became famous during her lifetime as a letter writer. These letters to her many friends were read in the salons and contributed to the lively salon culture. Above all, they were letters to her daughter, who moved with her husband to Provence in 1671. Madame wrote two long letters to her daughter every week: rich, emotional letters, invaluable in contributing to the picture of the external and internal life of the French aristocracy.

Madame's letters began to be published after her death. By the 19th century, 14 small volumes had been published, and her reputation was confirmed by Marcel Proust, who likes to quote and allude to her in his great work In Search of Lost Time. In the 20th century, her reputation as a living classic has been consolidated by monumental French editions in addition to translations into a wide range of languages. A selection was published in Swedish in 1948 in a translation by Stig Ahlgren, an edition that is long out of print and also outdated.

The present project aims at a translated selection of about 250 pages, corresponding to about one tenth of her collected letters. One often sees references to Madame de Sevigné also in Swedish literary discourse. This volume will provide a basis for both references and discussions.

Bergstrand, ThomasBohuslän MuseumMarstrand MonasteryOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 563 000

In 2017, archaeologists from Bohuslän Museum conducted an investigation at Marstrand, Kungälv municipality, where remains of the town's medieval Franciscan monastery were found. The find is considered to have great archaeological potential, and the site also has good potential to be developed into a significant visitor destination in a cultural tourism context. Bohusläns museum wants to be able to continue the archaeological investigation in the coming year, 2018. The project also includes several communication activities, which are planned to be carried out in collaboration with Marstrand's hembygdsmuseum. Bohusläns Museum's ambition is to investigate the entire monastery site in a few years' time and establish it as a permanent visitor destination.

Nyberg, GudrunCrafts & Design - 100 years in GothenburgOther2017

Amount granted: 129 000 SEK

The Röhsska Museum, Sweden's only museum dedicated to design, and the School of Design and Crafts (HDK) are two strong representatives of the subject of crafts and design in Gothenburg. As a book series on the development of Gothenburg over the last 100 years is planned, it is therefore natural that a volume is devoted to this subject. The book will be an anthology with four authors/researchers who have had a strong connection to the Röhsska Museum or otherwise to Cultural Studies in Gothenburg. The basis is a comprehensive history of the Röhsska Museum with a focus on how the attitude to the mission has changed over the years and been decisive for the objects collected and the exhibitions and other activities arranged. The subject is exemplified and deepened in an article about the early purchase of a large collection of Japanese art objects, which came to characterize the view of Japan as an art nation in the Nordic countries. Craftsmanship in Gothenburg is portrayed through a presentation of the collectives that have worked and in some cases still work with exhibitions and sales, and through a conversation between craftsmen from several generations working in different techniques. In recent years, fashion has emerged as an important part of the Röhsska Museum's mission. Maud Fredin Fredholm was a strong representative of clothing design in Gothenburg during the 1950s and 1960s and deserves the detailed presentation that will be included in the volume.

Hansson, Gunnar D.New edition of Snorri Sturluson's Norwegian King's Tales I-IIIOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 70 000

Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla is, next to the so-called Icelandic sagas, the most important prose work from the Nordic Middle Ages. In 2014, a new translation of all the Icelandic sagas was published within the framework of a joint Nordic project under the editorship of Kristinn Jóhannesson, Gunnar D. Hansson and Karl G. Johansson: Islänningasgorna - samtliga släktsagor och fyrtionio tåtar I-V. The Swedish publication was made possible by support from the Torstens Söderberg Foundation. Snorre's work Heimskringla was published in a new translation by Karl G. Johansson. Johansson in 1991-1993: Nordiska kungasagor I-III. This work has been out of print for a long time from the now defunct Fabel Förlag - and is only partially available in antiquarian form. A new edition of Snorri's Nordic King Sagas is planned in collaboration with the Anthropos publishing house. Since the Icelandic sagas I-V are now available to readers in new translation, it is our wish that Snorri's historical chronicles should also be made available to a wider public and for teaching purposes. The new edition will have a partly new look - with a cover by the Swedish artist Roj Friberg.

Åkerblom, ClaesSeffle Möbelfabrik - AB String-Seffle: a company monographOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

Seffle Möbelfabrik was founded in 1909. A number of cabinetmakers had become unemployed during the Great Strike and found work by setting up a worker-owned factory. Until 1957, the company was owned and operated by the 70 or so employees. With determination and intensive marketing, the company grew to become one of West Sweden's largest furniture industries in 1930. In 1957, the company was sold to Kaj Bonnier/String Design AB. In 1971, String-Seffle was taken over by Varia Industrier AB in Flen, which during these years was owned by Edvard Söderberg. He was also CEO of String-Seffle from 1972 to 1976. The company was declared bankrupt in 1979, and the company archives were dispersed. The project aims to document Seffle Möbelfabrik and its 70-year history. In addition to a description of the products and operations in Säffle, the documentation provides a picture of the development of Swedish furniture manufacturing - from craftsmanship to rational industry. Like many other companies, in the 1950s they made a major investment in design. In 1960 every third piece of furniture was exported. In the 1970s, String-Seffle was not alone in being affected by the recession, changing consumer habits and competition in the form of increasing furniture imports. Seffle Möbelfabrik belonged to the group of furniture companies that focused on high quality furniture. The result of the documentation will be published in book form, with factual text and rich images. Material and knowledge will be obtained from archives and a large number of private individuals.

Bodensten, ErikLund UniversityPublic diplomacy and foreign information influence in Sweden 1719-72Other2017

Amount granted: 247 000 SEK

This research project focuses on how incipient democratization in several European states in the 18th century made them vulnerable to public diplomacy and foreign information and influence campaigns in a qualitatively new way. The aim of the project is to investigate how other states (France, Russia, Great Britain and Denmark) sought to influence the foreign policy decision-making process in one such democratic state - libertarian Sweden (1719-72) - via domestic public opinion. Analytically, the focus is on how foreign disinformation in particular circulated in the Swedish media system. The overall question is how public diplomacy was used towards public opinion, voters and elected officials in Sweden during this period. By combining the research fields of international relations, diplomatic history and media history, this project provides new historical perspectives on an important contemporary social phenomenon.

Sterner, JohanLund UniversityNeanderthals and fire: Routine or opportunistic users?Other2017

Amount granted: SEK 145 833

When humans learned to control fire is controversial in archaeology. It is an important question because, according to many researchers, fire control defines the beginning of human behavior and culture. The oldest archaeological evidence of fire comes from Africa and dates to the early Stone Age. The problem with these fire findings is that they are ambiguous in terms of their correlation with archaeological material and therefore whether the fire evidence is actually caused by the great apes living at that time. Over the past decade, the relationship of Neanderthal man to fire has been debated. What has caused this debate is mainly the lack of fire-making tools from Neanderthal settlements and the fact that several sites lack traces of fire. Thus, some researchers have argued that Neanderthals were not able to make fire themselves, but collected and used it when it was available through natural fires (the opportunistic fire use hypothesis). In this research project, the hypotheses regarding Neanderthals' relationship with fire (routine or opportunistic users) are evaluated on a large source material from Western Europe. The research project documents the presence and absence of fire traces from Neanderthal settlements and compares them statistically with fire traces from early modern human settlements. This comparison is intended to provide a framework for evaluating the hypotheses of routine versus opportunistic fire use, as it is recognized that modern humans used and produced fire routinely.

Öhrström, ÅkeHistory of the Life GuardsHistory of the Life GuardsOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

On January 14, 1521, the day of Felix the Confessor, Gustav Eriksson (Vasa) was elected by the people of the East and West valleys as their chieftain and appointed leader of the liberation struggle against the Danes. At the same time, he was assigned a bodyguard of 'sixteen young men to watch over him and look after him'. This bodyguard accompanied him throughout the war of liberation and surrounded him when he arrived in Stockholm as King Gustav in midsummer 1523.This bodyguard is seen as the origin of today's Livgarde, which means that in 2021 the regiment will celebrate its 500th anniversary.

The planning of these jubilee activities has begun, and part of it includes supplementing the regimental history of the infantry up to 1976 and the cavalry up to 2000 with a description of the development 1977-2021. This will be done in two volumes. The historical works will be designed so that they are easily accessible to a wider readership but at the same time rest on a scientific basis.

Planck, BritaReason or emotion? Nobility, love and marriage 1750-1900Other2017

Amount granted: SEK 30 000

There is a common belief that marriage in the past had nothing to do with love. That marriage was more about alliances and property than individual happiness. Added to this is the idea that marriage was something in which the individual had little say, and that the family was in charge of choosing a marriage partner. The higher the status, the greater the role of property and birth, and the less influence the individual had over the choice. But is this true?

In 2014, I defended my thesis 'The Language of Love: Nobility, Love and Marriage 1750-1900', which showed that pragmatism was by no means the guiding principle in marriage. On the contrary, it was love that took center stage when marriage was discussed. But the results led to another question: did they mean the same thing as we do when talking about love? In a further study of two correspondence between engaged couples, I was able to show that in the 18th century correspondence the focus was on emotion, while the 19th century letters were more concerned with relationship building.

My thesis has attracted a lot of attention (among other things, it was awarded the Per Nyström Science Prize by the Kungl. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället i Göteborg) and the subject seems to interest a wider public. Since the edition of theses is small, and these contain a lot of scientific reasoning of little interest to non-historians, it will now be published in a popular science version.

Nitenberg, AnnelieWest Swedish archaeologyRulers in life and death. Power strategies in the Late Iron AgeOther2017

Amount granted: 82 500 SEK

The thesis project "Rulers in life and death. Social exclusivities and power strategies in Vänerbygd during the Late Iron Age" attempts to study and capture how social elites during the Vendel and Viking Age achieved and maintained positions of power in Vänerbygden, but also in the rest of Scandinavia. Between 2000 and 2012, the Sunnerby archaeological research project undertook annual excavations on an island in Lake Vänern in Västergötland. Sunnerby's soil proved to have a fantastic history, including a magnificent chief's burial in a large mound and a large farm with a hall building. Large mounds and large farm complexes with halls are the categories of archaeological traces that form the starting points of the thesis. The material traces of the events of the time constitute the main source material, but written material (runic inscriptions, Ynglingatal and Beowulf) is also analyzed based on a practice-oriented and connection-oriented analysis method. The aim is thus to study how the leading social elites, through specific actions, a certain lifestyle and with the help of socially exclusive objects, strategically acted in the socio-political arena, how they created and used a ruling ideology and expressed and maintained (negotiated, confirmed and renegotiated) power in a time before national formations and established royal powers.

Gunneriusson Wistman, ChristinaMuseum creation in the Swedish art field around the middle of the 20th centuryOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 160 000

The research project deals with Swedish museums and museum creation in Sweden. It aims to investigate new museums in Sweden at the middle of the 20th century. A number of museums of different types were opened at that time: regional museums, personal museums and e.g. Moderna Museet. The starting point is the founding of Moderna Museet. How were the discussions conducted and what role may have been played by Prince Eugen's art collection and Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde, which opened in 1948. How and why were other museums established? The so-called Folkhem period roughly coincides with the time this project examines - is this relevant for interpretation and analysis? An important part of the investigation concerns the museums' art collections: what has the collection looked like, what significance does art have for the collections and for the museum? The social function of art is a particularly important factor. Art is obvious at Moderna Museet and Waldemarsudde, but has a different role to play in the regional museums. Are the museums and collections still important and relevant? These are some of the questions the study focuses on, and which, regardless of how they are answered, will contribute to the story of Swedish museums and museum education and provide answers of importance and value for our time as well.

Klackenberg, DayThe Swedish History DaysThe Swedish History Days 2018Other2017

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The Swedish History Days is a non-profit organization with the purpose of creating annual opportunities for contacts between representatives of historical research, practitioners in the museum world and archive institutions, history teachers and a public interested in history. The purpose of the association is to, in collaboration with member organizations and other co-organizers, be responsible for the program activities within the framework of the history days and develop these into an annual opportunity for contacts and thus increase the historical knowledge of as many groups in society as possible. The ambition is therefore to present historical subjects and historical research in a way that is at a popular science level but also accessible to participants without specialist training.

For many history teachers, the History Days have become the main, even the only, opportunity for continuing education, especially in terms of reconnecting with the research community, and for historians, this forum provides a unique and widely appreciated opportunity to make new research results available. Several of the lectures are published in printed form.

Kleberg, LarsSödertörn UniversityTranslated drama in Sweden. Survey and bibliographyOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 52 350

Drama has long been a central part of Swedish cultural life. This also applies to translated drama, which has brought new ideas and aesthetic methods to Swedish theater and cultural life. The study of translated drama in Sweden can therefore provide interesting insights into different times' perceptions of the theater and translated drama as well as of art and society in general.

Yet there is no coherent research on the history of translated drama in Sweden. Even the most basic sources - the repertoire lists - have lacked a systematic review. Today there is hardly even a satisfactory overview of which translators have been the most important in our theater history. Even more limited is our knowledge of what they have actually done in bringing world literature to Sweden.

The editorial board of the Swedish Translator's Lexicon wants to make a comprehensive inventory of the translated dramatic repertoire in Swedish theaters around 1750-1910. The aim is to publish a bibliography with great potential usefulness for Swedish theater and literary historians as well as for the history of Swedish translation.

The inventory of unpublished translated drama will gather invaluable knowledge for further research. The picture of our theatrical and literary history will be broadened and deepened in a very important and hitherto neglected area.

Nilsen, AndrineUniversity of GothenburgWood, people and society; social dimensions of urban built environmentsOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 176 833

The thesis focuses on early modern wooden urban settlements (c. 1400-1799) and their social aspects, mainly focusing on Swedish conditions but also looking at other countries. Swedish wooden buildings can in many ways represent a cross-section of society from the hut, to burgher houses and wooden castles. Wooden houses are often seen as hovels and unstable, even though houses have been preserved from the 13th century. Today there are only a few early modern wooden houses left in our cities, a consequence of the demolition frenzy of the 1960s, therefore archaeological urban surveys constitute our main source of knowledge about these environments. The survey includes houses built in; knotted timber, half-timber or cross-timber. Research on archaeological remains and antiquarian studies of the preserved houses can be combined. Farm environments in relation to the city plan and infrastructure are examined. Wood was ubiquitous and played a major role in the creation of early modern living culture. Other important aspects of wooden cities are their role in building the nation state. The period saw a change in urban society. Cities underwent regularization, meaning that houses and blocks had to be moved to fit into a new urban plan with straight streets, some cities were relocated for defence purposes and a number of new cities were established. In the wake of this reorganization, combined with fires and wars, large-scale production of houses was required, with the movable wooden house being crucial.

Neuding Skoog, MartinStockholm UniversityIn the service of the kingdom - war, state and society in Sweden 1450-1550Other2017

Amount granted: 87 500 SEK

In his thesis, Martin Neuding Skoog shows how war and war preparations affected political development and changed the social organization of the Swedish Empire during the period 1450-1550. The study's institutional analysis presents for the first time a comprehensive and detailed picture of how the war organization of the late medieval Swedish empire looked like and in what way changing military conditions over time also affected the development towards the early modern state of the Vasa dynasty. The extensive empirical study deals with the importance of the salvation group, the church institution, the urban bourgeoisie, the peasants and the foreign warriors during the period.

In the larger social process that is highlighted, the transition from a coordinating to an organizing state is the central theme. The chronological delineation of the study innovatively bridges the usual periodization of the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, providing new perspectives on a particularly important political transition period in Swedish history. The author shows, for example, how Gustav Vasa's elimination of military competitors, innovative use of resources and introduction of a tax-financed war organization became instrumental for the ability to achieve political and dynastic consolidation in the kingdom. The study constitutes an important piece of the puzzle to illustrate how Swedish society was transformed from a medieval kingdom to an early modern state in military and political terms.

Nilsson, IsabellaThe Royal Academy for the Liberal Arts.Publication of the so-called 1806 Library of the Academy of Fine Arts.Other2017

Amount granted: SEK 182 000

In 2001 and 2007, the internationally important art and architecture library at the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts was preserved and housed in the room created by member Åke Axelsson thanks to generous grants from the Söderberg Foundations. The collection has a completely unique core of study and teaching materials for students and members from the 18th and early 19th centuries and serves one of the world's oldest surviving schools of architecture and the library. The 1806 library contains around 1200 works of significant value.

An important cataloging of the collection is currently being completed, made possible by the support of the Torsten Söderberg Foundation. This cataloging is being carried out by one of Sweden's foremost experts, Olof Kåhrström. The fact that this comprehensive catalogue will be the subject of an attractive, illustrated publication will also enhance our country's reputation in international research, in cultural history and its various branches of art, learning and book history, but also in libraries, antiquarian bookshops and auction houses worldwide. This catalog would offer an overview of a representative selection of the more important older art and architecture literature that databases can never provide. The printed publication of some 600 pages will be illustrated with beautiful photographs of frontispieces, illustrations and book volumes. It will begin with a short text on the history of the Academy and the collection.

by klinteberg, KristinaJewellery as the mainOther2017

Amount granted: 110 000 SEK

A long-standing interest and collection of both antique and modern hair jewelry, with provenance from large parts of Europe, has provided a special competence that is incorporated into general cultural history knowledge. The resulting book, "Jewelry as a Mainstay", thus provides an interesting and educational overview of how material and cultural history has developed in the field. Explanatory pictures of manufacture, design and use provide a vivid insight into the use of hair jewelry by the broader social strata in both joy and sorrow. The book combines theoretical and practical knowledge that appeals to both knowledge seekers and practical users. Peer reviewers, according to the appendices, in addition to approving the content and language, have also pointed out the lack of this segment in existing literature and other knowledge dissemination; both Swedish and English-language literature focuses only on the precious royal jewelry and not, like this, on a broader cultural history and use by larger groups of the population.

Fischer, PeterFriends of the Swedish Cyprus ExpeditionHala Sultan Tekke, Cyprus: Exploration of the Bronze Age city and portOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

In international archaeological circles, the Cypriot Bronze Age city of Hala Sultan Tekke, excavated by the Söderberg expedition led by the University of Gothenburg applicant, is widely recognized as one of the most important during the period 1600-1150 BC. The protected location of the port city favored long-distance trade with cultures around the Mediterranean including Egypt but also with Mesopotamia, Central Europe and the North. Cyprian copper from this period has been found e.g. on Öland, in Uppland and Värmland and on Jutland. The aim of this subproject is to map the extent of the Bronze Age city and harbor and to search for possible shipwrecks. Preliminary surveys in 2017 with several magnetometers mounted in parallel on a cart enabled a scanning width of 5 meters, allowing a 20 hectare area within the city to be surveyed in one week. The objective of the complementary project is to 1. determine the total area of the city through continued magnetic prospecting which is fast and efficient but does not provide details of buried structures; 2. complete the survey of interesting structures with georadar providing more detailed information; 3. survey the harbor/shipwreck with magnetometer and georadar. According to Cypriot law, all areas where ancient remains can be detected by exploration are protected. The results of the project will therefore contribute to the protection of our common cultural heritage and provide opportunities to continue a Swedish archaeological tradition in Cyprus that dates back to the 1920s.

Andersson, KentIron Age Clenodes - 30 Archaeological Finds with Hidden StoriesOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The monograph "Klenoder" presents 30 selected objects/finds from the Iron Age (c. 400 BC-1050 AD). The selected "clay objects" are placed in their cultural-historical context and with their help tell the story of a relatively unknown period in Swedish history. The presentation is not only limited to the historical context of the objects, but the stories also include those who found them, those who researched and interpreted them and those who exhibited them in different contexts. In this way, the reader gains an understanding and knowledge of the historical period of the Iron Age, but also an insight into how history is constantly interpreted and reinterpreted. And also how, through new knowledge, museum objects can be reconstructed in new ways as a result of changes in the state of knowledge. The "gems" selected range from a gold collar, a Vendel helmet from Vendel to an insignificant Chinese silk fragment found in a Viking Age grave at Birka. With the help of the objects/finds, the reader becomes acquainted with those who once used the objects but also with the period to which they belong. The presentation is illustrated with a number of pictures of objects, investigators, discoverers, exhibition pictures, ancient site environments and people who in some way came into contact with the objects. The language is written to attract a public interested in cultural history.

Lennartsson, RebeckaMedieval MuseumAmong these walls of Sodom. Prostitution in the 18th century cityOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

In 1747, 17-year-old Lena Cajsa Bohman is brought to court, accused by her own father, master carpenter Anders Bohman, of disobedience. She soon confesses to contact with the procurer Lovisa von Plat. This is the beginning of a unique, detailed and puzzling insight into 18th century prostitution. The trial material allows us to follow Lena Cajsa through her life. In combination with a variety of sources from 4 years of research, it forms the basis for a rich, broad and analytical history of prostitution in 18th century Stockholm, at a time when the word prostitution was not used and all extramarital and premarital sex was illegal for both women and men. A patriarchal social structure based on God's commandments was reflected in the laws. Horstigmat was reproduced at all levels of society, from legal practice to a popular tradition of grotesque 'hordes'. At the same time, a young girl from the bourgeoisie could live more or less openly as a 'publican' and still escape punishment and marry nobly. With a micro perspective and in comparison with the regulated prostitution of the 19th century, the picture of 18th century Stockholm becomes more multifaceted. While other early modern stigmas - the rascal, the executioner, the witch - have withered away with changing laws and norms, horstigmat persists. The project seeks to explain why horstigmat has survived the Enlightenment, Romanticism, modernity and the sexual revolution, and provides new knowledge to a strangely unhistorical contemporary prostitution debate.

Norrby, GöranRivals for powerOther2017

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

The book 'Maktens rivaler 1755-1792' examines the fierce struggle for political power in Sweden between the Royal House and the House of Lords - for parliamentary power or royal autocracy - which went on continuously for forty years, from the Estates of the Free State to the Gustavian autocracy. The struggle was sometimes open, sometimes hidden, but it was always very much alive. It was also fought with surprisingly dirty means on both sides: repeated constitutional violations, military-led coups and treasonous conspiracies on one side, corruption, political courts and covert intrigues on the other. The investigation focuses on the four personalities at the center of the conflict: Queen Lovisa Ulrika, her son Gustav III, the leader of the House of Lords, Axel von Fersen, and the 'schemer' Carl Fredrik Pechlin.

Erhardt, SophieKarolinska InstituteNovel Immune activation-based Drug Discovery Strategies for psychiatric disordersMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 3 000 000

Our project aims to identify biomarkers for psychiatric symptoms such as psychosis and suicidal thoughts. The aim is to refine clinical diagnostics and to promote personalized care. The research is hypothesis-driven and focuses on a low-grade inflammatory condition, and includes biochemical analyses on material from a large number of cohorts with different psychiatric disorders. Based on genetic and biochemical variations, we develop and validate animal models for detailed investigation of brain immune activation, neurotransmission and behavior. The project will combine extensive genetic and phenotypic information from patients with animal and cellular studies in a translational manner. A short-term goal is to find biomarkers to personalize drug treatment and identify patients at risk of suicide. A long-term strategic goal is to provide the Swedish pharmaceutical industry with information on new targets that directly relate to the mechanisms that cause the disease and improve productivity and quality of life for individuals with this lifelong disease. Based on our finding that patients with psychotic symptoms have elevated levels of kynurenic acid, several pharmaceutical companies have developed drug candidates that reduce the synthesis of kynurenic acid. We now have clear data showing that it is important to block another enzyme and are now also seeking funding to initiate a drug discovery project.Eriksson, UlfKarolinska InstituteRole of VEGF-B mediated lipotoxicity in diabetic complicationsMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Type 2 diabetes is a major medical challenge with several hundred million patients worldwide. The disease is also increasing rapidly and by 2030 the number of patients worldwide will exceed 500 million. Type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications are thus a dominant health problem with a strong socio-economic impact. The cause of the disease is not fully understood, despite the considerable resources invested in research over a long period of time. The onset of type 2 diabetes is strongly linked to vascular complications, resulting in reduced quality of life and premature death for many diabetes patients. We have identified a new and unique way to reduce insulin resistance, the initial pathological event leading to type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, by affecting the transport of blood fats through the blood vessel wall and thus the ability of different tissues to accumulate fat. This is achieved by regulating signaling via a vascular growth factor called VEGF-B. The overall aim of the research program is to investigate the role that VEGF-B signaling plays in the blood vessels in the development of type 2 diabetes, and in the diabetes complications seen in large and small blood vessels. We will focus on molecular, cellular and organ-specific events controlled by VEGF-B signaling, and the consequences of pathological fat storage and its role in disease development.Brorsson, Ann-ChristinLinköping UniversityLysozyme: A new treatment strategy for Alzheimer's diseaseMedicine2016

Amount granted: 616 000 SEK

My research team has recently discovered that the protein lysozyme may have a neuroprotective effect in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by the formation of protein aggregates (plaques) in the brain that are mostly composed of the peptide Abeta. In our studies, we identified elevated levels of lysozyme in cerebrospinal fluid from AD patients and that the protein is localized in plaques in AD brains. We also saw that lysozyme can prevent aggregation and formation of toxic Abeta forms. Lysozyme was also shown to have a neuroprotective effect and the ability to counteract the disease process in transgenic Drosophila flies that can develop AD. In this project, we will map the mechanisms by which lysozyme can protect neurons from toxic Abeta peptides and block the formation of toxic Abeta forms. This knowledge will be crucial to understand the role of lysozyme in AD and determine the potential for lysozyme to be a therapeutic target for the disease.Landegren, UlfUppsala UniversityDevelopment of pair-binding drugsMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Drug development is expensive and difficult. New approaches are needed to more effectively develop highly specific drugs against a wide range of proteins. In the context of our successful work to develop proximity ligation for protein diagnostics, we note that detection of proteins requires the use of pairs of antibodies to achieve the desired specificity. We now want to utilize our knowledge of proximity ligation, as well as our experience in using DNA-coupled drugs for detection purposes, to develop a new technique to select pairs of drug substances that bind together to target molecules. The aim is to greatly improve treatment effects and minimize side effects. Our work, conducted in collaboration with SciLifeLab and its drug development arm, will utilize commercial libraries of drug compounds, linked to unique DNA strands. We will use proximity ligation to find pairs of compounds that together bind drug targets. The expected increase in binding strength will allow utilization of lower amounts of drugs, and reduce the risk of interference from extraneous proteins. We will also adapt such coincidental binders for exploitation as drugs, and we will compare their pharmacological effects with more conventional drugs in model experiments.Pekna, MarcelaUniversity of GothenburgNew treatment strategy for obstetric asphyxia and strokesMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 3 000 000

Cerebral ischemia, i.e. oxygen deprivation due to lack of blood circulation after a stroke or during childbirth (asphyxia), causes great suffering for patients and their families and high costs to society. Brain cells in the ischemic tissue die and their functions are lost. Depending on the area of the brain affected, this can lead to difficulty controlling voluntary movements, loss of sensation, language and swallowing difficulties, epilepsy and more. Birth asphyxia with acute brain damage is an important cause of cerebral palsy. There is currently no effective way to repair damaged brain tissue and current research focuses on reducing the damage and improving functional recovery by stimulating the brain's plasticity that underpins our ability to learn and adapt.The complement system is part of the innate immune system and is best known for protecting us from dangerous bacteria. However, the complement system also has other important functions, not least in the brain. We have discovered that the complement system can protect brain cells from ischemia and stimulate the regeneration of neurons after a stroke. Our results show that treatment with a specific complement peptide increases brain plasticity and improves functional recovery after experimental stroke and birth asphyxia. Our goal is to build on these findings to develop new effective treatments for newborn children and adults with ischemic brain damage.Bergman, PeterKarolinska InstituteNew treatment against multi-resistant bacteria by activating natural immunityMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 1 600 000

The goal of the project is to use a cellular infection model to study the activation of effector mechanisms in the natural immunity, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMP), autophagy and free oxygen radicals, which can contribute to the killing of resistant bacteria. We are already working on compounds that increase AMP production and activate autophagy, such as vitamin D and phenylbutyrate (PBA). In clinical studies, we have shown that vitamin D can reduce the burden of infection in immunosuppressed patients and that the combination of vitamin D and PBA can improve outcomes in tuberculosis. Now we have identified several new AMP inducers (APDs) that are more potent than both vitamin D and PBA. We have shown that an APD activates human macrophages and enables these cells to kill Klebsiella bacteria. The effect relies on a combination of free oxygen radicals, AMP and autophagy, making it extremely difficult for bacteria to develop resistance to this massive and coordinated immune attack. Interestingly, this APD also works against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella bacteria and together with cefotaxime a potent and synergistic effect is seen. Cefotaxime alone has no effect at all against these multi-resistant bacteria, but together with this APD, which activates the cell's own immune system, the resistant bacteria also die. "Now we want to go further and investigate the mechanisms in detail, include more bacteria, start animal studies and plan for clinical trials.Ceccatelli, SandraKarolinska InstituteA novel approach to choose the best individual antidepressant treatmentMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major cause of disability and affects the working age population worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be around 10% in the general population (5% in Japan and 16% in the US). This serious disease has a major negative impact on both the individual and society. It takes several weeks, up to months, for the usual antidepressant medications to take effect, and symptom relief is achieved in only 30-40% of MDD patients. Thus, there is a strong need to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with depression. This project aims to develop a cost-effective and minimally invasive method to predict the response to antidepressant medication. The assay can be used in a clinical setting and represents a new diagnostic method for MDD patients with the aim of selecting the group that is sensitive to a particular antidepressant. This would prevent patients from taking a drug with no therapeutic effect for several months. The method we have developed is based on: 1. analysis of the patient's activity recorded with a bracelet; 2. analysis of genes (clock genes) in the patient's skin cells. The results will help doctors confirm the diagnosis and choose the right antidepressant treatment. Thus, shortening the duration of treatment and suffering, and giving new hope to patients with depression. In the longer term, it is possible that our method could also be applied to patients with other psychiatric conditions.Smith, UlfUniversity of GothenburgType 2 diabetes - new markers and mechanismsMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 100 000

The application (two years) is focused on our new findings with a clear clinical translational connection. Within the period, we expect to initiate a clinical study with anti-Gremlin treatment of obese Type 2 diabetics (T2D) in collaboration with the pharmaceutical industry. All development work has been conducted at our laboratory, including with grants from the Foundation in 2014, and we have published a first work (Diabetes 2015) - however, outside the planned IPR application.Gremlin inhibits the effects of insulin in several tissues, is highly expressed and released by adipose tissue leading to high blood levels in obesity/T2D. It is also highly expressed in human macrophages and involved in M1/M2 phenotype regulation and inflammation. We will develop new animal models and identify sequences/signaling/receptors that inhibit insulin effects and drive inflammation.We have identified blood mannose as a novel and powerful marker for the risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular disease (Cell Metab 2016). It is unknown whether mannose is just a novel biomarker or of pathogenetic importance but our studies suggest the latter. We are planning to clarify this and initiate a clinical study with mannose administration.We have found that the microvascular endothelial cells regulate the ability of adipose tissue to normally take up and store lipids via the release of endogenous PPAR-activating lipids and that GPR 40 and ATGL play a crucial role in this. We will identify the lipids, synthesize them and clarify their clinical relevance.Benson, MikaelLinköping UniversityMulticellular disease models to find and functionally validate new drug targets in immune diseasesMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Treatment of inflammatory diseases is complicated by the fact that many different molecules and cell types are involved, and that these may differ at different times. Ideally, treatment would target an early molecule in an early cell type. This would require a multi-cellular disease model, showing in turn how all molecules in all cell types interact throughout the disease process. We recently described disease models in a single cell type, T cells, showing early and late disease processes in two inflammatory diseases, allergy and multiple sclerosis (Science Transl Medicine 2014 and 2015, Cell Reports 2016). The models were based on studying the activity of all human genes in T cells. We identified several molecules that could be suitable for targeted therapy. One of these was validated in an animal model of allergy, as well as by in vitro treatment of cells from allergic patients with a specific antibody. We now want to go further by constructing multicellular models of allergy and multiple sclerosis. The models are like puzzles where the pieces (=cells) are connected by linking molecules known to interact with each other. This will be done at different times to find out which cells start the diseases. We will search for 'starter molecules' and experimentally study whether these can be used for targeted treatment. If successful, the strategy may be transferable to find new medicines for all inflammatory diseases.Hansson, Göran K.Kungl. Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Academy Chair in Medicine 2017Medicine2016

Amount awarded: SEK 10 300 000

The Torsten Söderberg Foundation is currently funding five academic professorships in medicine at the level of SEK 2 million per year for five years. There is a great need for this type of research position, where proven outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further strengthen and develop their research. It is an important part of further strengthening Swedish research in the light of international developments.The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis is placed on research carried out during the last five-year period. The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed.Andersson, UlfKarolinska InstituteDevelopment of new therapy for systemic inflammatory diseases using HMGB1 antagonistsMedicine2016

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

An alarmin is a preformed molecule with a specific given intracellular cellular function but which can be released extracellularly as an inflammatory distress signal when cellular homeostasis is threatened. Our project studies whether therapeutic extracellular neutralization of the prototypical alarmin HMGB1, a common nuclear protein in all cells of the animal and plant kingdom, offers a possibility to improve the outcome of severe inflammatory systemic diseases, which are currently without effective therapy. We were instrumental in identifying HMGB1 as a key alarmin in 1999 and have since dedicated our research to HMGB1 biology. We have recently, for the first time ever, developed a neutralizing human anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody with impressive therapeutic efficacy in several different disease models mediated by HMGB1-TLR4 signaling. A typical example of such a disease is systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by severe trauma or sepsis. This antibody will be brought to clinical trials with the financial support of a US academic institution. HMGB1 may also mediate tissue damage via interaction with RAGE receptors, where a better understanding of the mechanisms of action is required, which we aim to explore. We intend to select an HMGB1-specific Affibody® molecule to block RAGE binding.Typical diseases with this molecular background are systemic lupus erythematosus and several important neurodegenerative diseases.Zander, LenaUppsala UniversityHighly skilled migrants: Cultural integration in Swedish companiesEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 1 789 750

The importance of the project lies in the ambition to provide theoretical and empirical solutions to current societal problems and global challenges caused by a lack of multicultural integration in the workplace in the wake of international migration. The overall aim is a deeper understanding of cultural integration of highly skilled migrants in Swedish multinational companies from both an individual and an organizational perspective.The aim is not primarily to problematize migration and integration. Instead, the project assumes that highly qualified migrants have much to offer companies and societies, and therefore focuses on - from the migrants' point of view - identifying, describing and analyzing ways to exploit the potential for business and social development that this migration can entail. Historical facts indicate that some countries, such as Sweden, have been very good at extracting the knowledge and ideas of these migrants, which has benefited individuals, organizations and society.Åström Rudberg, ElinStockholm School of Economics, EHFFFor the good of advertising. The advertising industry, the press and the advertising market 1915-1965Economy2016

Amount granted: SEK 837 000

Advertising and marketing are intimately associated with modern society; in 2015, the total cost of advertising in Sweden amounted to over SEK 68 billion or 1.6 percent of Sweden's GDP. Research on the historical roots of advertising is extensive, both in Sweden and internationally, but there has been a great lack of source material from the advertising industry which has limited previous studies. The project "För reklamens bästa. The Swedish advertising industry, the daily press and the battle for the advertising market 1915-1965" has gained access to a new and extensive source material, which provides a unique opportunity to study the development of the advertising industry over a long period of time and answer research questions that were previously impossible to answer. While the development covers several aspects of business history, the project will focus on investigating a long-standing cartel in the advertising industry that was based on close cooperation between the largest advertising agencies and the newspapers. The cartel, which is unique from an international perspective, shaped the advertising market for five decades. How the cooperation worked, how it was legitimized and also what effects it had, especially for the development of the advertising industry in Sweden, are the main research questions. The project will provide an important contribution to the Swedish advertising history research and also to the international research on cartels, which in principle lacks studies from the service and knowledge sector.Tell, FredrikUppsala UniversityAn emerging technology market: Actors in the Swedish patent system, 1819-1930Economy2016

Amount granted: SEK 438 580

Patenting the knowledge developed by an inventor or a company involves the creation of an intellectual property right to ensure that the knowledge is documented and that the rights of the rightful author are protected against, for example, copying by competitors. In addition, the patent is a right that can be sold or licensed provided that there is a demand for the knowledge, the producer of the knowledge is willing to sell or share the knowledge and considers the compensation offered to be fair. The resulting transactions take place in what are known as technology markets. The aim of the project is to map the emergence of the Swedish patent system during the period 1819-1930, especially with regard to its consequences for the emergence of technology markets for patents. To achieve this purpose, the participants in the research project use unique data in the form of a database of all Swedish patents for the period and archival material that provides examples of the behavior of Swedish companies and inventors. The main interest is in trying to understand and explain how different actors act within the patent system and in what respects technology markets have emerged and in what form. The research project is conducted in three sub-projects: 1) The emergence of the patent system and the institutional conditions of technology markets; 2) Technology market actors: Size, geography, strategies and search patterns; 3) Networks and relationships: Intermediaries and internationalization.Ax, ChristianUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawAccounting and social trendsEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 738 900

A distinctive development in accounting research is the growing interest in studying issues related to the external environment of organizations. Particularly distinctive is the explicit focus on the relationship between social trends and accounting. The central argument for this type of research is that it significantly increases the timeliness and social relevance of the research. This project, which consists of six sub-projects with varying specific research questions and objectives, focuses on a number of current societal trends - striving for/demands for sustainable development, financial crises, globalization and changes in market conditions - and relates them to equally current accounting issues - harmonization and globalization of accounting, accounting quality, integrated reporting, the link between management/governance and the effects of crises in and for organizations (especially banks) and the development/testing of methodologies/approaches for the implementation of sustainability efforts in organizations. The project does not intend to contribute new knowledge only to the research literature, but also in several respects to other accounting stakeholders, primarily standard setters and regulators (e.g. International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), EU and FAR), organizations (e.g. management and accountants) and financial market participants. The knowledge the projects are expected to generate is also highly relevant to accounting education.Wissén, PehrInstitute for Financial ResearchConference on technology and securities tradingEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 450 000

The Swedish House of Finance (formerly the Institute for Financial Research) organizes an annual conference on a theme in financial economics. This year's theme is technology and securities trading. The conference is based on a dialog between academic economists and representatives from the financial industry. We intend to highlight how the industry can adapt to new technologies, market structures, and regulations, such as blockchain technology for securities trading and clearing, electronic trading based on artificial intelligence, competition between trading venues, exchange trading for bonds and derivative products, and MiFID II.Husebye, AlexanderThe Center for Business History AssociationAnnounced new editions of business history classicsEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 280 000

The Center for Business History wants to start publishing a book series with selected classics in Swedish and international business history, economic history and business history. The publication will take place within the framework of the newly established publishing house Näringslivshistoria. This will enable historical works that are in demand to be disseminated and used again in teaching, research, archives and among readers interested in business history. The classics series will also help to establish and manifest business history as a subject area in its own right and with a core of central literature.The aim is threefold. Firstly, the project aims to create practical conditions for such a publication by developing procedures, production forms and physical design of the book series. Secondly, the aim is to carry out a general survey of relevant literature in the field and, based on this, to make an initial selection or list for publication and to sign agreements with the relevant publishers and rights holders. Thirdly, the aim is to start publishing the first titles in the series, with new introductions and commentaries written by researchers in the field.Lodefalk, MagnusÖrebro UniversityForeign trade financing policies - a microeconomic evaluationEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 1 457 020

For many companies, especially smaller ones, international business can be risky - companies don't know if the foreign buyer will pay. Therefore, countries often offer government support in the form of insurance and loans. Globally, 10% of world exports were insured in 2014, equivalent to USD 1.9 trillion - a more than 50% increase compared to the beginning of the financial crisis. For Sweden, outstanding insurance and loans amounted to SEK 400 billion.Despite the scale of the interventions, research is very limited due to a lack of data. Swedish support has never been analyzed. We have gained access to uniquely detailed data that makes it possible for the first time to analyze the effects of government interventions on the internationalization and growth of Swedish companies over time. For the small and open Swedish economy, knowledge of the potential effects of the aid is particularly important. Based on our theoretical model, we quantify the effects on firms' internationalization, integration into global production networks, jobs and growth.The aim is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the complex role of government interventions. With this new knowledge, policy makers and authorities in the field are expected to have a much more solid basis for deciding on the design of financial support to achieve growth and internationalization objectives. In turn, businesses are expected to benefit practically from new knowledge on how to finance their foreign trade.Husebye, AlexanderThe Center for Business History AssociationBiography of Per Olof (Pelle) SöderbergEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The Center for Business History is conducting a book project telling the life of Per Olof (Pelle) Söderberg. Pelle Söderberg is one of several successful entrepreneurs who characterized the Swedish business community in the 19th century, as well as a leading figure in the Söderberg family. The project also aims to fill a gap - Sweden's economic development in the 19th century has been described in general terms, especially in economic history, but biographies of individual entrepreneurs are all the more rare.The project is divided into three stages: the first stage involves research focusing on sources that have not been used so far (private material, public archives, newspapers, etc.); the second stage involves text production; the third stage involves layout and printing. In the course of the project, two seminars will be organized to evaluate sources and scripts.The book on Pelle Söderberg will be published by Förlaget Näringslivshistoria and presented at the Gothenburg Book Fair in 2018.Andersson, MagnusUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawEarly banking in Sweden during the industrialization process 1850-1920Economy2016

Amount granted: SEK 885 000

The purpose of the study is to show the importance of the emerging banks in Sweden and their actors in the transition from merchant capitalist to industrial capitalist financing starting around 1850. The size and expansion of lending can be estimated, among other things, by studying the bank inspectors' assessments of different banks over time. The archive material makes it possible to carefully follow and analyze the banks' activities over long periods of time. This includes each bank's assets, liabilities and credit portfolios. The development of the borrowing companies was thus closely followed.In a first sub-study, I study the conditions in Gothenburg in particular, as a natural continuation of my previous studies in the field of credit, with trading houses at the forefront. Previously, trading houses and other informal actors had to a large extent handled the granting of credit and the mediation of goods and other services. A second sub-study examines the importance of the domestic exchange rate for banks' credit expansion. The third sub-study is a study of the three largest and most important banks for Sweden's industrial development during the period, Svenska Handelsbanken Stockholms Enskilda Bank and Skandinaviska Kredit AB.Ekström, Karin M.University of BoråsConsumer behavior - classic and contemporary perspectivesEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Translation of the textbook "Consumer behavior - classical and contemporary perspectives" from Swedish to English. The book is written by Karin M. Ekström, Mikael Ottosson and Anders Parment. Knowledge of consumer behavior is central to the subject of marketing and the book will be of interest for courses at universities and colleges that focus on marketing and trade, but also for practitioners who are in need of knowledge in this area. Commerce, which employs around 500,000 people, needs to increase its level of education and the book will contribute to this. Examples from commerce are given throughout the book.Edvinsson, RodneyStockholm UniversityProperty prices in Stockholm city center from the 17th century to todayEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 525 000

The rise in housing prices in Stockholm over the past 20 years is unprecedented in a historical perspective. The relationship between real estate prices and various fundamental factors is a highly controversial issue. Some argue that fundamental factors are responsible for the higher housing prices. Others warn of an imminent crash. A longer time horizon can add nuance to this discussion. Over the past 150 years, four real estate price crashes have occurred: 1905-1918, 1931-1955, 1979-1985 and 1990-1995. All four crashes followed an extended period of price increases, construction boom and economic crisis. The lessons learned from these crashes are still relevant.The main objective of the project is to reconstruct a historical real estate index for the inner city of Stockholm since the 17th century. This index will be used to analyze long-term trends and short-term fluctuations. The reconstruction of a real estate price index is complicated not least by the difficulty of measuring qualitative changes. Two methods used are either to follow only the sales price of the same dwelling or to follow the ratio between market price and assessed value. Both aim to keep quality constant, and both will be used in this study. For the earlier period, however, the index will be based on average price changes.Schneider, ChristophStockholm School of Economics, SIRTransparent calculations for the sale of capital equipmentEconomy2016

Amount granted: 410 000 SEK

The aim of the project is to study open book accounting (OBA) in the sale of capital equipment.OBA was established as a new field in the financial management literature in the 1990s. The research stems from the observation that firms have become increasingly interdependent. On average, companies purchase more than 50% of their goods and services from business partners. At the same time, the products purchased have become increasingly complex and require close cooperation and information exchange between firms. The OBA literature focuses on such systematic, confidential financial and non-financial information exchanges. A large number of studies have been conducted with a focus on component purchases where it has been shown that OBA is designed and used in different ways depending on whether the components are standardized or specified by the supplier, the customer or both.At the same time, OBA has not been studied for capital equipment, which have been important products for the Swedish export industry and are characterized by large investments and even larger consequential costs. Capital equipment requires continuous maintenance with spare parts and downtime can lead to high consequential costs. OBA could be used here, but its design is complicated by the self-interest of customers, subcontractors and independent service companies.This leads to three questions: 1) How can OBA be used and 2) designed in the sale of capital equipment? 3) How does this form of OBA differ from previously studied ones?Rovira Nordman, EmiliaStockholm School of Economics, SIRInternationalization behavior in medium-sized retail companiesEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 698 900

Medium-sized enterprises in Sweden can be considered an important engine of economic growth. However, these companies are still few in number. The aim of this project is to understand how Swedish small businesses in the retail sector manage to expand their operations abroad and grow into medium-sized enterprises. Swedish retail companies are often dependent on foreign sales for continued growth. To achieve the purpose, we will study growth processes in small businesses by analyzing two databases. The qualitative database will be based on secondary data from retail companies. Specifically, we will conduct five case studies on retail companies that have managed to grow from small to medium size. The quantitative data collection will be conducted via an online survey to a larger group of internationally operating retail companies. The collected survey data will be complemented by secondary data. Planned methods to analyze the collected data include factor analysis and cox regressions. By combining case studies with new sets of objective data sources (covering long periods of time), the project can contribute to existing research on retail companies. The project aims to contribute to the development of the international research front and to generate knowledge for practitioners with an interest in helping retail companies succeed in long-term international growth.Ling, JohanUniversity of GothenburgRock carvings and economic cyclesEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 390 000

The proposed project's starting point is that the rock carvings are a unique source material that can be linked to economic cycles in the metal trade and that the rock carving material can thus contribute actively to the knowledge of the social and economic history of the Bronze Age. Archaeological finds and analyses indicate that during the Bronze Age, 1700-500 BCE, the Nordic countries were part of complex interregional metal exchange networks. These networks changed over time in relation to the availability of copper and tin, which means that we can talk about economic cycles in the metal trade. The Nordic rock carvings were thus influenced by the European regions and networks that supplied metal to Scandinavia and the rock carvings reflect both networks and economic cycles in an exciting way. The project aims to identify ups and downs in rock carving practice and to relate them to overall economic and social cycles. Svenskt Hällristnings Forsknings Arkiv (SHFA) has access to a new 3D documentation material of rock carvings and the idea is now to make a book that presents and links the new material to our research idea. There is great international interest in the new information that has emerged thanks to the new 3D techniques. SHFA has previously published several books with the renowned English publisher Oxbow, which has an extensive international distribution network, and we see this as a suitable forum for the upcoming book.Berggren, NiclasInstitute for Business ResearchTrust, tolerance and growth - new approaches to finding causal linksEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 680 000

It is not a given that an economy will function well and contribute to increased prosperity. In recent years, economists have recognized that laws and regulations are important and affect people's willingness and ability to behave productively. 'Soft' factors such as morals and norms, and social attitudes such as trust and tolerance are also studied. For example, honesty and trustworthiness can stimulate economic growth by enabling innovative risk-taking and smooth transactions. This project studies precisely how such cultural and social factors have an economic impact. Particular emphasis is placed on trying to establish causal relationships, i.e. what causes what in society. For example, there is much evidence that social trust leads to economic growth, but it is also possible that economic growth promotes trust in a society. Methodologically, it is often difficult to determine which is the case, but it is of great importance to clarify the nature of the causal relationship, not least to be able to give more precise advice to economic policy makers on how they should formulate policy. In this project, we build on the research we conducted with funding from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation in 2015-2016. In three subprojects, we explore how individuals' norms are shaped and how norms affect their choices, as well as the relationships between norms, institutions, and economic outcomes at the country level. Within each subproject, we use a newly developed methodology that allows us to establish causal relationships.Fritz, MartinSweden's man in London - Björn Prytz private archiveEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

The private archive of Björn Prytz, Swedish envoy in London during the Second World War, which has been made available to me, has now been examined and, together with material from the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the British Foreign Office, has proved to be the basis for a book. This study focuses on Prytz's work in London to explain and defend Sweden's actions but also to report to the Swedish Foreign Office on British policy towards Sweden.Rydqvist, KristianStockholm School of EconomicsHistorical share price and accounting databaseEconomy2016

Amount granted: SEK 350 000

Swedish share price and accounting data are available in the Finda database from 1979 onwards. The purpose of this project is to update the Finda database back to 1912. The work of collecting daily share prices and turnover figures has been completed. We have also collected and scanned almost all 7314 annual reports for listed companies 1912-1978. Only 186 remain. The scanning of annual reports has been financed by the Torsten Söderberg Foundation. This part of the project concerns the punching of the income statements and balance sheets. As soon as the punched material becomes available, we will standardize the accounting information so that it can be submitted to the existing Finda database.Sundevall, FiaStockholm UniversityPoverty care and the ballot paper: the economic stratification of voting rights after 1921Economy2016

Amount granted: SEK 123 750

The project aims to explore the limitations of the political citizenship of poor relief recipients after the democratic breakthrough. When so-called universal suffrage was introduced in 1921, a number of grounds for disqualification remained. Most of those who continued to be disqualified from voting did so because they were regular recipients of poor relief. It was not until 1945 that the right to vote was extended to those on poor relief. By mapping and analyzing how these restrictions were legitimized, practiced, challenged and finally abolished, important empirical contributions can be generated on both the development of Swedish voting rights after 1921, and on how society's economically vulnerable were understood, excluded and defended during a sociopolitical and economically revolutionary period in Swedish history.Bratt, StinaStockholm UniversityCompeting claimsJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 1 672 000

The project aims to examine the limits of contractual and non-contractual liability. The problem of competing claims has been considered by the Supreme Court in recent years. The consequence of this practice is an intertwining of two traditionally separate areas of law. This is a legal challenge and the subject is highly topical. The question of who in a contractual chain can be held liable and under what conditions is a challenge to the system of property law that was previously so self-evident. New tools are needed to analyze which rules are most appropriate today, not least to deal with increasing globalization and more complex contractual chains. For the regulation of contractual and non-contractual liability to work in today's society, these issues need to be further explored.Holst, FredrikStockholm UniversityRules of engagement: Legal aspects in peace operations - a Nordic perspectiveJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 273 333

In international peace operations, Swedish and other countries' military units follow so-called Rules of Engagement (ROE). These are based on legal but also political and military operational considerations. International and national law sets the external framework for ROE, which regulates the use of force and violence, e.g. to protect the civilian population in a conflict zone. The ultimate aim of the project is for staff to know that they have legal support to apply the rules that governments have directly or indirectly accepted.As a command and control instrument, the rules of engagement are often decided at a high strategic level by the organisation responsible for the peacekeeping force, which leads the operation under a mandate from the UN. To some extent, participating countries can influence the ROE. Soldiers, sailors and airmen, who have no influence, assume that the rules of engagement cover all considerations (and are within the scope of international and national law) and that applying them is generally sufficient. Since the view of ROE seems to be different, there is uncertainty about this and the project therefore aims to investigate and discuss the legal status of ROE in peace operations in Sweden and in other Nordic countries that contribute with personnel. Instead of focusing on substantial but often secret rules in detail, the project deals with process-related issues such as how the rules of engagement come about, how they are accepted and what weight these rules have or should have.Henriksson, LarsStockholm School of Economics, SIRSustainability and award criteria in public procurementJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 1 720 000

Public procurement involves very large economic values in Sweden and Europe. An issue that has received increasing attention is sustainable public procurement - especially with a focus on environmental, social challenges and other values than the strictly economic and technical ones. This research project aims to clarify the legal possibilities and limits for taking such factors into account in the context of public procurement. The inclusion of such soft values in procurement makes the process and evaluation more complex than, for example, evaluation according to the lowest price principle. There is a strong need to clarify the legal situation in this area for both contracting entities and businesses.Nerep, ErikStockholm School of Economics, SIRDistribution of decisions and competences in limited liability companiesJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 1 720 000

The project will investigate whether the Swedish model of corporate governance is appropriate and effective. For example, is there reason to consider the introduction of a supervisory body in Swedish stock market companies, at least as an alternative to other corporate governance models, and what would be the advantages of such a system? The project will also investigate whether, as an alternative to the German dualist system, there is reason to investigate and consider whether the principles of corporate governance in the United States and the United Kingdom should be given greater influence in the Swedish company law system.Kellgren, JanLinköping UniversityEvents after the end of the reporting period - what is their significance in external accounting and income taxation?Jurisprudence2016

Amount granted: 503 200 SEK

Within the framework of this project, legal science is investigating where the decisive points in time for legal assessments lie in accounting law and income from business activities (i.e. at what point in time circ*mstances should be, or not be, as described by the rules), and what significance events thereafter have (e.g. as evidence and in connection with so-called transaction chain assessments, inspections, etc.) The issues are largely unregulated or unclear and the situation is unsatisfactory both theoretically and because legal certainty in accounting and taxation is compromised.In terms of business economics, it is examined, via interviews, whether the thinking in accounting circles (in this area) is based on economic rationality or whether there is some kind of bias - which the results clearly indicate is the case.The planned final part of this study is an investigation (one legal and one business administration) of the corresponding conditions in our three closer Nordic neighbors - and a comparison with Swedish conditions.Brokelind, CécileLund UniversityThe principle of abuse of rights in the EU and Sweden - justice or legal certainty?Jurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 880 000

The research project focuses on tax law and EU law. The purpose of the project is to analyze the concept of abuse of rights in EU law, with an emphasis on the importance of the concept in the context of tax law, and to clarify the importance of the concept in Swedish law compared to a selection of other EU countries, including France. The intention is not to carry out a full comparative study, but to show, through comparative perspectives, legal-cultural differences that may explain the difficulty of achieving a uniform application of the principle of abuse of rights within the EU.The main purpose of the principle of abuse of rights in tax law is to prevent the use of various artificial arrangements to evade tax liability. Such arrangements can be considered ex-post as an abuse of law and can thus lead to serious consequences for taxpayers. The meaning of the concept of abuse is vague and can lead to different results which, unfortunately, cannot be considered predictable. EU law contains a general legal principle prohibiting abuse of rights, but there is no comprehensive and unambiguous definition of the concept to guide taxpayers.Paju, JaanStockholm UniversityOverseas migration in the context of EU and Swedish lawJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 925 000

The research project asks what social rights can arise for asylum seekers in Sweden.In 2015, up to 190,000 asylum seekers arrived in Sweden. The Migration Agency's main scenario for 2016 is based on 135,000 asylum seekers. This involves a large number of non-European citizens who will stay in Sweden for a long time before their right to asylum can be examined.In light of this situation, the project analyzes the legal challenges that exist when an (unexpected) interaction between national and EU law regulations can lead to an independent right to social benefits for asylum seekers in Sweden.The project is based on a legal analytical method regarding the impact of Union law regulations on the Swedish welfare system. By abstracting and condensing two completely different legal forces: the free movement of persons under EU law and fundamental rights and freedoms, this approach enables a deeper analysis of how the interaction between different regulations takes place and how the resulting social rights can expose the Swedish welfare model.The overall value of the project lies in the fact that the project aims both to define and analyze a potential catalogue of rights for non-European citizens and to conduct a critical legal policy discussion on the external borders of a transnational solidarity for Sweden.Kulin Olsson, KarinÖrebro UniversitySwedish inheritance law in the 21st century, an examination of theJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 96 667

The evolution and future shape of inheritance law. Who is considered an heir and how the estate is distributed affects most people at some point in their lives. Modern inheritance law is largely based on the 1928 Inheritance Act. There are also applicable rules that are even older. This means that inheritance law is based on a different social model than today and that later modern rules have been added to a very old structure. The rules of inheritance law are still based on a principle of affinity based on blood ties or a family based on marriage. Today there are many cohabitation constellations which mean that the concept of the family can no longer be regarded as hom*ogeneous and clear. This has resulted in ambiguities and unpredictable consequences for the parties involved, such as divorced people indirectly inheriting from each other. Societal changes have also affected the perception of protection value and fairness. The surviving spouse's right of inheritance means that breast heirs are treated differently and joint children may even be deprived of an inheritance.Inheritance law is based on ideas from a different social structure than the one we have today and is an unexplored area of law in modern times. New knowledge is added by highlighting inheritance law from a historical, contemporary and future perspective in order to highlight specific problems and discuss possible future solutions.Elgebrant, EmilLinköping UniversitySubstantive identity for other than thingsJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 885 000

It is not unusual for legal systems to consider, for example, simple claims, rights, account-based financial instruments, intellectual property rights, etc. as property even though they lack physical representation. However, the legal techniques used by legislators and practitioners to deal with different types of non-tangible property from a property law and insolvency law perspective differ from one type of property to another, and the legal theoretical explanations have in many cases been illogical and unpedagogical.The significance of this legal uncertainty has increased significantly over the last 20 years, particularly as the economic importance of new phenomena, and hence types of property, continues and will continue to grow. A variety of virtual securities, different types of virtual payment systems and more and more complex intellectual property rights linked to these phenomena now represent significant value for most businesses.The project deals with a number of different legal issues related to property rights identity and property rights exclusivity that arise when conflicting claims relate to property types without physical representation (other than things). The research project can be described as basic legal research in the field of insolvency law with clear elements of general property law.Ekholst, ChristineUppsala UniversityAtoning for one's crime. Female criminal responsibility in late medieval lawJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: 413 000 SEK

Legal records from the Middle Ages show that courts were reluctant to sentence some female criminals under the law. An example from the City of Stockholm's Book of Thought may clarify this. On June 27, 1489, Peder Andersson's wife was on trial in the Stockholm City Hall, accused and convicted of theft. The brief entry in the book shows that the woman was sentenced to be banished from the city. The writer has since added that if she returns to Stockholm she will "stand thief's right," in other words, she will receive the correct punishment for theft. The statutory punishment for theft was to be buried alive if the criminal was a woman; a convicted male thief, on the other hand, was to be hanged. The late medieval court records for Stockholm show that the court there often sentenced men to death for theft while women were spared execution. What is the explanation for this? Did the court not think that women should be held responsible for their crimes like a man? My project aims to examine how the courts thought about female criminals in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. It will show if and when men and women were treated differently in medieval jurisprudence. It will also clarify whether women were considered fully liable for their criminal acts.Lagerlöf, ErikStockholm School of EconomicsBritain's decision to leave the EUJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 168 000

On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum on its continued membership of the European Union and, as you know, the British voted to leave. We now face a number of issues of crucial constitutional importance that will affect not only relations between countries, but also businesses and individuals in a more direct and tangible way.At this initial stage, I intend to address two major questions in particular. First, what are the direct and immediate legal effects of the referendum result itself? If the British had voted to remain, it would have meant that a reform of the EU would have been initiated that would also have greatly benefited Sweden. Is it possible to save and use some of the legal instruments that this reform would have entailed in order to develop and make the EU more effective?Secondly, how should Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which governs the withdrawal of a Member State from the EU, be interpreted and what complications does this article entail? This article raises a number of legal issues of considerable constitutional importance that directly affect both businesses and individuals in all EU Member States.My work on these issues will also inform future research on the UK's relationship with the EU.Jonsson Cornell, AnnaUppsala UniversityRule of Law: Law and Politics in the World, Europe and SwedenJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 2 138 800

The rule of law is more in focus than ever before and is often considered as important as democracy and human rights. The UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes for the first time concrete and binding targets on the rule of law. The European Treaty states that the rule of law is a fundamental value of the EU and processes have been set up to monitor its observance. In Sweden, the principle is increasingly discussed in legislative work, in reviews by the Legislative Council, KU and JO, and in connection with measures related to counter-terrorism, crisis management and migration.Despite this interest, it is still difficult to say what the principle actually consists of, for what purposes it is important and how it should be applied internationally, regionally and nationally. Different actors and stakeholders justify the principle based on their political and institutional interests and actively work to give it a content that suits their interests. How do the different levels relate and communicate with each other: where are the similarities and differences, who learns from whom and what is the direction of development? The aim of the project is to examine how the rule of law is understood by influential actors at all three levels, how they interact with each other and how this interaction affects the content of the principle.Bernitz, HedvigStockholm UniversityThe multicultural child in the world of school - a child rights studyJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 197 600

All children starting school face a 'new world', not least refugee children. Religion may be strongly rooted in the family, with requirements for girls to wear a veil, boys to wear some form of headgear, prayers to be said continuously, certain foods not to be eaten, etc., which is very different from the secularized Swedish society. Own traditions may include reluctance to allow girls to attend school and, for example, participation in swimming or sex education may sometimes be perceived as unthinkable. What can the public sector, represented by a municipal school, demand of the child in the form of participation in teaching activities that seem unfamiliar, or to take part, for example, in Christmas celebrations and graduation ceremonies in the church? What can the child demand from the school in terms of special treatment to avoid attendance? How does the Education Act relate to e.g. the Instrument of Government, the European Convention on Human Rights, the EU Charter of Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child? How should the "best interests of the child" be understood in these contexts? For example, should the child be forced to learn to swim for his or her own good, or should the child's desire not to swim be prioritized? What is the exercise of one's own, or the parents', rights and freedoms or, on the contrary, impermissible deviations from the requirements of equal treatment and freedom from discrimination? We must dare to ask what integration is necessary for children to become established in Swedish society, but also how society should be adapted to a changing population, otherwise there is a risk that development will be characterized by anti-immigrant, nationalistic values.Ahlin, PerStockholm UniversityInternational law in Swedish security policy, Part IIJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 472 500

The project is a continuation of my thesis on the role of international law in Swedish security policy, which dealt with the period up to 1993. This study analyzes how Sweden has used international law arguments in its security policy from 1993 to 2016. The aim is to see what is constant and what has changed as the world has changed.A lot has happened. Sweden has joined the EU and changed the definition of its security policy, new threats to peace have emerged, the UN has been bypassed and the question of when and how the world can intervene with force to prevent gross violations of human rights has been high on the agenda. There are more examples.All this has put traditional Swedish interpretation of international law to the test. Questions that are being asked are whether Sweden still acts as a traditional small state with all that this entails in terms of trusting legal regulations and multilateral organizations, whether Sweden still uses international law as protection to avoid taking controversial decisions, whether the legal value of the norm is given decisive importance, whether Sweden uses the law to try to limit the freedom of action of states, and whether Sweden still interprets international law strictly when it benefits Swedish interests and flexibly when it is considered more appropriate.Waites, EwaFriends of the rule of lawSeries of seminars on legal certainty and legal securityJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 450 000

Legal science seminar series focusing on the rule of law and legal certainty with two seminars per calendar year. The aim is to highlight various fundamental and pervasive issues, primarily concerning legal security, and to highlight and analyze each issue through presentations, debates and dialogues.The aim is to produce a survey of the legal situation and developments in each case in consultation with leading experts in the field and practitioners. The ultimate goal is for the seminars to serve as an interdisciplinary inspiration and to contribute to legal developments and legislation.When the Foundation was established, it was asked to consider a number of problem areas that the founder considered to be particularly important. In addition to these, the Foundation has seen it as urgent to add some current issues with a strong connection to the rule of law in society.During the next three-year period, the Foundation plans to deal with topics within the framework of the Foundation's purpose that have largely come up as follow-up questions at the seminars held, such as ethics in legal education, the role of lawyers in the legal process and legal issues in social services. In recent years the Foundation has held one seminar a year in Stockholm and one outside the Stockholm-Uppsala area (in Linköping, Östersund, Umeå and Lund). This is due to the importance of spreading the discussion on the rule of law beyond the circle of lawyers in the capital area.from Essen, UlrikStockholm UniversityConfidentiality and privacy in business activitiesJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 885 000

Various authorities hold a lot of information about the business and operating conditions of different companies, i.e. information that is sensitive from a commercial and competitive perspective. The main purpose of the research project is to clarify and determine, as far as possible, which information about companies and their business and operating conditions, etc. can be kept secret. The question is thus which information can be protected and what the conditions for this are. A central part of this is to examine which criteria should be decisive in the actual secrecy assessment. This is important, not least in the light of the fact that it is now possible to easily search and compile large amounts of information.The data is collected in different activities that relate to the authorities' supervision, licensing, procurement, joint project planning, etc. The confidentiality rules have been given a partly different design for these different activities. An additional purpose is therefore to clarify the differences that exist regarding the scope of confidentiality protection depending on where the data occurs and to investigate the extent to which these are justified and, where this is not the case, propose how a more uniform and adequate protection can be designed.Töllborg, DennisUniversity of Gothenburg, GRILegal studiesJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

The application refers to grants for computing power, literature purchases, participation in national and international conferences, etc. in a manner and with amounts corresponding to the application granted by the Foundation for the period 2013-2016, as well as a salary increase corresponding to lost salary (and future pension) corresponding to the salary level of relevant comparative professors at GRI (only real professorships are referred to, not so-called promotional professorships), and finally grants for the writing of two major books in Swedish and English, where the most central part of my scientific production over the past 40 years and not previously published in book form. Finally, a contribution to the writing of two major books, one in Swedish and one in English, in which the most central aspects of my scientific production over the past 40 years, which have not previously been published in book form but only in national and international journals (and in, in addition to Swedish, English, German, French, Spanish and Russian) are published, are collected in two volumes and linked together. The first book will be called Black and White, and I intend to publish it in autumn 2018, and the second Black & White, and I intend to publish it in 2019/1920. The books range from civil law, labour law, jurisprudence, legal theory and philosophy of science to pro-active policing, intelligence, control mechanisms and human rights.Påhlsson, RobertUniversity of GothenburgTaxpayer's intentions: Subjective elements in tax lawJurisprudence2016

Amount granted: 615 000 SEK

There are many references in the tax legislation to the taxpayer's intentions in their transactions. For example, the acquisition or sale of an asset may be treated differently for tax purposes depending on the person's purpose in holding it. If the amount of tax is made dependent on the personal circ*mstances of the taxpayer in this way, the law is said to contain subjective elements.The purpose of my study is firstly to take stock of the extent to which such subjective criteria exist in the Income Tax Act. Secondly, I will examine whether the subjective criteria are constructed and applied in the same way regardless of where in the law they are found. If there are differences, I will examine whether the differences are objectively justified, i.e. to what extent there are acceptable reasons for them. This assessment is made in the light of the fundamental requirements of tax legislation, such as comprehensibility, equal treatment and efficiency.Olsson, AgnetsStyrsö parishStyrsö Chamber SoloistsOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 30 000

Styrsö Chamber Soloists 2016Neijman, ThomasStockholm UniversityThe opponents at the Battle of Gotland in 1361Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 80 000

On July 27, 1361, there was a battle outside the ring wall of Visby. An army from Gotland tried to defend their island. Their opponent was the Danish king Valdemar Atterdag with his experienced army. The Gotlanders suffered a severe defeat. The remains of the mass graves testify to the brutality of the battle. Most of the graves were excavated in the early 1900s. From 1361 until today, there have been various legends about the events. These have evolved over time. Modern history often portrays the Gotlanders as ill-equipped with old equipment and disorganized. The Danish army is given the opposite description, in positive terms. The question is whether this use of history is accurate?This project seeks to re-approach the sources of the events of 1361 through a combination of written and archaeological research. By using new scientific analysis methods, such as isotope analysis, new information can be obtained from the archaeological material. Analysis of those individuals where equipment can be linked to that particular individual provides vital information about their origins. This gives a new picture of the armies that met and a new picture of the historical event.Keränen, AndreasUniversity of GothenburgOn metrical zeugman in pre-classical Latin verseOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 239 167

The subject of my doctoral thesis deals with so-called metrical zeugmas in pre-classical Latin verse. The term zeugma is Greek for "yoke" and denotes a place in the verse line where a word boundary is avoided or conditioned. My starting point is that these metrical zeugmas are linguistic phenomena directly linked to Latin prosody and not verse metrical subtleties, as they are usually described in older literature. An illustrative example is Meyer's zeugma in iambic verse. An iamb consists of a short + long syllable = (u -). The short syllable can be replaced by a long syllable to form a spondee = (- -). However, the spondee should preferably not be the end of a word. For example, in the following spondee-heavy verse sequence (Ne̅ptu̅́-)(-nu̅r-)(-tu̅́te̅m) (Vi̅cto̅́-)(-rĭām) there is a violation of Meyer's zeugma, namely -tu̅́te̅m. As can be seen, the word accent here is on the left side of the verse foot, unlike the other verse feet where the accent is on the right. This is a consequence of the Latin accent rule. It stipulates that the penultimate syllable should be accented if it is long. By aiming for the accents to be to the right in each iambic foot, the metrical structure is such that a spondee is very rarely accompanied by a word boundary. Meyer's zeugma can thus be understood and described as an accent phenomenon. Metrical zeugmas such as this one thus give us valuable clues about how the Latin language was once pronounced and rhythmicized.Pedersen, DanielStockholm University"Dear son, we write from the carriage...": Some voices from JászberényOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 102 917

The title of the project is the opening of a small card found along the railroad tracks in Jászberény. It is a couple of parents writing to their son to tell him that they are on the train to be deported. The card was thrown from the carriage and someone found it on the embankment. A card the son finally got in his hand through a kind fellow human being. Today it can be found in the Tomas Kertész collection, which documents Jewish life in the Hungarian town of Jászberény with over a thousand photographs, interviews and other materials (dolls, documents, etc.). The archive is the result of 20 years of work collected by Kertész (a librarian at Stockholm University) and constitutes an enormous documentation of Jewish life in Jászberény up to and including the Holocaust. Both the town and the life of its Jewish population form a mirror, a kind of micro-history showing the whole tragic fate of Hungarian Jewry, but also the multicultural life that was typical of many towns in Central Europe before the Second World War. The book recounts the fate of some families. Some survive, others escape or go into hiding. However, most are murdered by the Nazis. By linking the fates of a few families, you will be able to see how families' lives are turned upside down by Nazi racial policies and deportations. The book will have five main chapters presenting the background of the different families and a final chapter introducing Kertész himself and his work in creating this unique collection.Persson, FabianLinnaeus UniversityLiving in the house of power: A survey of residents at Stockholm CastleOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 295 000

Being present matters, and the person who lives in your home is the most present. In the Royal Palace in Stockholm from Gustav Vasa to the palace fire in 1697, a number of people lived in the same house as the king. Today, it may not matter much who lives under the same roof as the king, but in the 16th and 17th centuries, royal power was strong and personal. Those who lived in the castle lived close to people who wielded great power. Living next to power meant potential power but also the ability to influence the attitudes of the royal family and their knowledge of the world outside the castle walls.Günther, StefanCity of Mölndal/Gunnebo SlottGunnebo Castle and the neoclassical villa's artistic programOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 450 000

When Gunnebo Castle was completed in 1796, it was one of the country's most lavish mansions, with architecture and decoration inspired by the latest developments on the continent. The architecture followed different models than the more studied Stockholm-based architecture. The decoration followed an artistic program, carried out between 1786 and 1796 by the architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg and the Italian sculptor Gioacchino Frulli, and constitutes one of the most significant decorative cycles of the second half of the 18th century in Sweden.Gunnebo's architect C.W. Carlberg developed an independent design language in relation to the architects in Stockholm - but who were Carlberg's role models? Ever since the Renaissance, complex iconographic programs - celebrating the political, economic and intellectual ambitions of the client - formed the basis of a building's decoration. These programs were developed in collaboration between the client and his advisors, of which Gunnebo is a lavish example - but what was Gunnebo's artistic program? Despite its importance, the background to one of the most prominent Swedish buildings of the 18th century remains largely unexplored.The aim of the project is to describe and analyze the architectural history of Gunnebo and the artistic program behind its decorations based on an iconological and comparative study of contemporary developments in Europe. The study will culminate in a monograph. The ambition is to publish a richly illustrated volume to increase knowledge of the site and its value.Husebye, AlexanderThe Center for Business History AssociationSwedish industrial design pioneers - A&E designOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 536 000

A&E Design is the oldest independent industrial design office in Sweden. The two founders, in 1968, were Hans Ehrich and Tom Ahlström. In addition to ergonomic design, this office has contributed greatly to making Swedish design known internationally. A&E Design has had and still has a large number of clients both in Sweden and abroad. Their designs have attracted attention for their aesthetic and innovative qualities, resulting in numerous design awards and magazine articles, as well as purchases for the permanent collections of many museums, such as the Röhsska Museum in Gothenburg, Die Neue Sammlung in Munich, MoMA in New York and the National Museum in Stockholm. Their work has been featured in most international surveys in the field of design. So far, however, nothing has been published in book form about this interesting era in Swedish industrial design history. One of the aims of this book project is to place A&E Design's activities in a context, describing the relationship to societal changes and to the design debate that has taken place during the almost 50 years of A&E Design's existence. Another aim is to provide an in-depth insight into the design process, which is rarely done in a time as obsessed with trends as ours. Several of A&E Design's products from the 1970s and 1980s are still in production today - examples of sustainable design. The Museipallen Stockholm, commissioned by Helena Dahlbäck Lutteman, then head of the crafts department at the National Museum of Denmark, is in thousands of museums and art galleries around the world.Sjöström, OskarStockholm UniversityHonour and war: reasons behind 18th century Swedish wars of aggressionOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 205 000

In the 18th century, Sweden launched three wars of aggression: against Russia in 1741, Prussia in 1757 and Russia again in 1788. The rationality of these attacks has been severely questioned in historiography. The Empire's military and economic strength was never sufficient to go to war, and therefore all ended in costly failure. The reason why the wars still happened is usually explained by the hubris or incompetence of the decision-makers themselves, who were allegedly blinded by dreams of grandeur and thus mistook hope for reality. In this thesis, I challenge this view by adopting a cultural-historical perspective on an otherwise classic topic of public policy. Above all, I have analyzed how contemporary notions of honor and glory influenced the thinking and practice of these events. In all cases - I argue - the protection of Sweden's honor was the central driving force for going to war. The wars were therefore not a consequence of inept kings or statesmen, but on the contrary were appropriate in their cultural and historical context. The results of the research mean that many accepted perceptions of early modern politics will be nuanced. The thesis thus contributes to a deeper understanding of the political processes and decisions in the past that may appear difficult to understand or irrational to a modern observer. In addition, it sheds new light on some of the most forgotten events in Swedish history.Dierks, MichaelGerman parish of St GertrudeDocumentation and restoration of the historic Åkerman & Lund organ of 1884Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 300 000

The great tower fire in the German Church in October 1878 completely destroyed the tower, the organ and the gallery. A new organ was designed by organ builder Per Larsson Åkerman and was completed in 1884. This organ was typical of Swedish contemporary organ building tradition, with both tonal and technical solutions inspired by German, French and English organ builders, some of them unique in Sweden. Despite the relatively small number of voices, the organ's sound was symphonic and orchestral. This type of organ came to be strongly questioned by the "Orgelbewegung" - the Organ Movement (which can best be described as the "Back to Nature" of organ history), which arose in Germany in the 1920s. In this spirit, the organ was redesigned in 1959, replacing a number of typically romantic, soft-sounding stops with more sharp and "baroque" sounding voices (e.g. the pointed flute and krummhorn).In 1971, the decision was made to build a completely new organ in the organ movement style. In the 1960s and 1970s, many Romantic organs were scrapped and replaced by poorly crafted instruments. Only three organs from the late 19th century were preserved in the Diocese of Stockholm. The Åkerman organ in the German Church was stored in the parish basem*nt in 1972. There are now plans to document, restore and supplement, and to reinstall the historic Åkerman organ. This will also restore the architectural hom*ogeneity of the church. In connection with the inauguration, a scientific documentation of the organ will be published.Nilsson Schönborg, GöteUniversity of GothenburgTrade contacts between Sweden and China in the 18th centuryOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 205 000

Completion of a dissertation in the field of historical archaeology. The project aims to provide a picture of Sweden's trade contacts with China in the 18th century, i.e. during the time of the Swedish East India Company. The research uses archaeological material, written source material and personal history data to see a picture of the spread of mainly porcelain imports during this period.Dierks, MichaelGerman parish of St GertrudeMemorial carillonOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Erection of a plaque commemorating the carillon and its restoration and enlargement in 2008.Lagerkvist, CajsaMölndal City MuseumPlaces - co-creating history in the local environmentOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 680 000

The project aims to raise awareness of the historical depth of the local environment and stimulate a shared sense of responsibility for a place and its development. The project wants to further develop methods to include residents in taking responsibility for our cultural heritage and thereby also contribute to the development of the cultural heritage sector. By linking building history perspectives with human experience and individual narratives, and documenting contemporary relationships with and narratives about places in Mölndal, the Mölndal City Museum's local history collection and archives will be enriched. Based on new and updated knowledge about cultural environments in Lindome, Kållered and Mölndal, the results are presented in a knowledgeable and enjoyable publication that is accessible to a wide audience. The project also creates site-specific interpretations of the historical period using new technology.Nordby, PeterThe National ArchivesThe National Archives' archive holdings from the private sectorOther2016

Amount granted: 157 500 SEK

A main task of the state archive organization is to preserve and make available the public documents of state authorities, which by law are part of the national cultural heritage. The departments of the National Archives also have the opportunity to receive archives from the private sector (so-called individual archives), i.e. from companies, associations, private individuals, families, farms, foundations, etc. In order to increase the use and show the research potential, the archives of authorities are often highlighted, which is not as common in the case of the individual archives. The book "Ett västsvenskt kulturarv: de enskilda arkiven i Riksarkivet Landsarkivet i Göteborg" aims to provide an in-depth account of Landsarkivet's archive holdings from the private sector, mainly in Västra Götaland County. The reader gets a description of the individual archives from a number of different perspectives, an insight into how they have been handled and an understanding of the historical context of the archives. The book's ambition is also to shed light on the concept of archives by discussing some so-called archive landscape traces in time and space.In addition to general information about the National Archives' 2,200 individual archives, which comprise more than 22,000 shelf meters, a large number of entries in the archive documents are presented with examples of the content. The National Archives want to be a natural part of the research infrastructure, and with the help of the book the author highlights the research potential, both for private individuals, family and local history researchers and academic research.Ohlsson, JonStockholm UniversityADHD, high-functioning autism spectrum conditions and support in the career choice processOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 1 402 008

ADHD and high-functioning autism spectrum disorder are neuropsychiatric disabilities that can cause various difficulties for the person with the diagnosis. ADHD can mean concentration problems, hyperactivity, impulsiveness, etc. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder (formerly called Aspberger's syndrome) can mean difficulties in social contacts, a strong focus on special interests, language difficulties, etc. People with neuropsychiatric disabilities often have difficulty entering the labor market today. The purpose of the study is to investigate how people with the diagnoses ADHD and high-functioning autism spectrum condition feel that career choice support activities, such as study and vocational guidance and employment services, should be organized to meet their needs. The study will answer questions about both the counseling method and other treatment from the professional counselor as well as the individual's own frame of reference regarding factors affecting career choice. The survey will be conducted using biographical interviews with people over 18 years of age.Emanuelsson, AndersThe land between Älven and Idefjorden ca 500-ca 1520Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

A comprehensive study of the areas that make up the current landscape of Bohuslän from a settlement, agricultural and economic history perspective. The project is not only comprehensive in terms of the time period studied but also in terms of the level of detail. All available source material for the period is examined, including not only traditional historical sources such as land registers, laws, diplomas, literary sources, maps, etc. but also archaeological material, place names, dialect research, ethnographic sources, art historical material (mainly churches) and some sources of a scientific nature. The results of the project are published in two volumes: a volume dealing with the period from a more general perspective and a volume with detailed settlement and agricultural history maps and tables at parish level. The two works together contain over 100 maps and some 50 pictures/illustrations. The project is not only regional historical, but the geographical location of the area inevitably means that the general historical development in Scandinavia during the period is taken into account.Eliasson, RogerAeroseumCold WarOther2016

Amount granted: 130 000 SEK

In 2010, the Aeroseum started a project to open the aviation experience center/museum for education. In 2013, the project moved to the Aeroseum becoming a Science Center. This meant that our various workstations had to be rebuilt to meet new requirements.One of the largest and earliest workstations were those dealing with the Cold War. During the year these have started to be rebuilt.Now it turns out that the interest in this area of history was much greater than we planned for. In order to accommodate the greater interest from teachers and students (as well as ordinary visitors, students from study circles, etc.), the exhibitions must be expanded and also take advantage of the unique construction of the mountain hangar.The total number of visitors to the Aeroseum has increased greatly, partly because we have been named one of the best destinations in Western Sweden (according to www.Tripadvisor).Olsson, IrjaNational Association of Finnish War ChildrenJubilee book with stories written by Finnish war childrenOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

An anniversary book with stories about what it was like to come to Sweden as a Finnish war child and what happened next.Nordqvist, BengtPlace of sacrifice FinnestorpTime of gold and Finnestorp sacrifice siteOther2016

Amount granted: 427 200 SEK

During 2000-2004 and 2008-2012, research investigations were carried out at the Finnestorp sacrifice site. A site that turns out to contain a find material that belongs to the category - "the finest and most exquisite objects from Sweden's pre-Christian era" and it belongs to one of the most important remains from the prehistory of the Nordic region. At Offerplats Finnestorp, warrior after warrior has been sacrificed along with their battle stallions and valuable weapons. These mighty men whose arsenal consisted of magnificent gilded swords, lances and golden horse equipment. Magnificent objects of royal value, made by the most skilled craftsmen in Europe at the time. The ongoing research work includes international comparisons and publication of the research work in the form of a major scientific book and popular science book. The metal analyses performed show that the objects are made by highly skilled blacksmiths. The isotope analyses show that the ores used probably come from parts of the British Isles.In 2016/2017, two book volumes on Finnestorp will be completed. These are the practical work (I and II) - "Fyndens i fokus" and a "Coffee Table Book". The upcoming isotope analyses are intended to make analyses on horse teeth and on human teeth and bones. The purpose of these analyses is to shed light on the important issue of provenance and geographical mobility. A new website about Victim Site Finnestorp will be completed in the fall of 2016.Andersson, ChristerThe project group for the archaeological investigations of Ås monasteryÅs kloster - project plan for phase 2Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 120 000

In the valley of the river Viskan, about 15 km north of Varberg, on a hill within sight of Klosterfjorden, there was a Cistercian monastery in the Middle Ages, founded in 1194 by monks from Sorö Abbey in southern Zealand. Made possible by land donations from the spiritually and secularly powerful Archbishop Absalon, the monastery developed into a real powerhouse and its brick buildings are considered among the largest in Halland. At the height of its development, Ås Monastery encompassed more than 250 farms in Northern Halland.Today, no remains of the monastery are visible above ground. After the Reformation, the church and other buildings were demolished and the bricks were reused to repair Varberg Fortress. In the early 19th century, the main building of a royal estate was built within the monastery area.Uniquely, no archaeological excavations at all had been carried out on the monastery hill before the project started, meaning that both the location and extent of the monastery were completely unknown. The monastery project carried out excavations in 2011 and 2012 in parts of the eastern wing after the monastery plan had largely become known through ground penetrating radar surveys in 2009 and 2010. In 2013, an excavation was carried out west, southwest and south of Kungsgården.The aim of phase 2 is to link these parts into a single unit through excavations over three years starting in 2018. The grant application is for research initiation, networking and seminars in 2017 to develop a project plan.Nilsson, AndreasLund UniversityThe path of knowledgeOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 80 000

Scandinavian bronze craftsmanship during the Bronze Age has been discussed in many different contexts countless times. This discussion can continue thanks to new discoveries and new ways of investigating the material. I investigate Bronze Age bronze craftsmanship and mainly how accessible bronze craftsmanship has been for people in southern Scandinavia in particular. Has it been a technology that was available to many or have the craftsmen kept their knowledge and only spread the technology to selected people? What routes have the technology and knowledge taken? Was there room for local part-time bronze casters or did the technology require so much knowledge that the craftsman had to be a specialist? These are questions I approach by examining the different stages of the craft through the Chaîne opératoire. By breaking down and discussing the different stages of the craft, I hope to approach the bronze craftsmen and their skills. I also examine casting crucibles, molds and other technical ceramics. My main material, however, is in wood axes. The single largest group of bronze artifacts from the Scandinavian Bronze Age and a type of object that must be classified as everyday objects.Carlsson, Carl HenrikHistory of the Jews in SwedenOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

The aim is to write a book (popular science/scientific synthesis) on the history of the Jews in Sweden that will summarize what we currently know about this subject. The target group is anyone with an interest in Swedish history in general and Swedish-Jewish history in particular, whether they are researchers, teachers, students, pupils or members of the interested public.There is a great need for such a synthesis. The last one was written by Professor Hugo Valentin in the early 1960s (249 pages) and was largely based on research carried out around 1920. Interest in Swedish-Jewish history has increased greatly in recent years and the field of research has grown strongly. The Swedish-Jewish population group is now one of five recognized national minorities. It has had great significance for Swedish history, social development and cultural heritage with a cross-fertilization that can be said to have been successful. For various reasons, it is an ideal object for general studies on minorities, integration, discrimination, identity, etc. Such a history is also very valuable from an international perspective: the "Swedish-Jewish experience" has certain parallels with developments in the rest of Europe, but also distinctive features.The book should be scientifically based and well-referenced, but the presentation should not be too "academic" but appealing to an interested public.Ivarsson, Carl-JohanDiocesan Historical SocietyThe history of Karlstad bishop's farmOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 70 000

Karlstad has been a diocesan town since 1647. Since the 1680s, the head of the diocese has lived at the current location in the Udden block. The current building was built in the 1770s and is one of the few buildings in Karlstad's inner city that remained standing after the devastating fire of 1865. Biskopsgården is now a listed building. The project aims to analyze the building and the cultural environment that this listed building constitutes from an architectural history perspective. The result will be published in book form with a rich image material with both archive images and contemporary photographs.Magnusson, ReidarThe person buried in Håga 'nothing prevents the bones from being a woman's'.Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

Hågahögen contained one of the more publicized grave finds from the Bronze Age in Sweden. The person buried in the main grave was assumed to be a man based on the grave goods, although the anatomy professor who examined the burnt bones explained that they could very well come from a woman. Our hope is to determine the sex of the buried person as the science of osteology has advanced in the hundred or so years since the bones were last examined. If it turns out that the bones come from a man, the conclusion drawn from the grave goods is confirmed; if it turns out that the bones come from a woman, it shows that the Bronze Age burial system was more complex. Even if we cannot say for sure about the gender of the individual (if there are only burnt bones from one individual in the main grave to begin with), we can get indications in one direction or another from the burnt bone material.Lysén, SvanteRoyal Institute of TechnologyThe Bohus coast - a grumpy paradiseOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

"Bohuskust - ett vresigt paradis" is a documentary film of about 58 minutes intended for SVT about the nature, animal and plant life of the Bohus coast during four seasons experienced through the eyes of a kayaker, but also about the change of the coastal landscape, ecology and environmental threats.The Bohus Coast, with its bare, well-polished islands, is a unique archipelago that cannot be found anywhere else. For two months each summer, it is a vacation paradise with an extensive boating community. For the rest of the year, the same area presents itself as an almost deserted wilderness. Numerous rock carvings and Bronze Age tombs, as well as remains from quarries and various herring periods, testify to a fascinating history that is the direct cause of the coastal area's appearance. Apart from a few special programs about fishing, archipelago communities and underwater life, there has never been a more comprehensive film about the nature of Bohuslän. In 2013, the Bohus Coast was named the seventh most beautiful wilderness area in the world by the American broadcaster CNN.The common thread in the nature documentary is the changing seasons as seen through the eyes and reflections of a kayaker. In addition to facts and scientific findings, the personal narrative will allow thoughts and philosophical speculations about animals and nature that can be both thought-provoking and lead to new insights. Scientists, fishermen, sea farmers and others in close contact with the nature of Bohuslän will participate.Hadenius, PatrikScience media in SwedenPublication of Popular Archaeology in 2017Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

Popular Archaeology has been published in various forms for 20 years. Now the magazine is facing a major change. The former publisher and editor is retiring and wants to hand over to Vetenskapsmedia.We want to make Populär Arkeologi with the same popular science ambition as we take on the publisher's other magazines - Språktidningen, Modern Psykologi and Modern Filosofi and Forskning & Framsteg, with which we share the editorial board. The leading archaeological and historical researchers will contribute and report on their findings.Bergman, LarsRiksföreningen SverigekontaktCensored letters of the Carolinian prisonersOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 893 000

After the defeats at Poltava and Perevolotjna in 1709, more than 23 000 prisoners of war from the Swedish army were deployed across Russia, particularly in Siberia. Many were well-educated and played an important role locally. They led advanced construction work, and Swedish schools attracted many Russian pupils from leading families (often taught in German). There were conflicts, but the Swedes were appreciated. In cities like Tobolsk, the tradition lives on.Conditions are recorded in diaries and letters. Many letters from and to Swedish prisoners of war were caught by Russian censorship. Since the Russian archives where they were stored were opened in the 1990s, the letters have become accessible in principle. The project will provide Swedish, Russian and international researchers and the public with these letters.A number of letters (a total of about 900 pages) have been located in Russian archives and largely copied. After a preliminary review, a scientific analysis now follows, which mainly requires linguistic and historical expertise. An edition is the natural product.The peace of 1721 marks a turning point in Swedish history. During the following period of freedom, the country underwent an unprecedented economic, scientific and cultural boom. Sweden becomes a world leader in the natural sciences. The returning prisoners of war (a quarter) are likely to have played an important role in further developments, but their role is insufficiently studied. The hitherto censored letters offer a fortunate opportunity.Sjöbrandt, AndersStockholm UniversityThe future is not what it used to be. Stories of the transformation of StockholmOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 287 500

The thesis is about the major urban transformation in Stockholm after the Second World War, but not about how the transformation process itself took place. Instead, it aims to shed light on perceptions, interpretations and reactions to what is sometimes called one of Europe's largest and most radical urban development projects. The overall objective is to study the process of change in Stockholm during the 1950s and 1960s from a cultural-historical narrative perspective. I intend to describe, compare and analyze values, underlying driving forces, rhetoric and counter-rhetoric behind the great urban transformation. I want to capture the thoughts and perceptions of the social actors; the legitimizing narratives of different interests will be juxtaposed. The main sources are newspapers and magazines from the current study period, articles that allow urban planners, politicians and other Stockholmers to have their say.I want to investigate whether there was an undercurrent of critical voices that were later forgotten and more or less disappeared from the collective memory. The thesis is about how people used to look at urban buildings and their value. The great modernization process of Stockholm meant building a new society but also demolishing what was considered to belong to a past era. This transformation still evokes strong emotions among Stockholmers today, and the narrative about it differs depending on who is describing it and in which era.Tornberg, AnnaLund UniversityAgriculture, health and the secondary product revolution 2300-1100 BC.Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 205 000

"You are what you eat" is a saying. Diet and environment affect our bodies and are reflected in our health. This is true today and it also applies to the people who lived in southern Sweden 4 000 years ago. Therefore, the skeletal material from the people who lived in the past can also provide information about the life that was lived then.During the last part of the South Scandinavian Stone Age, the Late Neolithic, and the first part of the Bronze Age (c. 2300-1100 BC), major social changes took place that resulted in a more hierarchical society. One of the reasons for this is the so-called secondary product revolution. This means shifting the economic focus from using the primary products of livestock, i.e. meat, to using the secondary products, i.e. milk, wool and labor. The economy becomes broader, creating an economic surplus and engaging in trade. This opens the door to a power elite with greater resources than others.Such major societal changes also have consequences for human diet and health. By examining the skeletons, I study people's height, diseases/injuries and demographics to determine whether health has changed during this time. In addition, by conducting biochemical analyses, I study the diet of people during this period and whether the diet was the same for everyone. The results can provide a deeper understanding of the changes that led to the society we have today.Backman, ChristinaThe Jewish community in GothenburgOld Jewish cemeteryOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The Old Mosaic Cemetery in Gothenburg project has started the renovation of the Mosaic (Jewish) cemetery at Svingeln in Gothenburg.The site is of great cultural and historical value, dating back to the 18th century and is one of five Jewish cemeteries in Sweden. The cemetery was established when the first Jews to come to Sweden settled on Marstrand in 1775. When Kungl. Maj:t issued a decree in 1782 that gave Jews the right to settle in Gothenburg, the site was expanded. Gothenburg later became a city with a significant Jewish population.The site and the environment are completely unique and have great cultural-historical value in preserving the cultural heritage of a vulnerable minority. The site has been subjected to normal wear and tear over the years, as well as damage of various kinds, often with political overtones. The site is today very neglected in terms of maintenance and has severe damage to both graves and the fence that surrounds the site.The idea is that the renovation will be completed for Gothenburg's 400th anniversary. The site is often visited by guided groups interested in the Jewish cultural heritage of the Västra Götaland region and the history of Gothenburg.Bergerbrant, SophieUniversity of GothenburgStudy on the baseline level of strontium content in SkåneOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

Mobility studies have become increasingly popular in archaeology. An example of the increased understanding it can provide is the study of the so-called Egtved girl published in 2015. Analyses of strontium isotope values are becoming increasingly common in Sweden and the world. However, in order to give good interpretations of the values, knowledge of the local values is required. This project intends to analyze the basic level of strontium concentrations in Skåne, in order to get a basis for future and already made analyses of archaeological material.Arvidsson, KristofferGothenburg Art MuseumThe universal language. International Abstraction in Sweden 1945-1970Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 240 000

The project examines the role that notions of abstraction as an international language played in Swedish art life from 1945 to 1970. The focus is on abstract expressions, especially in painting, and how these came to conquer and dominate the international art world. Abstraction was perceived as a universal language with different national dialects, which differs from today's dominant approach where the globalization of art is rather understood as a hybridization of different traditions. Abstract art could be understood by everyone and was thought to distill the essence of all art: the inner dynamics of the image. While conceptual art and postmodernism have strongly dominated the understanding of art in recent decades, this generation of abstract artists has been overshadowed by the pioneers of modernism and 1960s pop art. Around 1960, abstract art was completely dominant and abstract was synonymous with modern.What values and ideas were attached to abstract expression? What did the Swedish reception of international abstraction look like? These questions are examined based on analyses of the exhibition history of Moderna Museet and the Gothenburg Museum of Art, as well as the art magazines Konstrevy and Paletten. The perspective is discourse analytical and includes analyses of exhibitions and art reviews. The aim of the project is to investigate notions of abstraction and how these functioned as normative interpretative perspectives during the period 1945-1970.by Ehrenheim, JacobGrönsööFeast and celebration at GrönsöööOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 111 900

The circ*mstances of life that we wish to highlight in 2017 are how the celebrations of life and the year have been manifested in different ways. The book and exhibition will be titled "Fest och högtid på Grönsöö" and will comprise about 100 pages. Håkan Liby, head of the Uppland Museum, has made himself available as author. The photographer is Gabriel Hildebrand, photographer at Kungl. Myntkabinettet.Larsson, MikaelLund UniversityThe green wealth - agricultural resources and consumption in Iron Age Uppåkra.Other2016

Amount granted: 115 700 SEK

Agricultural grain production - the green wealth - was the basis for the economic and material prosperity associated with the Iron Age settlement of Uppåkra. Questions about the provisioning of large-scale food consumption at densely populated settlements have not previously been addressed in archaeological research in Scandinavia. The project will investigate how the large-scale consumption at the settlement affected the village's handling of vegetable resources and whether it created the need for a larger resource area, revealed by agricultural raw materials being sourced from further afield. With extensive plant remains preserved at Uppåkra and settlements in the surrounding area, the current study has an opportunity to link this important power center with its agricultural production and resource management. By analyzing isotope values of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) in fossil grains and seeds handled at settlements in the study area, a local variation of cultivation conditions and the province can be investigated. The methods thus aim to understand the extent of agrarian production and to identify the extent of localities that may have been involved in supplying the central site. But also whether nutritional conditions may have varied over time as a result of increased cultivation pressure on surrounding farmland. The study is expected to initiate a discussion on how household food resources at prehistoric settlements were organized to meet the consumption and demand for vegetable raw materials.Gunneriusson Wistman, ChristinaMuseum creation in the Swedish art field around the middle of the 20th centuryOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The research project deals with Swedish museums and museum creation in Sweden. It aims to investigate new museums in Sweden at the middle of the 20th century. A number of museums of different types were opened at that time: regional museums, personal museums and e.g. Moderna Museet. The starting point is the founding of Moderna Museet. How were the discussions conducted and what role may have been played by Prince Eugen's art collection and Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde, which opened in 1948. How and why were other museums established? The so-called Folkhem period roughly coincides with the time this project examines - is this relevant for interpretation and analysis? An important part of the investigation concerns the museums' art collections: what has the collection looked like, what significance does art have for the collections and for the museum? The social function of art is a particularly important factor. Art is obvious at Moderna Museet and Waldemarsudde, but has a different role to play in the regional museums. Are the museums and collections still important and relevant? These are some of the questions the study focuses on, and which, regardless of how they are answered, will contribute to the story of Swedish museums and museum education and provide answers of importance and value for our time as well.Lönnroth, LarsSwedish Humanist AssociationFrom Tacitus to Tolkien. Yearbook of the Swedish Humanities Association 2017Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The book "From Tacitus to Tolkien. The Germanic Trail in Western Poetry" is planned as a yearbook for the Swedish Humanities Association in 2017.The book deals with what has traditionally been called Germanic poetry, from how narrative poems emerged among Germanic tribes during the Migration Period and eventually, in the course of the Middle Ages, developed into masterpieces such as the Old English heroic poem Beowulf, the Old High German knightly poem Nibelungenlied, the Norse Poetic Edda, Old Norse skaldic poems such as Egil Skallagrimsson's The Loss of the Son and Icelandic ancestral sagas such as Njal's Saga. The traces of this poetry in the literature of recent centuries are also discussed.No comprehensive overview of the subject has been published since Andreas Heusler's (1865-1940) Die altgermanische Dichtung (1929), which quickly became an influential classic. However, Heusler's account has aged considerably, mainly because the term 'Germanic' has become obsolete. Modern research has shown that the texts in this tradition were strongly influenced by Latin, Christian and Romanesque medieval literature. Original ideas have been transformed in the Christian spirit and adapted to the medieval European world of thought. The view of oral tradition has also changed. The new book has been written in the light of a completely new research situation and with different scientific starting points.Granberg, JanVilla BaggåsOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Villa Baggås, one of Saltsjöbaden's landmark buildings, was popularly known as Söderberg's church. The villa was built in 1909 to designs by two of the leading architects of the time, Fritz Ulrich and Edvard Hallquisth, on behalf of Consul General Olof Söderberg. With its monumental location, lavish Art Nouveau architecture and four-storey tower, the villa is highly visible in the landscape, where it resembles a church building.The magazine Idun presents Villa Baggås in 1916: "One enters a hall with beautiful proportions and slightly rounded arches, around which the rooms on the lower floor are grouped. In the middle of the entrance is the large salon, which is divided by a balustrade in part of its length, so that you get a flower room with palm trees near the high windows and a more winter-like part of the large room for socializing. The works of art on the walls are from Hesselbom, O.W. Nilsson and Thörne. Nilsson and Thörne, the latter, who is represented by several panels in the other rooms, has taken his motifs from Consul General Söderberg's property Gryt in Närke."Lööf, LarsOlofThe National ArchivesEast Indian book project: 'Seafarers and Supercargoes'Other2016

Amount granted: 146 500 SEK

Register of all officers of the Swedish East India Company who sailed between 1731 and 1805, with life history and family relations and an accompanying catalog of monogrammed porcelain.The result is also intended to be used as a key to identify personal monograms on Chinese imported porcelain. There is currently no similar reference work for researchers, collectors, antique dealers and the public interested in history.The collection work itself has been going on for 25 years, through museum and archive studies. The National Archives in Gothenburg have been the main source of knowledge in this work, but the collections of the current Gothenburg City Museum have also been important for the acquisition of knowledge.Herjulfsdotter, RitwaRöhsska MuseumThe collections and history of the Röhsska MuseumOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 385 000

The purpose of the research project is to use relevant and current humanistic perspectives to highlight and reflect on the basis on which the Röhsska Museum's collections were created. In order to increase awareness of the Röhsska Museum's collections and to place them in a larger context and inspire a critical approach to the collections, continuous research is required on the museum's intentions and the context in which the collections were created. The examination of one's own history takes place with the help of cultural history research by highlighting and analyzing when, by whom, in what way and on what grounds the Röhsska Museum's collections were created. It is also valuable to study how the collections have been viewed over time in order to make them understandable and useful today.Few of the museum's 50,000 objects are digitized. Most of the collections in the Röhsska Museum are therefore completely unknown to the outside world. For the digitization work, increased knowledge of the objects is needed. An important purpose of continued research on the Röhsska Museum's collections is to fill such a gap.In addition, all research at the museum contributes to enriching other museum activities with new perspectives and questions. Research results are continuously made available in articles, lectures, catalogs, publications, exhibitions, internal seminars, conferences and on the museum's website. Research on the Röhsska Museum's collections and the history of their creation also increases the opportunities for collaboration with universities and other institutions.Hadenius, PatrikResearch & ProgressPublication of Research & Progress in 2017Other2016

Amount granted: 44 800 SEK

The aim of the journal is to report on research and research results and the role of research in society. The topics and research results that are highlighted should primarily be of interest to society. Forskning & Framsteg should work at the forefront of knowledge, be general education, deserve high credibility and be made with the reader in focus.Widenberg, JohannaSwedish University of AgricultureThe great cattle death - cattle plague and anthrax in the 18th centuryOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

"The Great Cattle Death. Kampen mot boskapspest och mjältbrand i 1700-talets svenska rike" is a Swedish-language monograph based on a multi-year research project funded by the Swedish Research Council. Carlssons förlag plans to publish the book in spring 2017. The book contains many new empirical results and current research perspectives. The book is aimed at all historians who study the agrarian economy, society and sciences of the 18th century. It may also appeal to readers outside of academia, as it is written in an easy-to-understand manner and contains many illustrations.The book deals with the infectious and fatal cattle diseases that ravaged the Swedish Empire in the 18th century and their importance for the agrarian society, economy and veterinary medicine of the time. The diseases that caused the most serious outbreaks were rinderpest and anthrax. Rinderpest is a now, since 2011, eradicated cattle disease. The disease ravaged the Swedish Empire between 1720 and 1772. More than three hundred and fifty thousand cattle died during these years. Many thousands of cattle also died of anthrax during these years. As cattle were of great importance in Swedish agrarian society - as draught animals, food, fertilizer and raw material producers - the disease outbreaks had major consequences for farmers and traders. The diseases of rinderpest and anthrax are therefore very interesting in terms of agricultural and economic history.Wistisen, LydiaStockholm UniversityFrom staircase to tunnel: Urban themes in Swedish youth literatureOther2016

Amount granted: 87 500 SEK

The project aims to examine urban motifs in Swedish youth literature from the turn of the 20th century to the beginning of the 21st century. Although several of the aspects that have been identified as crucial to the development of youth literature in the 20th century are directly related to the urban, no previous study of the genre's urban motifs exists. By analyzing motifs such as the department store, the hustler and the Million Dollar Program, I will be able to say something new about Swedish youth literature and contribute to the knowledge of the connections between youth, urban life and modernity.Changes in society and the city have had a significant impact on the portrayal of maturity in youth literature. The city and its varied environments have been used both to educate and train and to entertain and inspire. New youth culture phenomena have been used both to set a warning example and to show the young reader new possibilities. The representation of urban youth culture has moved around the urban landscape during the century: from the backyards of Emil Norlander's Anderssonskan's Kalle (1901) and Kar de Mumma's Två år i varje klass (1923) to Harry Kullman's and Peter Pohl's Södermalm, in novels such as Den svarta fläcken (1949) and Janne min vän (1983). From Martha Sandwall-Bergström's 1950s Tempo department store to Kerstin Thorvall's 1970s Million Project suburbs. From Astrid Lindgren's Kati on Kaptensgatan (1952) to Mats Wahl's Vinterviken (1993). From the stairwell to the pedestrian tunnel.Klackenberg, DayThe Swedish History DaysThe Swedish History Days 2017Other2016

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

Interest in history is strong and growing. The need for a deeper understanding of history is often highlighted, not least in debates on the role of schools and in the context of social issues at the heart of current political debate.The Swedish History Days work to promote this interest in history through annual conferences. The aim is to maintain the History Days as a meeting place for representatives of historical research, practitioners in the world of museums and archives, history teachers and a public interested in history. The ambition is therefore to present topics and research in a way that is of high quality but also accessible to non-specialist participants. The long-term goal is to use teachers and other professionals as channels to increase the historical knowledge of the public at large, especially the younger generations.For many history teachers, the History Days are the main opportunity for continuing education, particularly in terms of reconnecting with the research community, and for professional historians this forum provides an opportunity to make new research findings available.Bergstrand, ThomasBohuslän MuseumMarstrand MonasteryOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 228 800

In 2014, Bohuslän Museum conducted a ground penetrating radar survey of the old cemetery at Marstrand church. The results show that a large foundation wall (34×12 m) is hidden in the southern part of the area. A project group at Bohuslän Museum now wants to try to confirm what kind of building remains it is. One hopeful hypothesis is that the remains are the medieval Franciscan monastery that operated on Marstrand from the 13th century onwards. However, the monastery building has not been found so far. The archaeological effort is planned for a few days of exploratory investigation and documentation, but also includes public tours for school children and the public. The project is a collaboration with the Marstrand Hembygdsförening.Ragnarsson, PerThe Jemseby bookOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 200 000

The Jemseby method is a patented photographic reproduction method invented by Anton Jemseby in the 1940s and subsequently developed and refined by Anton's son, co-applicant in this application, Bo Jemseby. The Jemseby method was used in the 1970s by more than 50 companies in Sweden, Norway, Germany, Austria, England, Australia, Kuwait, Iraq, Bhutan and Portugal. Today, the development of the graphic industry has eliminated the method, but in the graphic arts business the craft is still alive and well. I, Peter Ragnarsson, came into contact with Bo as a printer and graphic designer in 1984 and have since then done my own repro and produced several acclaimed art and photo books using the Jemseby method. Among the more famous are Tomtebobarnen by Elsa Beskov and Svenskt fågellexikon from 1984. Over the years, Bo Jemseby has sketched a book about the method and his own professional graphic life with it. I am now helping Bo, in my role as editor and ghost writer, to ensure that we can complete his book together. The goal is a technical-historical and richly illustrated book with Bo Jemseby and the Jemseby method at the center.Rosenberg, TiinaStockholm UniversityThe Sons of Joseph. When Europe came to SwedenOther2016

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The book is about Ludvig Josephson (1832-1899), Sweden's first professional theater and opera director, also active as a debater with a combative art policy and cosmopolitan agenda. His life is presented against the backdrop of changing European cultural life and the way in which he brought this new performing arts culture to Sweden by laying the foundations for the theater and opera repertoire in Stockholm that still forms the backbone of European repertory theater.In addition to the performing arts, this book is about Jewish identity at a time when new career paths were opening up for European Jews and the composers Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, the writer Heinrich Heine and the actress Rachel began to make their presence felt in Europe. The legacy of the 19th century in Europe was largely made up of the opera and the changing cityscape. The mental heritage of the era includes the emotional culture, which certainly had a long history, but which now came to affect more and more people. Ludvig Josephson not only sought inspiration in his travels, but was drawn to the freedom offered by continental European urban culture. His great dream was to bring Sweden closer to Europe and the world and to transform the provincial performing arts in Sweden into something more grand and artistically ambitious.Olsson, AgnetsStyrsö parishStyrsö Chamber SoloistsOther2016

Amount granted: SEK

Styrsö Chamber Soloists 2016Weiss, NadjaAuschwitz trials in Frankfurt - 100 years of Peter WeissOther2016

Amount granted: 130 000 SEK

This year Peter Weiss would have been 100 years old. His life's work is being commemorated through a number of projects both in Sweden and Germany during the year. Nadja Weiss will be responsible for a major dark documentary project related to the Auschwitz trials in Frankfurt, where the SS men who worked in Auschwitz were put on trial and witnesses were heard. Peter Weiss wrote a documentary piece on the Auschwitz trials, The Search.Research on the Auschwitz trials in Frankfurt, as well as on Peter Weiss' documentary piece on the same, consists of:- Historisches Museum in Berlin, documentation on the two camps including notes and smuggled photos from Theresienstadt and Auschwitz.- Akademien der Kunstes - including Peter Weiss' collection of photos and notes on Theresienstadt. The studies will be led by Dr. Jörg Fessman.- Visit and documentation of Auschwitz and Theresienstadt.- Study trip to Jerusalem to study material there, including photographic material from the two camps.- Frankfurt.- Professor Jürgen Schutte emeritus who researched Peter Weiss Rannsakningen and his archive is also important.The work will mainly result in a new production of the documentary play The Search in a collaboration between Orionteatern and Dramaten.Zierath, JuleenKarolinska InstituteEpigenomic control and molecular characterization of insulin resistance in diabetesMedicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 600 000

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a strong resistance of the body's tissues to the hormone insulin and a reduced production of insulin by the pancreas. Both hereditary and lifestyle factors can cause insulin resistance but these factors are not yet understood. We will identify genes and proteins that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle, the largest tissue in the body, as well as mechanisms for how the genes may be affected by lifestyle factors such as exercise. By examining two different processes for how the environment and lifestyle factors/exercise can affect the genes, we can find genes that affect insulin resistance in the cells. The processes we will focus on are epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and microRNA. By looking at all the DNA methylations that occur in insulin resistance, we can find genes that are affected. In addition, mapping all microRNA changes in insulin resistance provides additional genes that may be important for the development of type 2 diabetes. Finally, we will validate the identified genes above by examining their function on insulin sensitivity in mouse models of Type 2 diabetes. Information on which genes are affected will enable future development of new drugs as well as new dietary and exercise programs to treat and prevent the onset of Type 2 diabetes.Syvänen, StinaUppsala UniversityImproved PET diagnostics for Alzheimer's diseaseMedicine2015

Amount granted: 427 850 SEK

About 100,000 people in Sweden are currently living with Alzheimer's disease. The number of sufferers will increase as a consequence of increased life expectancy. The aim of the project is to develop positron emission tomography (PET, medical imaging technique) of soluble forms of the protein amyloid-beta (Abeta). Current PET technology, which is based on imaging the disease's characteristic senile plaques consisting of insoluble accumulations of Abeta, is not satisfactory because the signal "hits the ceiling" early in the disease. A PET scan therefore provides no information on the severity of the disease and cannot be used to measure drug effects. The antibody we have previously developed, mAb158, binds selectively to Abeta protofibrils, but like all other antibodies it is a large molecule that has difficulty passing from the blood into the brain. Over the past year, we have modified mAb158 so that, in addition to protofibrils, it also binds to the transferrin receptor, increasing the transport of mAb158 into the brain. Depending on how the modification is made, we have increased the uptake of the antibody 10-50 times. Furthermore, we have shown with PET that it is possible to image protofibrils in the brain in models of Alzheimer's disease. We will now study how sensitive the ligand is to changes in protofibril levels and further develop it for use in humans. The project is the first ever to successfully use an antibody as a PET ligand for a target system in the brain.Pernow, JohnKarolinska InstituteMolecular mechanisms and novel treatments for cardiovascular complications in diabetesMedicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Diabetes is one of the main risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. A central reason for this is the malfunctioning of the endothelial cells of the blood vessels, leading to vasoconstriction and inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that the enzyme arginase is essential for the regulation of endothelial function by modulating the production of nitric oxide and free oxygen radicals. In addition, our research has shown that arginase in red blood cells may play an important role in cardiovascular function during oxygen deprivation. Our hypothesis is that increased activity of arginase in the blood vessel wall and red blood cells in diabetes results in reduced formation of nitric oxide, increased radical formation and vascular damage. The goal is to identify the regulation of arginase and to improve cardiovascular function in diabetes through arginase inhibition.These questions will be addressed first in experimental disease models and then in clinical studies. In experimental studies, the role of arginase in blood vessels and red blood cells in the development of cardiovascular dysfunction under oxygen deprivation will be investigated. In patients with diabetes and vascular complications, the regulation and activity of arginase in blood vessels and red blood cells is being investigated. The effect of arginase blockade on vascular function is being studied in controlled clinical trials.The project may lead to new knowledge about disease mechanisms and new treatment options to improve cardiovascular function and prevent complications in diabetes.Ohlsson, ClaesUniversity of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska AcademyA new mechanism for regulating body weightMedicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Obesity is a growing public health problem worldwide, with more than one billion overweight and 300 million obese according to the WHO. Obesity contributes to serious diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In recent years, a number of reports have shown that people who spend much of their day sitting are at increased risk of obesity and diabetes. The reasons for this association are unknown. We have now obtained results suggesting that increased sitting may lead to less activation of a "body weight sensor" in the weight-bearing long bones and that this in turn leads to reduced activity in an anti-obesity system. There is already a well-known system that aims to keep body fat mass constant. The anti-obesity hormone leptin is released into the bloodstream from adipose tissue in proportion to the size of the fat mass. Leptin exerts a negative feedback loop in the brain leading to reduced appetite and obesity. Unfortunately, for unknown reasons, most obese people are insensitive to leptin's anti-obesity effect. Our clear preliminary data show that inserting weights into the abdominal cavity of mice reduces their food intake, body weight and fat mass in relation to the size of the weight and that this effect involves a specific cell type in the long tubular bones. We now want to study the exact mechanism of how the "body weight meter" affects fat mass and the possible clinical significance of this novel system of fat regulation.Mallard, CarinaUniversity of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska AcademyThe role of the immune system in neonatal brain injury: Molecular mechanisms and new targets for treatmentMedicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Being born prematurely increases the risk of brain damage, cerebral palsy and impaired cognitive and social functions. Prematurity is one of the major global health issues facing modern society according to the WHO (2012). These complications have a direct impact on the child's quality of life and are a huge burden socially and economically. Currently, there are no brain-protecting treatments. There is strong evidence of an association between inflammation, preterm birth and subsequent neurological diseases, which is the starting point for the current project. The main hypothesis is that inflammation in the blood leads to regulation of immune receptors (known as TLRs) at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid interface, contributing to inflammation and damage in the brain. By manipulating the immune response, we will be able to protect the immature brain.We will investigate:(i) the role of TLR2 in brain injury.(ii) the brain protective effect of newly discovered peptides in a clinically relevant animal model.(iii) the effect of brain-protective peptides on the inflammatory response in premature infants at increased risk of brain injury. Thus, we will be able to identify new mechanisms for how blood immune cells affect the immature brain, find new brain-protective treatments, gain important new knowledge about the regulation of inflammation in premature infants. This innovative project is thus likely to contribute new knowledge to develop treatments for premature babies.Maeurer, MarkusKarolinska InstitutePersonalized specific cell therapy for patients with glioblastoma and pancreatic cancerMedicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Many studies show that T cells infiltrating tumor tissue have the ability to specifically recognize tumor cells. Treatment of cancer patients, using the patient's own T-cells isolated from tumor tissue, has been shown to result in a more than 70% durable response rate and we intend to offer a similar option to patients with cancer. The immune cells are grown in a controlled and sterile environment and activated to become more effective against cancer cells. Complete tumor by tumor analysis is performed with the intention of identifying the patient's mutation which acts as anti-tumor targeting TAAs (tumor associated antigens). The second layer of the approach uses transgenic T-cells that exploit the transmission of T-cell receptors (targeting so-called general tumor antigens, which are only found in tumors, not yet in healthy tissue) or use specific antibodies that target cancer (e.g. targeting mesothelin or FGVRvIII, "CARs") fused with molecules that enable T-cells to kill cancer cells. The aim is to identify the best tailored treatment and the best strategy to equip the patient's immune cells for the destruction of tumor cells: "personalized therapy" using a detailed evaluation of the patient's tumor and the patient's immune cells to offer the best approach to immunological treatment.Karpman, DianaLund UniversityStudies on pathogenetic mechanisms leading to new treatment options in kidney diseasesMedicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

The overall objective of this project is to study molecular mechanisms and develop new therapeutic options for certain kidney diseases. Starting from different kidney diseases, basic mechanisms leading to kidney failure will be studied. The project focuses on specific infections and immunological conditions that affect blood cells and kidney cells leading to inflammation and blood clot formation. Activation of the body's different protein systems on cells is studied to define which bacterial and host factors lead to disease. In addition, how certain gene alterations contribute to disease is studied.The kidney diseases studied are caused by infection, inflammation and/or immunological reactions.- We study small membrane particles released from blood cells and their role in spreading infection and inflammation, and how blocking these membrane particles can affect the course and development of kidney disease.- We have found a new mechanism of injury in kidney tissue and blocked it in patients with an attenuating effect on kidney inflammation.- We define new molecular mechanisms and gene mutations in kidney disease and study how these trigger kidney injury.By defining which factors contribute to disease development at the cellular level, in animal models and in patients, these studies can lead to the development of specific treatments, which are currently lacking. These new treatments focus on blocking the spread of infection and activation of inflammation.Hesslow, GermundLund UniversityAssociative learning and timing in the cerebellumMedicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 3 000 000

Memories are based on learned associations. The photo of a boat evokes the name of the boat, perhaps the smell of the sea. The sight of sheet music combined with a previous note causes the pianist to associate with the correct key. For this to be learned, the brain cells must establish new connections. It also requires a 'timing' mechanism to ensure that the key is pressed at the right moment How does this work?We can follow the learning of an association in a single neuron in the cerebellum. A test animal hears a tone followed by an air puff to the eye. After repeated such stimulations, the tone will trigger a blink before the puff of air - a conditioned reflex. The conditioned reflex is precisely timed - it comes just when the puff of air is expected with a precision of a few tens of milliseconds. We believe that the mechanism behind the timing is the same that allows the pianist to press the key at exactly the right moment. We have identified the cells in the cerebellum that learn the association and have discovered that these cells contain a kind of 'micro-clock'. We can pinpoint key components of the clocks' structure and want to go further to investigate the details.The discovery on which the project is based implies an entirely new principle for signaling and learning in the brain. The project may also have medical implications such as improved motor learning in stroke patients. As the same mechanisms appear to be damaged in children with autism and language disorders, the project may lead to better treatment for these as well.Hansson, Göran K.Kungl. Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Academy Chair in Medicine 2016Medicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 10 296 000

The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis is placed on research carried out during the last five-year period. The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed.There is a great need for this type of research position, where proven outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further strengthen and develop their research, in order to further strengthen Swedish research in the light of international developments.Ehrsson, HenrikKarolinska InstituteHow do we experience the body as our own? Research on cortex mechanismsMedicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 4 000 000

Bend your head forward and look down at your body. You see two arms, two legs, a stomach and a chest. But how does the brain understand that this body is your own? In our research project, we will use the most advanced brain imaging and brain stimulation techniques to answer this question. Our hypothesis is that the whole-body experience is created by two parallel cortex mechanisms. Signals from vision, touch and muscle sense are integrated in specific areas of the frontal lobe and the association cortex of the cerebral lobe to create the experience of a single coherent body, while processes in the temporal lobe generate signals about the location of this body in space.We will then go on to demonstrate that this brain's internal representation of the body affects episodic memory - one of our most important higher cognitive functions. Our hypothesis is that episodic memory requires us to have a functioning perception of our own body, and that this directly affects memory storage and recall.In summary, our results will provide a groundbreaking description of the cortex mechanisms that underlie whole-body spatial perception, and also demonstrate that this perception affects our episodic memory. These results could lead to important new advances in applied research on virtual reality, cognitive psychiatry and advanced prosthetics.Dumanski, JanUppsala UniversityDoes Y chromosome loss in men cause cancer and Alzheimer's disease?Medicine2015

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Women and men have different sets of sex chromosomes; women have two Xs and men have one X and one Y. It is also known that men have a shorter life expectancy compared to women, but the underlying mechanisms behind these differences are not understood.We have recently discovered that a lifelong loss of chromosome Y (abbreviated as LOY) in normal blood cells in adult or aging men is associated with: a) shorter survival and a significant risk of developing cancer in many different organs of the body; b) greatly increased risk of Alzheimer's disease; and c) smoking is strongly associated with LOY, which may explain why smoking is a major risk factor for cancer and Alzheimer's disease in men and, by extension, why men live shorter lives on average than women.We want to develop the possibilities of using LOY as a biomarker to assess the risk of cancer or Alzheimer's disease. We expect to prove that LOY in men has a strong effect on the risk of developing cancer and Alzheimer's disease, which could eventually lead to offering a LOY screening program for all adult men. We envision that within 5-15 years, all adult men will benefit from LOY status analysis. Since men on average live shorter lives and have a higher risk of developing cancer, we expect that our results will lead to lower mortality rates in the future among men who are included in LOY testing programs.Wissén, PehrInstitute for Financial Research, SIFRFinancing businesses, households and nations after the crisisEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 450 000

The SIFR organizes an annual conference on a theme in financial economics. The theme for 2016 is the financing of companies, banks and nation states after the financial crisis. Do we need new rules, new institutions and new markets? The conference is based on a dialog between academic economists and representatives of the financial sector.The financial crisis and the subsequent Euro crisis have reminded us how costly financial crises can be. In response to the recent crises, a number of important financial regulations in the EU, Sweden and the US have been changed and developed with the aim of reducing the risk of new crises and the consequences if one occurs. For example, the regulations have changed so that banks hold significantly more share capital today than before the crisis.Regardless of regulations and laws, the risk of crises can never be completely eliminated. Individual companies and banks, as well as political entities, will face payment problems. Therefore, it is important to have a clear regulatory framework that regulates how a company, bank or nation that can no longer survive on its own should be recapitalized or dissolved at the lowest possible cost. It is also important to review how organizations and markets function. The conference highlights the changes that have already been made and the need for further change.Ulväng, MarieUppsala UniversitySpices and socks: Global and peripheral consumption patterns 1600-1850Economy2015

Amount granted: SEK 123 500

What role did Swedish manufactures, surplus regulations and Norwegian border trade play in the consumption patterns of farmers in the Swedish hinterland? In the forested and sparsely populated interior, the conditions for consumption were different from those in the cities and in the agricultural areas of southern Sweden. Around the turn of the century, Härjedalen's herding and trade in dairy products gave the tax farmers a scope for consumption that made it possible to buy a larger amount of manufactured fabrics. The proximity to the Norwegian border trade made Härjedalen part of a global trade. Museum collections and estate inventories show that, despite customs barriers and abundance regulations, many purchased fabrics were foreign-made. The study aims to shed light on the supply and demand for manufactured fabrics and to understand the spread of fashion and people's attitudes towards purchased fabrics and home-made goods. The study is part of a European network on the consumption of manufactured fabrics, knitted socks, coffee and exotic spices in northern and southern Europe 1650-1850.Strömberg, PerStockholm School of EconomicsWhy are salaries in the financial sector so high? Causes and implicationsEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 747 000

The wages of employees in the financial industry have increased dramatically since the 1980s relative to other industries in a large number of countries. In a previous study (Boehm, Metger & Strömberg, 2015), we show that this also applies to the Swedish financial sector, where the relative wage for an employee in the financial sector went from being 30% higher in 1991 to being 70% higher in 2010, compared with other industries. The financial sector has thus been one of the industries that has contributed most to the increasing inequality in income and wealth that has been documented in a large number of countries over the past 40 years.In a previous study, we showed that, (1) average talent has not increased in the finance industry since 1990; (2) the share of the most talented individuals going to the finance industry is essentially constant; and (3) finance wages have increased across the entire talent distribution, not just for the most talented individuals. These findings raise important new questions, which we want to address in this project:- If increased competition for talent is not driving wages, what is?- Which sub-sectors of the financial industry, and which firms, have seen the largest wage increases, and if so, why?- Why aren't more talented individuals being attracted to the financial sector, even though relative wages have increased?- Which sectors do the most talented individuals go to, how has this changed over time, and what impact has this had on productivity and innovation?Sjöholm, CarinaGothenburg City MuseumHeads or tails? An exhibition on economy, value creation and moneyEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 470 000

As a result of the project 'Krona eller klave? Different sides of coins and credits in 19th century Gothenburg", an exhibition is being produced by the Gothenburg City Museum. It is based on the results of the research group within the project, the museum's in-depth documentation of the collection and dialogues with the target group. In addition, the perspective will be broadened to discuss how economic and other values arise, how they change over time and how they have, and have had, an impact on all of us in a global world.The exhibition provides a substantive discussion on different types of values such as economic, cultural-historical, symbolic and national. But also how these values are expressed in museum practice and how they can be changed with the help of the exhibition medium and the visitor's experience. The goal is to engage students in mathematical thinking and contribute to a positive development of mathematical knowledge in Swedish schools, while at the same time providing skills development in the museum's pedagogy and exhibition production.Nordlund Edvinsson, ThereseStockholm UniversityOutside the boardroom: Women, children and family business 1890-1950Economy2015

Amount granted: SEK 885 000

Swedish industry is dominated by men who manage and own businesses. However, throughout history, women have contributed in various ways to the survival of family businesses. The aim of the project is to investigate how marriage, entrepreneurship and family life were combined during a time when women were often in the shadow of the business. The project deals with the leading business families in Gothenburg during the period 1890 to 1950. How were children integrated into the business? How did marital alliances influence business networks? The first case study analyzes how children were involved in the family business. We know very little about how sons and daughters were trained in the family business. The second case study examines how marital alliances and networks between different families were cultivated in Gothenburg and how this could contribute to the empowerment of women. By analyzing entrepreneurship from the perspective of women and children, the intention is to study the scope of action they had within the family business. Although the family has often been treated in previous research on business dynasties, female family members are rarely at the center. I use both a database that I have developed and previously unexplored source material consisting of diaries and correspondence. The project highlights actors in corporate history who have previously been made invisible. The project contributes to increasing our knowledge of the importance of women and children in the family business.Hasselberg, YlvaThe nature of science. Eli F. Heckscher 1879-1952Economy2015

Amount granted: SEK 180 000

The project concerns the completion of a biography of Eli F. Heckscher, the Swedish economist and economic historian. Heckscher lived during a period when modern Sweden was emerging. I mean not only that Sweden was industrialized, urbanized and democratized, but that modernity in the sense of individualism and modern institutions were created. He belonged to a generation that debated and took a stance on this process, and he problematized and historicized it in his research. He took part in the planned economy debate, acted as a popular educator, fought his duels with the Stockholm School on the role of the state in the economy and sat on several committees. He was a strong personality, and much of the source material also testifies to the conditions of science in the first half of the 20th century, and the struggling man's negotiations with this emerging modernity. In this way, the biography being written is both an intellectual biography and an analysis of high modern Sweden. My idea is that it will, as Johan Asplund once wrote, constitute the slash in the conceptual pair of man/society.Agndal, HenrikUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawManagement of complex business relationshipsEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 2 099 417

As vertically integrated companies evolve into organizations based on cooperation and relationships with other companies, new needs for interorganizational governance arise. In this context, governance means developing certain types of relationships and exchanges using various methods and techniques that together form a governance system. Inter-organisational governance is of great importance for most companies, but knowledge of this phenomenon is based on studies of rather one-dimensional relationships. Much of the complexity that in practice characterizes interorganizational relationships is thus ignored in these studies. The overall aim of the project is therefore to create greater understanding of the governance of interorganizational relationships.Through the following research questions, the project addresses three specific complexities: (1) How does the governance of certain activities affect the governance of other activities within complex, multidimensional interorganizational relationships? (2) How does the design and use of internal governance systems affect interorganizational governance systems and vice versa? (3) What role does institutional duality play in the governance of international interorganizational relations? We answer these questions through interview-based case studies of interorganizational relations. The project will take two years and the results will not only advance the research front, but also be disseminated to practitioners and used in our teaching.Hallén, PerUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawMan and fish. West coast fishing and the economy 1700-2015.Economy2015

Amount granted: SEK 472 000

The fisherman with a south-west wind on a small rolling fishing boat with a spark plug engine is an ideal image of fishing for many people. However, the reality, both past and present, is far from that ideal. Vessels and fishing methods have undergone many dramatic periods of change where both technology and organization have changed fundamentally.One of the most radical periods of change has occurred in our own time. Fishing is now strictly regulated and modern technology has made it possible to monitor the activity of vessels at sea. The quota system has driven the trend towards larger and fewer fishing vessels, which makes it easier to control fishing and creates a motivation for fishermen to stay within the regulations as they are keen to keep their catch quotas. Today, quotas, politics and marine ecology are driving the change in fishing, what are the driving forces over the past centuries?This project aims to investigate the period 1700 to today and see how catches, techniques, financing and organization have changed the fishery along the Swedish west coast.In the first stage of the project, the emphasis is on investigating the extent of the catches and which fish species were interesting to catch. During the four hundred years that the project intends to investigate, herring plays a central role. Past herring fishing periods are usually well known, but even today herring is of great economic importance and herring quotas are among the most sought after by fishermen.Kjellberg, HansStockholm School of Economics, SIRMarket dynamics patterns, a doctoral programEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 3 770 000

Although markets can, under certain conditions, be effective mechanisms for resource allocation, their social importance is rather linked to their ability to generate change and development. When this happens, markets also change: new offerings are introduced, new insights about customers are formed, new customer relationships are built, new types of intermediaries are established, new methods of competition are tried. Nevertheless, our knowledge of change and development processes in markets is very shallow compared to the static analysis of the ideal market.This doctoral program is based on a dynamic and actor-based view of markets that focuses on how different actors try to change markets, and how they actually change through their efforts. It aims to identify, characterize and explain different types and patterns of market change. An increased understanding of change processes in markets is theoretically important, but also practically relevant for those who drive or are affected by changes in the organization and functioning of individual markets, e.g. companies, consumers, civil society organizations, and authorities. The program includes 4 PhD projects based on in-depth case studies of markets that are undergoing or have undergone significant transformations. These are: 1) the emergence of the sharing economy, 2) the emergence of legal cannabis markets in the US, 3) the merging of markets through the smart phone, and 4) the deregulation of passenger air travel.Sandberg, AnnaStockholm UniversityDo male-dominated environments affect gender differences in performance and career choice?Economy2015

Amount granted: SEK 220 000

Even today, large and economically significant gender gaps in pay and representation persist. Despite high female participation in the workforce, progress towards equal pay has stagnated and few women reach the very top. With the removal of formal barriers to women's advancement, and the fact that in many countries women are better educated than men, we need to find new explanations for the persistent gender gaps in the labor market.This research project aims to study a relatively unexplored mechanism behind gender differences in the labor market: the gender composition of work groups. Are women's performance and well-being negatively affected by male-dominated environments? This is difficult to study in a credible way, partly because of insufficient data, and partly because the gender composition of groups often correlates with other factors that affect gender differences in outcomes. We will use Swedish register data to analyze how gender differences in doctoral students' study results, dropouts and labor market outcomes are affected by the gender composition of doctoral programs. By exploiting the fact that the proportion of men in each doctoral program varies between adjacent cohorts, we can capture the causal effect of the proportion of male doctoral students in a program. The results are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind persistent gender gaps in the labor market, and thus be of interest to international researchers and policy makers alike.Söderberg, JohanStockholm UniversitySluggish prices and macroeconomic fluctuationsEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 885 000

In recent years, the New Keynesian general equilibrium model has become the standard model for monetary policy analysis and today variants of the model are widely used by both academic institutions and many central banks. The model is based on a foundation of neoclassical elements with optimizing agents and rational expectations. However, prices are assumed to be sticky, which means that monetary shocks affect the real economy. While most economists agree that sticky prices are the reason why monetary shocks are not neutral, it has been less clear why prices are sticky. Nevertheless, the importance of distinguishing between alternative theories has never been questioned. This is because it has long been known that different assumptions about why prices are sticky have a major impact on both the quantitative and normative properties of the model. This has generated considerable interest in the empirical investigation of how prices are determined. The results from these studies suggest that price formation in the economy is much more complex than previously thought: prices change more frequently, the changes are larger, and they are modified by different factors than previously assumed. Moreover, it is a heterogeneous process where different firms follow different strategies. The aim of this research project is to incorporate into the New Keynesian model some of the newly found empirical relationships that seem most relevant from a macro-policy perspective.Fellman, SusannaUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawRegulation and strategies: international cartels in the 20th centuryEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 798 500

Cartels and competition policy are perennial topics in political debate and especially in European policy. In the late 20th century, there was a relative consensus among Western economists that market regulation was largely a bad thing and that the removal of regulation would automatically lead to better and more efficient markets. Since the 2008 financial crisis, this view has been challenged and the increasingly accepted view is that a regulatory framework is needed to establish a well-functioning market economy. The discussion has mainly concerned financial markets, but competition policy is also debated. However, a historical perspective on competition policy suggests that this discussion is not new but has been ongoing throughout the 20th century.In this project, we will study how internationalization in the form of increased trade and freer movement of capital has affected the strategies and functioning of international cartels. This is studied in three subprojects where different industries are highlighted and compared. At the same time, we also study how national and international regulations have affected the development. A special focus is also placed on Nordic cooperation in the field of competition policy and how they tackled the problem of international cartels. The project is economic-historical in nature and is based on new source research, but is also strongly rooted in economic and institutional theory.Fritz, MartinSweden's man in London during World War II - Björn Prytz's private archiveEconomy2015

Amount granted: 130 000 SEK

Almost by coincidence, I have been given the opportunity to take part in an unusually interesting archive material, namely a previously unknown private archive of Sweden's head of mission in London during World War II, the former CEO of SKF Björn G. Prytz. Having access to both his formal, but during the war secret, correspondence with foreign ministry officials in Sweden and the correspondence with a large number of people who were part of his private network, both in England and in Sweden, makes it possible to make a more in-depth analysis of Britain's actions against Sweden during the war. The relationship was certainly not unproblematic, as it was claimed in London that Swedish alignment with Germany went too far on several occasions. But the material also gives concrete form to Prytz's other tasks and the many different issues and problems a Swedish envoy had to deal with. The aim of the study is to publish a book that can both provide new aspects of Anglo-Swedish relations during the Second World War and also show how a prominent Swedish diplomat at the time worked with the support of an extensive personal network in both England and Sweden.Hultin, LottaStockholm School of Economics, SIRThe impact of digitalization on value-creating relationships in the public sectorEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 186 200

The development of digital information technology brings radically new opportunities to produce and consume services. In the public sector, these opportunities have the potential to contribute to increased customer centricity, efficiency and cost savings, but also to fundamentally change the relationship between producer and consumer and state and citizen. However, the opportunities do not come without challenges. As more and more of society's actors are embedded in a complex network of digital technologies, the boundaries of traditional institutions and categories such as public/private and citizen/customer become blurred and ethical questions of integrity, trust, equality and justice become relevant. It is therefore important to investigate how digital technologies change public service practices and processes and what consequences this has for the values and subjects that are ultimately produced as legitimate. This research project aims to investigate these questions from a socio-material perspective through which we study digital technology not only as a representation (of human intentions), but as a performance that has consequences for the development of the system as a whole. With this approach, our aim is to deepen the understanding of the effects of digitalization on the development of value-creating relationships in public services.Lapidus, JohnUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawNew funding options for key welfare servicesEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 923 000

The Swedish welfare model is undergoing changes. This includes the extensive privatization of central welfare services that began in the early 1990s. But it is not only the operation of welfare services that has undergone changes. The financing has also changed to some extent. This involves new, private financing alternatives that are often subsidized to some extent by the state. One example is the RUT deductions for privately financed elderly care. The new forms of financing are often dependent on there being a private producer offering the same. In this way, there seems to be a link between private operation and private financing. What is the nature of this link between private management and private funding? What are the social consequences of a welfare model that is increasingly based on privately financed welfare solutions?The purpose of the research project is to study a certain type of change in the Swedish welfare model. First, it is about understanding and analyzing the relatively unexplored relationship between privatized operation and privatized financing of central welfare services. Secondly, it is about understanding and analyzing the relatively unexplored social consequences of a welfare model that is increasingly based on privately financed welfare services. Thirdly, it is about being able to say something about where the Swedish welfare model is, and where it is heading.Maican, FlorinInstitute for Economic ResearchCompetition in grocery retailingEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 360 000

Grocery shopping constitutes a large part of private consumption. Together with large stores in external locations, there is currently a trend towards further developing smaller grocery stores that are geographically close to the consumer.The overall aim of the research project is to make a dynamic analysis of demand and market structure in the Swedish grocery trade. We use newly developed models and methods with deep theoretical grounding and take into account that stores differ in size, location and service level. The first part consists of a detailed analysis of consumers' choice and valuation of different store formats from a geographical perspective. The second part deals with firms' decisions and costs to establish, reallocate and remove stores from local markets. A unique combination of databases covering all grocery stores in Sweden during the period 2001-2013 will be used.A central contribution of the research project is that we simulate the development of the grocery market following a number of hypothetical changes such as a more liberal regulation of new establishments. The project contributes to the international research front by using models based on economic theory together with newly developed statistical methods to analyze strategic interaction between firms.Wahlström, GunnarUniversity of Gothenburg, GRIExternal accounting and corporate relations in capital marketsEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 055 000

This project aims to critically analyze the recent changes in external accounting. One such change is the introduction of IFRS in Swedish accounting practice. IFRS is based on an increased use of market valuation in external accounting. However, the problems with market valuation are underestimated. The increased use of market valuation means that companies' results and position have increasingly become a reflection of how the market has developed rather than how the company is doing. Thus, a company's board of directors, through their signatures in the annual report, are attesting more to the market's assessment rather than to the company's performance. To have information value, the information must be different from general information. Instead of being based on a market assessment, external reporting should be based on the performance of the company. This means that transaction-oriented accounting is prioritized instead of accounting based on expectations about the future where more and more unrealized gains are recognized in the profit for the year.Methodologically, the project is based on three closely related sub-studies. First, the debate on external accounting is studied nationally and internationally, followed by a comprehensive content analysis of annual reports to further identify problems in practice. The results of these two studies are then used to construct interview questions for company representatives and interpreters of external accounting.Sundevall, FiaLabour movement archives and librariesPoverty care and the ballot paper: the economic stratification of voting rights after 1921Economy2015

Amount granted: SEK 597 000

The project aims to explore the limitations of the political citizenship of poor relief recipients after the democratic breakthrough. When so-called universal suffrage was introduced in 1921, a number of grounds for disqualification remained. Most of those who continued to be disqualified from voting did so because they were regular recipients of poor relief. It was not until 1945 that the right to vote was extended to those on poor relief. By mapping and analyzing how these restrictions were legitimized, practiced, challenged and finally abolished, important empirical contributions can be generated on both the development of Swedish voting rights after 1921, and on how society's economically vulnerable were understood, excluded and defended during a sociopolitical and economically revolutionary period in Swedish history.Andersson, MagnusUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawStage III The European goods and credit market in the pre-industrial eraEconomy2015

Amount granted: SEK 570 000

The trade that drove the development and transformed Gothenburg's role as a gateway and enabled greater financial integration was the extensive export of herring from Gothenburg with grain in return loads from the Baltic region. This trade laid the foundation for the prosperity achieved among groups of merchants in the early 19th century. The aim of the project is to analyze the European payment and credit system in the early modern period, based on the flow of goods under changing international economic conditions, and to map the actors involved in trade and credit networks. The significance for the research situation is that it will be possible to systematize the path of goods flows through the gateway systems that emerge around important trade routes. Early modern cashless payments, through e.g. bills of exchange, "Cashless Payment", are assumed to create expanded trade opportunities and secure a credible financial, credit and trade system. Examples of central questions that are asked are: How did trade develop for Gothenburg during the period? What competitive advantages did it have compared with other cities in Europe? What role did Swedish trading cities play in a larger system of European gateways? The project will be carried out by systematically mapping the foreign ship traffic to and from Gothenburg, by further expanding the database of Gothenburg's two-day journals that I am working with, which will then be compared with other databases and with economic and legal material.Williams, LawrenceStockholm UniversityDefining the ownership of intangible assets in transfer pricingJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 640 000

The main purpose of transfer pricing (TP) rules is to ensure that intra-group activities between related companies are carried out at arm's length, i.e. establishing a price that related companies would have agreed to if they were separate companies. TPs are not harmonized at international or EU level, thus countries are free to apply their own domestic TP rules. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) published in 2010, the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines (OECD TPGS), which is an unofficial harmonization of TP guidelines internationally. As the OECD TPGS are general and worldwide recommendations for countries to follow, the wording of the OECD TPGS is, in parts, unclear and unspecific in terms of scope and application. The lack of a clear definition of ownership of IP has created room for interpretation and conflicts in international tax law between countries, which can cause double taxation or double non-taxation.The primary purpose of the thesis is to examine the provisions on the ownership of IP and how they are formulated in the TP from a national law and tax treaty law context, de lege lata, and with the secondary purpose of exploring these contexts, de lege ferenda, to provide a clearer understanding of IP ownership for TP purposes.Sjöholm, MariaÖrebro UniversityViolations of women's human rights in the virtual realmJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: SEK 846 000

Technological developments have led to new forms of violations of the human rights of women and girls, such as stalking, online sexual harassment and the distribution of intimate images. These types of violations affect women more than men, as a result of the fact that women are more often subjected to sexual abuse and are more frequent users of social media.As the violation in many cases is not physical, the act is often trivialized under national criminal law. States have created some international forums for cooperation on child p*rnography, but little attention is paid to violations against women through information and communication technologies. The project aims to map out how these types of violations can be considered violations of international human rights found in e.g. the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the European Convention on Human Rights, and to demonstrate the responsibility of states to prevent violence against women and girls, but also the reinforcement of stereotypical gender roles for men and women.International human rights regulate the actions of states, but this has included a responsibility to protect individuals from third parties as well. States can thus be considered to have a responsibility under international law to regulate, for example, internet service providers. The overall question thus aims to explore the safeguarding of the physical and mental health of women and girls in the virtual sphere.Ruotsi, MikaelUppsala UniversityThe Swedish press and freedom of expression regulation - a sustainability analysisJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 004 500

There are two patterns of development that in recent decades have changed the conditions for the Swedish constitutional regulation of freedom of the press and freedom of expression. Firstly, technological development has meant that the way in which opinions are disseminated and consumed has undergone a minor revolution. A clear shift from traditional media to the Internet is taking place at an accelerating rate. On the other hand, the impact of international law at national level has increased significantly, in particular through the growing international judicial cooperation based on the principle of mutual recognition.My focus is primarily on the impact of international law, but the challenges of technological development are so great that they cannot be ignored. The Swedish Freedom of the Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression have been largely separate from the transformation of domestic law brought about by the impact of European law. In some respects, this seems reasonable. The principles on which the Swedish regulations are based constitute a clear constitutional core that cannot simply be waived with reference to international obligations.However, developments show that the rules of the Constitution do not always give effect to the principles that constitute its justification. If the protection of rights is distributed inconsistently and in some cases does not even have an internal logic, is it really justified for the regulations to prevent, for example, the protection of rights under the European Convention from having an impact on the area protected by the constitution?Rendahl, PernillaUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawEnvironmental taxes as a tool to reduce chemical combination effectsJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: SEK 2 799 137

Environmental taxes come in different forms, they can be both direct and indirect, where direct taxes are imposed on producers who use environmentally hazardous substances in their production, while indirect taxes are imposed on what has already been produced, at the point of sale. The purpose of an indirect charge is to reduce the consumption of products containing environmentally harmful substances. In Sweden, a proposal was made in spring 2015 to introduce a new indirect chemical tax, i.e. a tax on products containing specified chemicals such as flame retardants. Several referral bodies have criticized the inquiry's proposal, among other things because the tax would be costly to administer and provide a relatively low taxation, i.e. the effectiveness of the tax can be discussed as the proposal is designed. This project approaches the taxation of chemicals not from the perspective of the Swedish chemical tax inquiry's proposal, but from the perspective of designing a Progressive Pollution Tax (PPT) with the aim of reducing the use of chemicals with a negative environmental impact, especially when several chemicals are used and so-called combination effects arise. The impact of EU state aid rules on the design of such a tax is considered in particular. How circumvention of national excise taxes can be counteracted by regional or international coordination of environmental taxes is also analyzed in a subproject. The basis for the latter study is a Nordic comparison.Maunsbach, LottaLund UniversityCivil law consequences of procedural agreementsJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: SEK 865 000

In commercial contracts, it is common for parties to regulate not only substantive issues but also issues of a procedural nature, such as the form of dispute resolution or prohibitions on standing, pleading and evidence. This study addresses some of the legal challenges that arise when commercial actors enter into agreements at the interface between civil and procedural law.The following clause is included in a purchase agreement: 'All persons present at the negotiations are prohibited from disclosing to third parties what has taken place during the negotiations'.This is a civil law confidentiality clause which also has a procedural aspect. What happens if, in a future dispute, a party invokes the testimony of a person who was present at the contract negotiations? A party's right to present its case and make the submissions it deems necessary cannot be limited by a confidentiality clause; the clause is procedurally invalid in this respect. However, the clause has been negotiated in a civil law context and expresses a common declaration of intent between the parties. This is what is interesting for the current research project. The purpose is to investigate and analyze whether a deliberate action by a party in violation of an explicit contractual term of a procedural nature, gives rise to civil law consequences. Can a procedural unconscionable contract be valid under civil law and, if so, what civil law sanctions could arise?Lernestedt, ClaesStockholm UniversitySuitability requirements for criminal liabilityJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 640 000

Suitability requirements for criminal liability - construction, content, discretion and consequencesProbably at all times and in all places, a person considered to be suffering from a sufficiently profound mental disorder has been considered incompetent, or at least limited in legal capacity. This is true in civil law, where such issues arise in relation to the drafting of wills and the validity of contracts, etc. It is also true in criminal law, where the idea of sanity as a requirement for criminal liability occupies a central position in almost every country in the world. A Norwegian inquiry recently stated, in the aftermath of the Breivik case, that "all civilized countries" impose such a requirement.In Sweden, however, there has been no requirement of sanity for criminal liability for 50 years. Furthermore, comparative studies show that there are very large variations when it comes to how different countries have chosen to formulate what is in fact called a sanity requirement. The purpose of the project is to use comparative studies to map different models for a sobriety regulation, and to discuss how such a regulation should be designed in various respects. Among the key issues addressed are where in the criminal trial the insanity requirement should be located, how the law's insanity requirement should be constructed, what should entail insanity and who - the court or the forensic psychiatrist - should have the power to decide on the issues.Kristoffersson, EleonorÖrebro UniversityVicarious liability in tax law - a comparative studyJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: 493 000 SEK

Fiscal vicarious liability means that the legal or de facto representatives of a company (e.g. the directors) become liable to pay the company's taxes. When a company becomes insolvent, vicarious liability arises in the vast majority of cases. One way to protect yourself from vicarious liability is to declare the company bankrupt. The rules on vicarious liability have been criticized for leading to the liquidation of potentially viable companies. We want to examine the regulation of similar problems in other countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and possibly one other country) to see if we can find a solution that both satisfies the public interest in the effective payment of taxes and alleviates the problem of premature liquidation of viable companies.Jänterä-Jareborg, MaaritUppsala UniversityCross-border recognition of same-sex marriages and partnershipsJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 509 000

Several European countries have taken the step of allowing same-sex couples to formalize their relationship, through the institution of registered partnership or through a gender-neutral marriage institution. The Nordic countries are at the forefront. In this way, the legal systems want to distance themselves from unequal treatment based on sexual orientation. The process has been driven by a dynamic interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. At the same time, these developments have been strongly contested by religions, as reflected in the opposition of Poland, Lithuania and Latvia, among others, to the equivalence of same-sex relationships with heterosexual ones in EU cooperation. The lack of a unified European "approach" results in legally "limping" family relationships; a legal relationship is recognized in one country but not in another. This PhD project focuses on the legal and faith-based treatment of same-sex relationships. It analyzes the ideas of free movement of citizens and equal rights in the light of the right of each Member State to maintain its national specificity, in which faith is important. The analysis takes into account, on the one hand, the EU's new international family law regulations, primary EU law and the ECHR, and, on the other hand, the legal situation primarily in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland. The central research question is to examine the potential of the Europeanization process to bring European legal systems closer together.Johansson, JesperStockholm School of Economics, SIRThe thirteen rules in situations involving foreign residentsJurisprudence2015

Amount granted: SEK 961 800

There are approximately 100,000 active Swedish limited liability companies with an annual turnover of more than SEK 1 million. The owners of these companies are covered to varying degrees by the so-called three-tier rules, which are intended to manage the community of interest in smaller ownership groups. The three-tier rules are complicated. They have been amended 25 times since the 1990 tax reform and a new review was announced in the 2014/2015 budget bill. Among other things, the rules discourage owners from appropriating the value of the work they perform in the companies' operations as dividends and capital gains rather than as wages, which is justified by the fact that marginal tax rates on service income are often significantly higher than the straight tax rates applied to capital income.The aim of the project is to investigate and evaluate how different income derived from work, ownership and other dealings with limited liability companies is taxed in situations involving foreign resident individuals. The choice of topic is motivated by an increasingly globalized environment and a partly unclear legal situation. Foreign residents are almost always subject to more limited taxation than other taxpayers and it is unclear how Swedish tax treaties should be applied to income covered by the three-step rules. Furthermore, the development of EU law has led to pressure to change the so-called exit tax rules, which in turn has affected the possibilities for taxpayers to circumvent the three-stage rules in cross-border situations.Wiktorsson, Per-AxelStockholm UniversityChess board gameOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

The application concerns the costs of printing the text 'Schacktavelslek'. The value of the edition - beyond the purely linguistic - lies in the fact that it gives us a unique insight into the structure of medieval society. The text describes the social structure of the time in allegorical form, where the different chess pieces represent different parts of society - from the king and queen down to the peasants.Wennberg, KåaLandscape painter Elias ErdtmanOther2015

Amount granted: 110 000 SEK

The artist Elias Erdtman left Sweden at a young age to study art in Europe. After completing his studies in Germany, France and Belgium, Erdtman returned to Sweden. He then continued painting in Östergötland, Halland, Södermanland and also in Jämtland. Many of his motifs are from the Misterhult archipelago in Småland. It was with paintings in this spirit that he participated in the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900. Elias Erdtman has left behind a large number of paintings that will be included in the artist book about Elias Erdtman.Welander-Berggren, ElsebethSven-Harry Art MuseumAxel Sjöberg - among islands and skerriesOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The artist Axel Sjöberg (1866-1950) is one of the foremost artists of the archipelago, he often depicted the difficult living conditions of the resident population and the barren everyday life in the outer archipelago. Axel Sjöberg was a photographer, illustrator, draughtsman, graphic designer, writer and artist. 2016 marks the 150th anniversary of Axel Sjöberg's birth. Sven-Harry Art Museum wishes to produce a catalog and an exhibition (December 8, 2016 - February 19, 2017).The museum has asked Olle Granath, former chief curator at Nationalmuseum, to be the catalog author and guest curator. In connection with the review of the material, Olle Granath has found a very interesting hitherto unpublished material by the artist.Warnqvist, ÅsaSwedish Institute for Children's BooksThe history of Swedish children's and youth literatureOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 549 000

The project aims to provide a completely new historical account of children's and youth literature c. 1300-2010, focusing on describing the scope, transformations, function and significance of this literature over the centuries. An important starting point is to make children's literature visible as an essential source of knowledge for society's view of children, childhood, literature, aesthetics, art, ethics and learning in different times. Much new research has been required for this new standard work, and in several areas the contributing scholars revise the history of children's literature as we know it today.Trossholmen, NinniEthnological Association of West SwedenArchitectural details and lives in the Utby/Utbynäs districtOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The book on architect Arvid Bjerke and his work begins with an account of the social climate and architectural ideals that prevailed in the early 20th century. This is followed by a presentation of Arvid Bjerke and of Anders Mattson and his wife Hulda, initiators of the villa town Utbynäs. Anders Mattsson, who was Arvid Bjerke's uncle, is also considered responsible for his training as an architect. Utbynäs Villastad was one of the first houses the young Arvid Bjerke designed and the work went on from 1905 to 1918, interspersed with designs for other buildings both in Gothenburg and around the country. Arvid Bjerke also lived for a few years in Utbynäs in a villa designed by himself. Later, he was active in the creation of Lorensbergs villastad and lived in one of the terraced houses on Dicksonsgatan in that area. Bjerke also contributed to the construction of the buildings for the great jubilee exhibition in 1923, including the Art Museum at Götaplatsen and several of the buildings at the Liseberg amusem*nt park.Sörman, AnnaStockholm UniversityArenas of craftsmanship - bronze casting in the South Scandinavian Bronze AgeOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

In recent decades, large-scale archaeological excavations have led to more and more traces of Bronze Age metalwork being found in Sweden. Finds of crucibles, molds and metal drops that indicate that bronze casting was carried out are not only increasingly common, but can now also be linked to many different types of sites. This makes it possible to explore Bronze Age metal craftsmanship based on the production sites themselves rather than the finished objects: In which environments was bronze cast? How widespread was the craft and under what conditions did it take place? How was bronze casting perceived by people during the Bronze Age and what can the organization of metal craftsmanship say about the role of bronze and craftsmanship in society?These questions are explored in the dissertation project "Arenas of craftsmanship - bronze casting in the South Scandinavian Bronze Age". The starting point is to map and study bronze casting sites in detail to understand how casting was organized and experienced. The thesis results in a new interpretative model for the organization of craftsmanship during the Middle and Late Bronze Age in southern Scandinavia. The results show a craft organization that is very different from today's experiences and views on technology in modern society. Bronze Age metal craftsmanship is thus a fascinating basis for reflection on the social significance of production, both now and then.Stymne, Anna-CarinStockholm UniversityHow understandable is history?Other2015

Amount granted: SEK 205 000

Society is changing at an increasingly rapid pace. With increased knowledge production, information dissemination and specialization, the teaching of history in schools faces major challenges. Students are not only expected to learn historical facts, they are also expected to be able to apply and evaluate facts, for example by explaining and assessing different interpretations of past events.My dissertation project studies students' learning of history in the classroom. The aim of the project is to gain new knowledge and increased understanding of the relationship between teaching and learning history in schools. I have been particularly interested in the learning of historical explanations and students' understanding of historical motivations. My research is based on extensive field studies and analysis of student data. For an entire semester, I have followed and documented the history teaching in a middle school class as they studied the Iron Age and the Viking Age. By documenting and following the students' learning over a longer continuous period, it is possible to analyze and describe the concrete opportunities and difficulties that students and their teachers encounter in the classroom.Research on history teaching and learning in schools, especially in the lower grades, is neglected. My results are directly applicable to strengthen and further develop history teaching in schools. This gives my project academic relevance and concrete importance for schools.Slöör, SusannaAcademy of ArtsScientific cataloging and analysis of a unique 18th century libraryOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 721 876

In 2001 and 2007, the internationally significant art and architecture library at the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts was preserved and housed in the room created by member Åke Axelsson, thanks to generous grants from the Torsten and Ragnar Söderberg Foundations. The collection has a unique core of study and teaching materials for students and members from the 18th and early 19th centuries and serves one of the world's oldest surviving schools of architecture.The library contains around 1200 works, including rarities such as Colonna's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili from 1545, Dürer's anatomy for artists in the first French edition from 1550, the first edition of Piranesi's Le Antichita Romane from 1776, the first French edition of Palladio from 1650 and the richly illustrated first edition of the work Ludwig Gottfried: Historia Antipodium oder Newe Welt from 1631 - all of considerable value.A major shortcoming is the cataloging of the collection; the only catalog is still a booklet from 1806 that gave the library its name. The collection has therefore remained unknown to the scholarly and museum world.The application aims to have one of Sweden's leading experts carry out a scientific cataloging in English, highlighting the value and uniqueness of each volume. The aim is to make the catalog available online and at the same time publish a richly illustrated volume. This will enhance the country's reputation in international research.Sjöbrandt, AndersStockholm UniversityThe future is not what it used to be. Stories of the transformation of StockholmOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

The thesis is about the major urban transformation in Stockholm after the Second World War, but not about how the transformation process itself took place. Instead, it aims to shed light on perceptions, interpretations and reactions to what is sometimes called one of Europe's largest and most radical urban development projects. The overall objective is to study the process of change in Stockholm during the 1950s and 60s from a cultural-historical narrative perspective. I intend to describe, compare and analyze the values, underlying driving forces, rhetoric and counter-rhetoric behind the great urban transformation. I want to capture the thoughts and perceptions of social actors; the legitimizing narratives of different interests will be contrasted. The main sources are newspapers and magazines from the current study period, articles that allow urban planners, politicians and other Stockholmers to have their say. I want to investigate whether there was an undercurrent of critical voices that were later forgotten and more or less disappeared from the collective memory. The thesis is about how people used to look at urban buildings and their value. The great modernization process of Stockholm meant building a new society but also demolishing what was considered to belong to a past era. This transformation still evokes strong emotions among Stockholmers today, and the narrative about it differs depending on who is describing it and in which era.Olsson, AgnetaStyrsö parishStyrsö Chamber SoloistsOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 25 000

With three chamber music concerts in Styrsö Church in August 2015, members of the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra are given the opportunity for further training and skills development by working with chamber music works that orchestral musicians rarely come into contact with in their regular work. The audience from Gothenburg's southern archipelago is given the opportunity to get to know chamber music at a high professional level through the educational setting of the concerts.Nyberg, HarryThe church bells in Bolstad's medieval church. Culture, history and messageOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 25 000

The project aims to correct previous research on Bolstad church in Dalsland. It will provide a reasonable and reliable explanation of the history of the three church bells. This applies in particular to the origin of the middle bell, which has not been explained for a hundred years. Everything must be placed in the cultural context of the 18th century, where the dominance of orthodoxy was slowly diminished by the church representatives of the emerging Enlightenment.Bolstad Church is the only preserved medieval stone church in the Diocese of Karlstad. It was built around 1150 and was expanded in the 17th century and again in 1759-1761. Population growth and compulsory church attendance forced the measures. The latter construction period was preceded by a ten-year period of decay. The then vicar was characterized by the utilitarian inventiveness of the 18th century, had academic qualifications but neglected the care of the parish. His successor also had considerable academic credentials. He was a member of the Karlstad cathedral chapter, served in the cathedral but was also a practically gifted priest.The relationship between the diocesan cathedral, which is Karlstad's cathedral, and Bolstad's church turns out to be special. The project will analyze this and report the consequences.Nordqvist, BengtArchaeology sacrifice site FinnestorpTime of gold and Finnestorp sacrifice siteOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

During 2000-2004 and 2008-2012, research investigations were carried out at the Finnestorp sacrifice site. A site that turns out to contain a find material that belongs to the category - "the finest and most exquisite objects from Sweden's pre-Christian era" and it belongs to one of the most important remains from the prehistory of the Nordic region. At Offerplats Finnestorp, warrior after warrior has been sacrificed along with their battle stallions and valuable weapons. These mighty men whose arsenal consisted of magnificent gilded swords, lances and golden horse equipment. Magnificent objects of royal value, made by the most skilled craftsmen in Europe at the time. The ongoing research work includes international comparisons and publication of the research work in the form of a major scientific book and a popular science book. In 2013, analysis of the metal objects from Finnestorp began. In 2015, the first analysis results of the metal objects from Finnestorp were completed. These concerned metal analyses and lead isotope analyses. The metal analyses show that the objects were made by highly skilled blacksmiths. The isotope analyses show that the ores used probably come from parts of the British Isles.In 2016, the first volume of a book on Finnestorp will be published. It is the magnificent work - The objects in the center.Nord, AndersThe Nordic MuseumColor studies of six Norrland churches' muralsOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 37 000

Sweden's medieval churches are often painted inside. These murals are sometimes well preserved, other times fragmentary and in poor condition. The project participants, with a solid background from the Swedish National Heritage Board, the Nordic Museum and the Swedish Museum of Natural History, have previously carried out many advanced analyses of the unique cultural treasure that the medieval church paintings represent. In particular, church murals have been studied in Uppland, Skåne and Gotland. We now wish to extend these studies to medieval churches in Norrland, whose murals have never before been examined by chemical analysis. The working group wishes primarily to analyze color pigments and compare the results with previous data produced by ourselves or by other researchers on the continent. However, Norrland is very large, which means that in this first study we limit ourselves to medieval churches on the east coast of Norrland. We have chosen three churches in Hälsingland (Trönö old church, Enånger and Hälsingtuna churches), two in Medelpad (Alnö old church and the medieval church in Liden) and one in Ångermanland (Grundsunda). We will also try to draw conclusions about the origin of the pigments.Nilsson, AndreasLund UniversityThe path of knowledgeOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 255 000

Scandinavian bronze craftsmanship during the Bronze Age has been discussed in various contexts countless times. This discussion can continue thanks to new discoveries and new ways of investigating the material. I investigate Bronze Age bronze craftsmanship, primarily how accessible it was to people in Scandinavia. Has it been an accessible technology or have the craftsmen kept their knowledge and only spread the technology to selected people? What routes have the technology and knowledge taken? Was there room for local part-time bronze casters or did the technology require so much knowledge that the craftsman had to be a specialist? These are questions I approach by examining the different stages of the craft through the Chaîne opératoire. By breaking down and discussing the different stages of the craft, I hope to approach the bronze craftsman and his skill. I also examine casting crucibles, molds and other technical ceramics. My main material, however, is in wood axes. The single largest group of bronze artifacts from the Scandinavian Bronze Age and a type of object that must be classified as everyday objects.Neiss, MichaelUppsala UniversityTransformations in Viking animal ornamentationOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 200 000

Viking Age images rarely appear as independent monuments. Most often they are decorations on everyday objects. Therefore, animal ornamentation has mostly been treated as meaningless decoration. But in the oral culture of the Viking Age, it would have been a waste of resources not to take advantage of the potential of the decoration for visual messages. For this reason, animal ornamentation has been discussed in connection with Viking sagas. Indeed, a recurring story in medieval literature is that of a Viking poet who happened to see a beautiful image, which prompted him to improvise a visual poem. This raises the question of whether Viking utility objects could give rise to similar situations. Did the decoration serve as a memory aid, or are they just nonsense motifs? Over the past few years, I have analyzed the animal ornaments from the perspectives of archaeology, design, art history and cognitive theory. I did this as a self-funded PhD student. The work has led to exciting results that have been published in a number of scientific articles. In connection with this, I have pursued a continuous methodological development. This is necessary as archaeology has long neglected its main source material - the objects - in favor of theoretical thought exercises. It is hoped that my new standard will contribute to the revitalization of archaeology. Nevertheless, every doctoral student has to take stock sooner or later. I am achieving this by completing my monograph at Uppsala University.Mårdh, HedvigUppsala UniversityRetro-Gustavian - shaping the past for the futureOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 40 000

In various ways, the reuse of Gustavian has played an important role in the persistent effort to create a specific Swedish cultural heritage and something that could be described as a Swedish aesthetic. This may involve new production of textiles and furniture, but also the staging of entire environments and their use. But how is it that the images of the Swedish, the authentic and the good taste are so closely associated with the Gustavian style and what role has art history played? The dissertation in art history examines the entire 20th century, but focuses specifically on the function this reuse, the retro-Gustavian, played during the breakthrough of functionalism in the 1930s and during the so-called cultural heritage boom of the 1990s.The thesis also examines who the actors are and how they influence each other. The retro-Gustavian reflects well the meeting between the officially sanctioned cultural heritage and private and commercial initiatives. The thesis therefore describes the role of art history and museums in relation to private actors and interest groups such as the Swedish Craftsmen's Association and historical associations. The study is based on an empirical material consisting of magazines, exhibitions, catalogs, furniture and environments. By following the career of the retro-Gustavian, the study explores the networks and ideologies that in different ways convey, stage and reuse the Gustavian - a part of the past that has created visions for the future.Lööf, LarsOlofThe National ArchivesEast Indian book project: 'Seafarers and supercargoes'Other2015

Amount granted: SEK 315 000

Register of all officers of the Swedish East India Company who sailed between 1731 and 1805, with life history and family relations. The result is also intended to be used as a key to identify personal monograms on Chinese imported porcelain. There is currently no similar reference work for researchers, collectors, antique dealers and the public interested in history.The collection work itself has been going on for 25 years, through museum and archive studies. The National Archives in Gothenburg have been the main source of knowledge in this work, but the collections of the current Gothenburg City Museum have also been important for the acquisition of knowledge.Lundgren, HelenaFire station inventories 2012-2015Other2015

Amount granted: 256 300 SEK

Fire stations are an important part of Swedish industrial heritage. Before 2012, no inventories of this category of buildings had been made. Nor was there a suitable inventory method for smaller but numerous objects such as fire stations, nor any directly applicable principles for assessing the industrial and cultural heritage values of fire station buildings.Throughout the country, there is a lack of collective knowledge about the number and location of fire stations and spray houses, which means that during our inventories we have met a great deal of interest from authorities, firefighters and the public. In order to meet the demand for knowledge about these buildings and for the knowledge to be disseminated to a larger public, we want to print these documents. The project involves printing previously conducted inventories of fire stations and spray houses in Gävleborg County, Stockholm County, Södermanland County and Uppsala County during the years 2012-2015.Krispinsson, CharlottaStockholm UniversityGetting close to great men: portrait research and portrait collectingOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 95 000

The thesis deals with how portraits from the early modern period were inventoried, collected and researched in Swedish art history during the period around 1880-1950. It also deals with national portrait galleries and portrait collections as exhibition phenomena in Europe from the 1780s onwards. In the Swedish context, the State Portrait Collection at Gripsholm Castle is of particular interest, as is the Swedish portrait archive initiated and built up at the National Museum during the first half of the 20th century.The thesis shows that portrait painting constituted a quantitatively large part of the total amount of visual art in European countries during the early modern period (1500-1789), while the status of the portrait as art has subsequently been strongly questioned by art historians. Therefore, attention is also drawn to the personal history approach in art history research, which during the period 1880-1950 was devoted to comparing and analyzing the total amount of preserved portraits of rulers from the early modern period, in order to try to determine the real appearance of the depicted person. This in turn raises questions about why it was so important to seek knowledge about how, for example, Gustav Vasa or Gustav II Adolf actually looked? This is also the subject of the final chapter of the thesis, where the interest in the appearance of historical persons is put in relation to a scientific-historical context through physiognomy, i.e. the quasi-scientific doctrine of how external appearance reflects an inner personality.Klackenberg, DayThe Swedish History DaysThe Swedish History Days 2016Other2015

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

Interest in history is strong and growing. The need for a deeper understanding of history is often highlighted, not least in debates on the role of schools and in the context of social issues at the heart of current political debate.The overall purpose of the Swedish History Days is to encourage contacts and exchanges between professionals from different professions related to the subject of history, and history enthusiasts in general, and thus increase the historical knowledge of as many groups in society as possible. The ambition is therefore to present historical topics and historical research in a way that is at the level of popular science but also accessible to non-specialist participants.For many history teachers, the History Days are the main opportunity for continuing education, especially in terms of reconnecting with the research community, and for historians, this forum is an opportunity to make new research results available. Several of the lectures are published in printed form.Karlsson, KristerCity of Mölndal/Gunnebo SlottGunnebo back to the 18th century phase 3, reconstruction of lidded urnsOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

In 2013-2018, the orangery building designed for the Hall family by city architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg, but which fell into disrepair after the Hall bankruptcy, will be reconstructed. Based on Carlberg's drawings, project manager Stefan Günther, PhD in architectural history, has produced architectural and structural drawings. Carpenters, masons and carpenters are working on the construction and the work is proceeding according to plan. The completed orangery will have its original use and house examples of the rich plant collection that Christina Hall listed in an inventory dated July 3, 1809.The Orangery was the most important park building at Gunnebo, a building for both use and pleasure. The southern wing with two corner pavilions served as winter storage for exotic trees and plants, while the portico and the northern pavilion (grotto) were exclusive social rooms. The portico opened out onto two sunken lawns, boulingrins. The eight corners of the lawns were each adorned with a lidded urn and richly decorated with ribbon braids and eagles with spread wings, also designed by C.W. Carlberg. Four urns were produced and put in place for Göteborgs Lustgårdar 2008. Buildings, decorations and vegetation interacted as a whole and gave a feeling of being in more southern latitudes, which deeply impressed the contemporaries. Johan Tobias Sergel wrote, after a visit to Gunnebo in 1801, that he thought he had been in the surroundings of Rome, Tivoli or Frescati.Håkansson, HåkanLund UniversityDigitization of the Ravensbrück archive at the Lund University LibraryOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 200 000

In 1945, over 20,000 liberated prisoners from German concentration camps arrived in Sweden on the so-called white buses. Their experiences during the war are documented in a unique archive material that is now stored at the University Library in Lund. In order to make this internationally significant material available to researchers and the public, extensive digitization and registration work is required.Among other things, the archive consists of more than 500 in-depth interviews with survivors - a total of more than 5,000 document pages - which are completely unique, as the interviews were conducted in the months immediately after their liberation. In addition, the archive includes a large amount of other material brought to Sweden by the survivors: notebooks, diaries, letters, poems, photographs and drawings, as well as official documents reflecting the Nazi administrative apparatus around the concentration camps.The archive's great international research value has been underlined by the US Congress, which in June 2015 formally recognized the archive as 'a critical link to the history of the Holocaust'. In spring 2015, with the help of private donations, the University Library started a project to record, index, digitize and translate the interviews into English and publish them in a searchable database. Subsequently, the remaining material will be registered and indexed, and a selection will be digitized and published in the same database.Håkansson, AndersLund UniversityThe medieval wandering village - social farm hierarchies in Halland 1000-1300Other2015

Amount granted: 167 000 SEK

The thesis studies a particularly dynamic and revolutionary period in Scandinavian history. During the Early Middle Ages, major social changes took place such as village formation, urbanization, state formation, feudalization and Christianization. In Halland, these phenomena have proved difficult to analyze. The emergence of towns, villages and the cultural landscape seems to have been characterized by discontinuity, which distinguishes Halland from large parts of the rest of southern Scandinavia. The research project sheds light on medieval village formation based on newly excavated settlement archaeological source material. The concept of village formation has had a vague definition in archaeological research, but refers to the period when villages are formed in the transition between the Younger Iron Age and the Middle Ages. This is when the historically known villages are established. The main questions are: what was the built and social environment in the countryside during the Early Middle Ages? How was the village and landscape organized and who were the actors? Through an interdisciplinary approach, which includes archaeological and historical sources as well as cultural-geographical and quaternary geological analyses, completely new aspects of rural organization in the early Middle Ages are exposed. Based on studies of some villages in Halland, a picture emerges of an early medieval village landscape, completely different from what we see in the historical maps. Here, different social groups make themselves known, which can be linked, for example, to village agriculture, trade and craftsmanship, and local and regional power.Husebye, AlexanderCenter for Business HistoryPeder Herzog - Jewish migrant, successful entrepreneurOther2015

Amount granted: 410 000 SEK

The Center for Business History is conducting a combined research preparatory archive and book project to shed light on Peder Herzog (1838-1920) as an entrepreneur and the companies he started and ran during his life.Herzog worked as an immigrant entrepreneur during a dynamic period of the emergence of modern Sweden. He operated in an industry, bookbinding and printing, that was characterized by strong growth and new technological innovations that developed book and newspaper reading into a mass market. Studies of this development and the actors are lacking except for small parts that are included in other research. The biography of Peder Herzog as a person has so far been only modestly elucidated.The project is carried out in two stages, the first of which is to inventory and compile material from various public and private archives. A selection will also be digitized and published on the internet as a supplement to the book's content. In the second stage, a book is produced with the writer Per T.H. Dahl as author and richly illustrated with images and original documents from the archives. The book will be launched at the Göteborg Book Fair in September 2016.Herjulfsdotter, RitwaRöhsska MuseumThe collections and history of the Röhsska MuseumOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 380 000

The aim of the research project is to investigate and analyze the Röhsska Museum's background and collections from a cultural analysis perspective. The focus is on the intersection between issues of cultural heritage, historical use, and collection policy at the beginning of the 20th century. The project contributes to making the Röhsska Museum's extensive collections visible and accessible to both researchers and visitors and contributes to the museum's own knowledge building. The study lays the foundation for a deeper understanding of the museum's background and growth and the object collections the museum currently manages. Within the project, the museum's extensive 18th century collections are now highlighted for closer study.Hartman, JennyLund UniversityMeaning-making for autism, ADHD, OCD and Tourette SyndromeOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 561 390

This research project looks at three different types of written communication that address the neuropsychiatric disabilities of autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS) in different ways: medical articles, patient-oriented information, and narratives from a user/patient perspective. An important assumption made in the study is that the language we use when communicating about disabilities both reflects and shapes how we perceive, understand and value them. By examining how language is used, we can describe the differences and similarities between the different types of communication and find out, for example, which meanings are evoked and how language shapes these meanings, which concepts are put in focus and which are given less space and, not least, which understandings and conceptual structures are based on and maintained through language. In this way, we can investigate whether medical professionals and patients/users create and maintain common understandings and values of autism, ADHD, OCD and TS through language and whether they express similar or different experiences and priorities.Hampf, JanSärö cultural heritageDigitization of Särö Cultural Heritage, from database to virtual museum: part IIOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 300 000

The purpose of this project is to develop the Särö Cultural Heritage database and interface to meet the high demands of the public, researchers, authorities and the EU in terms of quality, accessibility, usability and transparency.This application is a further development of the project for which Särö Kulturarv was granted funding in December 2011. This grant has been used to implement fundamental changes in the database and interface that have contributed to increasing both quality and accessibility.Further resources are required to develop the database and interface into a virtual museum that meets the high standards of quality, accessibility, user benefit and transparency required by different target groups. Important target groups with particularly high demands are younger generations and various organizations with which Särö Cultural Heritage seeks exchange and collaboration.A fundamental requirement is therefore to adapt the virtual museum so that it is easy to access and use with mobiles and tablets. It is also important to prepare the museum for new and future platforms. The search methodology will be central to how Särö Cultural Heritage reaches out to the public and researchers. Showing relationships in time and linking these to geographical locations and individuals will be an important cornerstone.Hadenius, PatrikResearch & ProgressPublication of Research & Progress in 2016Other2015

Amount granted: 44 500 SEK

The purpose of the journal is to report on research and research results and the role of research in society. The areas covered should be of significant scientific interest or of interest and importance to society.Gunneriusson Wistman, ChristinaMuseum crews in the Swedish art field in the mid-20th centuryOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The project "Museiskapanden in the Swedish art field in the middle of the 20th century. An investigation of art, art collections, the importance of art and its social function" aims, as the title indicates, to investigate the many museums of various kinds founded in Sweden between about 1930 and 1960. The main focus of the study is on possible connections between the opening of Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde in 1948 and Moderna Museet in 1958. Waldemarsudde can, by definition, be considered Sweden's first museum for modern and contemporary art; was this why the modern art museum so sought after by the art world's stakeholders took so long? These two museums are also examples of two different founding spirits: the individual and the public. In parallel, a number of county museums and other donor museums opened their doors to the public. Many of these contain art collections, and some focus on art in particular. What is the importance of art in cultural history museums, and what social function are they allowed to have? Another question of importance to the study is the role of museums today, especially donor museums - are they still relevant or has their content outlived its usefulness? Swedish art museums are a largely unexplored area and the art sociological perspective used in this study will provide results both for basic knowledge in the field and serve as a basis for further analysis of the role of art museums in society yesterday, today and tomorrow.Fischer, PeterFriends of the Swedish Cyprus expedition/University of GothenburgThe Swedish Cyprus Expedition: a palace complex from 1200 BC.Other2015

Amount granted: SEK 1 600 000

The results of the new Swedish excavations at Hala Sultan Tekke, one of the largest Bronze Age cities in the Mediterranean, have attracted international attention. A 50x60 m palace complex was discovered in 2014 using radar about 20 cm below ground level. Test excavations at the edge of the complex resulted in numerous finds from the period around 1200 BC. The expedition exposed part of a defensive structure where a number of lead projectiles were found indicating a military attack. The palace contained the remains of the production of purple cloth, one of the most expensive goods of the time, and numerous figurines of gods and animals. Finds from Egypt, Greece, Italy and the Levant indicate extensive trade links including Sweden: Cypriot copper was exported to the North during this period. The palace was destroyed in a violent fire after 1200 BC, after which the entire city was abandoned. The time around 1200 BC is the period during which the 'Sea Peoples' appeared. Very little is known today about these mysterious people who may have started a migration from Italy. This resulted in the decline of several high-level cultures: the Mycenaean in Greece, the Minoan in Crete and the Hittite in Turkey. Cities in Cyprus and the Levant were destroyed. Egypt was also attacked. The attack, destruction and abandonment of Hala Sultan Tekke is apparently related to these dramatic events. The expedition's task is to clarify these events through further excavations.Eliasson, RogerAeroseumCold War a Science Center projectOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 120 000

In 2010, the Aeroseum has started a school project with the aim of opening the aviation experience center/museum for teaching students from pre-school to university level. In 2013, the original project switched to the Aeroseum becoming a Science Center. The reason was that this is now a condition from the authorities to be granted public funds for school activities in the future. This has placed new demands on our workstations for the students. In total, about 60 workstations will be developed or rebuilt according to the new requirements. About 50% of the workstations are now ready. One of the largest and earliest workstations was the one dealing with the Cold War. The interest in this subject area has greatly increased due to what is now happening in the world. Rebuilding these workstations with modern technology that meets the requirements of the Science Center is a top priority. The knowledge of this period with links to current events is in high demand from schools.Ekerlid, BertilEkerlids publishing houseTestimonies on the HolocaustOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

Polish national Zygmunt Lakocinski interviewed 500 refugees from the Ravensburg concentration camp upon their arrival in Lund. The interviews were previously untranslated, but are now being translated within the university. One of the interviewees, Helena Dziedzicka, helped with the interviews and she was then called as a witness at the court in Hamburg in 1946/1947 when several of the camp guards were sentenced. She wrote her own memoirs, which the author will translate. The book is based on her notes, other interviews at Lund University and possibly contact with relatives of Dziedzicka.Dahlström, GunnarThe writings of Martin Fritz - an annotated bibliographyOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 123 000

Martin Fritz's scientific activity spans more than fifty years. He has managed to combine strict scientific requirements with a linguistic form that can engage a wide readership. The subject matter is broad but mainly includes industrial and business history, economics and trade. To this should be added general history, history of foundations and organizations and much more. Much is rooted in West Sweden but also deals with conditions with both national and international bearing. The bibliography is intended to be organized thematically with introductory comments written by Martin Fritz. This makes the illustrated bibliography, which will contain about 100 publications, something more than a "catalog".Campbell, SusannaRatosSöderberg & Haak and Ratos - a Swedish corporate historyOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

Ratos is a Swedish listed company that owns and develops Nordic companies. Ratos's history began in 1866 when the trading company Söderberg & Haak was formed to trade as a wholesaler of iron and steel products. Förvaltningsaktiebolaget AB Ratos was formed in 1934 and Ratos was listed on the stock exchange in 1954 as a mixed investment company. The Söderberg family have been committed and far-sighted owners throughout the 150 years. The company's business strategies are characterized by a long-term approach combined with modern thinking and a focus on developing and creating value.Ratos wants to document these 150 years of long-term and successful operations through one of the most historically interesting epochs in Swedish industry and business. There are a number of books already written, focusing on different time periods and on members of the Söderberg families. This book is intended to depict, above all, the development of the company Ratos in an international perspective, over the entire 150-year period.Bennich-Björkman, LiUppsala UniversityThe project society: the threats to academia and what we can do about themOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

Democracy is a blessing. As a politician, you can't get away with just anything. But the political time horizon is short, and for parties and individual politicians, election cycles frame their lives. In this way, political life in a democracy resembles a giant project. The short time horizon and the constant threat of 'evaluation' are now leaving their definitive mark not only on politics but on public life in general. This book is about the project society and its challenges. About how short-term project thinking is changing what we value, what we prioritize, and how we work. In particular, it is about what happens in a key area where the project society meets its opposite: research and higher education. So what happens when the project society, with its logic of short-term delivery, thorough planning, and evaluation by the so-called clients, starts to make its presence felt in areas where 'delivery' is slow and perhaps even sometimes non-existent? This is the question we ask in this book. We have chosen to shed light on it by writing about what is happening in academia right now, in universities and other institutions of higher education, what values are at stake, but also what we can do to safeguard the norms and structures that have been proven throughout the 20th century to be conducive to free inquiry and critical review.Areskoug, Nils-GöranArena for interdisciplinary discussionsOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The Arena for Interdisciplinary Dialogues involves integrative conversations across disciplines and generations, connecting senior researchers with junior entrepreneurs and bridging the gap between city (research frontlines at Nobelforum, Stockholm) and countryside (nature as a source of power, recreation and inspiration). Bryggsamtal develops creative processes in one of the country's most intensive entrepreneurial clusters (e.g. Sandsbro, Växjö in Kronoberg County) where access to industrial production factors is good with innovative knowledge processes for cross-fertilization between academia, business, culture and politics.Our dialogues are conducted through selected media platforms and communication channels that promote a Nordic knowledge exchange based on shared values and common history. An increased strategic and critical dialogue about the future through constructive cultural exchange aims to deepen the sense of belonging and improve the conditions for value creation and growth through cooperation in business, politics, academia and culture.The network of dialogue partners includes dialogues at a high strategic level (entrepreneurs, ministers, academics). Some completed knowledge dialogues are reflected in online arenas for opinion and debate, others in publications under continuous production. This networked knowledge integration will develop a basis for future project and programme organization that generates stability and sustainability in the cultivation of culture as the root of science-business dialogue.Andersson, KentThe boat graves in ValsgärdeOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The tombs in Valsgärde are characterized by being very rich and contain large and noble sets of weapons including helmets and shields etc. The boats, which make up the tomb itself, are divided in a systematic way to reflect the living life in the aristocratic halls where the buried ruled during their lives. Therefore, the tombs contain kitchen equipment including large cauldrons, meat forks, skewers and precious glass vessels imported from the continent. There are also game boards with game pieces and hunting birds for aristocratic hunting with trained falcons. In addition, there are fully equipped riding horses with saddles and harnesses, etc. The equipment also included expensive textiles and bedding, tools, etc.The graves in Valsgärde are internationally renowned, but because they have only been published in German, they have previously been relatively unknown in Sweden except in trade union circles. The book Båtgarvarna i Valsgärde gives such a detailed yet popular presentation of the graves and their contents that they will be usable by both laymen and professionals. Because the book will be richly illustrated with newly taken color photographs and some drawings, the objects can be studied in detail alongside their descriptions.Alströmer, Anna MargarethaGräfsnäs nurseryMy dearest darling Margareta! - a book about Queen M. LeijonhufvudOther2015

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

Queen Margareta Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud was born on January 1, 1516 (almost 500 years ago) and grew up on the island of Loholmen in Lake Anten, Alingsås municipality. She was a much-loved queen both by her husband Gustav Vasa and the entire Swedish people. When her father died during the Stockholm bloodbath in 1520, she moved with her mother Ebba Eriksdotter Vasa and five siblings to Loholmen. She lived here for sixteen years until Gustav Vasa took her away to make her his queen in 1536. Her marriage to Gustav Vasa was very happy; her time with her has been considered the happiest of his life. He often listened to her wise judgment and thoughtful suggestions. As queen, she was also popular, liked and admired by the Swedish people. She was given far more powers than queens generally receive, which shows her importance in our history. She was also the ancestor of all the reigning royal houses in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century - and she comes from Alingsås. Our King Carl XVI Gustaf is a direct descendant of her.We therefore want to draw attention to her in various ways for the 2016 anniversary year. Several lectures have been held, a bust of her is underway, a mini exhibition has been held and an exhibition with Alingsås municipality, leaflets etc.We are therefore applying for funding for a book, which is planned to be published in 2016. There has already been interest from Västergötland's Fornminnesförening to publish this publication to their members.Bäckhed, FredrikUniversity of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska AcademyMetagenome platform and its role in metabolic diseasesMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Our gut contains 10 times more bacteria than we have cells in our body. These bacteria express 150 times more genes than we have in our human genome and influence several cellular processes in the gut such as blood vessel formation, immune system development and even our metabolism. We have previously shown that germ-free mice do not develop obesity and that the composition of the bacterial flora is different in obese mice and humans. This makes the gut microbiota a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies for metabolic diseases. "Next generation sequencing has become a powerful tool for mapping the composition of the gut microbiota. However, the large data sets offer a major analytical challenge and even if we map the composition of the gut microbiota, animal studies are needed to understand how the gut microbiota affects our metabolism and metabolic diseases.The "Metagenome and its role in metabolic diseases" platform will bring together microbiology and systems biology in a unique translational setting and, in addition to studying whether the gut microbiome offers diagnostic or therapeutic targets for these diseases, will also study the underlying mechanisms using germ-free mice. As our platform will develop new analytical methods to study the composition of the gut microbiota, it will also constitute an important national resource for analyzing the composition and function of the gut microbiota.Mona - Selsmark, Ann ChristinMuscle stimulation for the elderly and people with disabilitiesMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 220 000

For about 20 years I have been working with a microcurrent that strengthens muscles through isometric training without the client doing any work. This means a relief on joints and ligaments while strengthening the muscles. I have mainly worked with skiers, all disciplines, and private individuals. For the skiers, it was mainly injuries due to falls, skidding, oblique loads or overtraining and training pain. All could be helped with microcurrent and infrared heat. For these well-trained people, 1-5 treatment sessions may be sufficient. Other examples:1. Disability due to a gunshot wound in the back with severely impaired mobility, atrophied muscles in both legs and pain as a result. Immediate pain relief, successively increased blood circulation and the warmth in the ice-cold lower legs returned after about 10 treatments. Microcurrent and infrared heat were used. The treatments have continued for several years.2: Stroke with partial facial paralysis and weakness in the muscles and difficulty controlling the arm and leg on one side. Already after 5 treatments, the client could perform the "tweezer" grip, hold a book and perform some household chores. The client continues with the treatments and experiences clear improvement.3. feet with severe pain, atrophied muscles, difficulty walking without special shoes. Already after the first treatment a severe pain in a big toe disappeared. Gradually the muscle strength has increased and the feet have increased in size and stability due to larger and stronger muscles. Now walks effortlessly. The treatments continue.Westerlund, FredrikChalmers University of TechnologyCulture-free identification of antibiotic resistanceMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics is one of the major threats to global health. The WHO reported in April 2014 that we are approaching a 'post-antibiotic era', where common infections could become fatal unless we take dramatic action. New methods for diagnosing antibiotic resistance are therefore of great interest, partly to be able to implement the right medical treatment more quickly, but also to understand how resistance develops and limit its spread. In this project, I want to use a method I developed to identify the DNA that causes resistance within an hour after sampling instead of several days, as is currently the case. The key to speeding up identification so much is that the method we developed studies individual DNA molecules, eliminating the cultivation step, which is unavoidable in traditional techniques. The method is also compatible with equipment already available in all major hospitals and no major investment is required.Pekna, MarcelaUniversity of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska AcademyTowards new treatment strategies for childbirth asphyxia and strokeMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Brain ischemia, i.e. oxygen deprivation due to lack of blood circulation after a stroke or during childbirth (asphyxia), causes great suffering for patients and their families as well as high costs to society. Brain cells in the ischemic tissue die and their functions are lost. Depending on which area of the brain is affected, this can lead to difficulty in controlling voluntary movements, loss of sensation, language and swallowing difficulties, epilepsy, etc. Obstetric asphyxia with acute brain damage in newborn babies is a major cause of cerebral palsy. There is currently no effective way to repair damaged brain tissue and current research focuses on reducing the damage and improving functional recovery by stimulating the brain's plasticity that underpins our ability to learn and adapt.The complement system is a central part of the innate immune system and is best known for protecting us from dangerous bacteria. However, it also has other important functions, not least in the brain. We have shown that the complement system can protect brain cells against ischemia and stimulate brain plasticity. Our goal is to build on these findings to develop new effective treatments for newborn babies and adults with ischemic brain damage.Sackey, PeterKarolinska InstituteHMGB1, inflammation and cognitive function after severe sepsisMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Every year, 40 000 patients are treated in Swedish intensive care units (ICUs). Over 35% of all ICU patients suffer from sepsis, with high mortality rates and multiple organ involvement. However, most survive. This group of patients suffers from various problems that make it difficult to return to their pre-infection life. Many patients describe affected cognitive function after sepsis but the association between sepsis and later cognitive problems is not well studied. The group's partners have found in animal studies that the level of a bodily inflammatory substance, High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), is elevated for months after sepsis and associated with cognitive problems. Cognitive function was restored with administration of HMGB1 monoclonal antibodies. HMGB1 administration to healthy mice caused cognitive dysfunction. The association has not been studied in humans.The project includes prospective cohort studies of ICU patients with/without sepsis, in order to follow HMGB1 levels and cognitive function one year after discharge from the ICU. The main questions in the project are whether there is a connection between severe sepsis, delirium and later cognitive dysfunction and whether cognitive dysfunction is linked to prolonged inflammation with elevated levels of HMGB1. If prolonged inflammation with HMGB1 elevation late in the course is linked to late cognitive problems after sepsis in humans, the findings may lead to future clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy.Gillberg, ChristopherUniversity of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska AcademyAutism in girls and women - brain function and symptomsMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 3 000 000

Autism and other early-onset developmental abnormalities (such as ADHD) (now often grouped together under the heading ESSENCE for Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations) are thought to be much more common in boys than in girls. However, it has recently become apparent that many girls are being missed or misdiagnosed (often as depression, anxiety, eating disorder or personality disorder) in early childhood and that the 'correct' diagnosis is not made until adolescence or adulthood, while an increasing number of boys are being diagnosed at pre-school age. This means that girls do not have access to appropriate help and understanding with a high risk of psychiatric morbidity and social maladjustment from adolescence onwards.In this unique project, clinical picture and brain function will be examined in detail in young girls and boys and adult women and men with autism and other ESSENCE problems. The aim is to identify early symptoms and biological markers for autism and other ESSENCE so that girls can also receive correct early diagnosis and treatment/support from preschool age. The very latest technology in clinical child and adolescent psychiatry, psychometrics, brain imaging and neurophysiology will be used. The children/adults with autism and other ESSENCE included in the project come from the Gillberg Center's unique population-based cohorts of people with child neuropsychiatric disabilities.Kokaia, HallLund UniversityDeveloping new cell therapies for strokeMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Every year, 30 000 people suffer a stroke in Sweden. Stroke is the most common cause of chronic disability among adults; two out of three stroke survivors have permanent motor, sensory or cognitive symptoms. Effective treatment to regain function is lacking. In this project, we use established animal models, in which transient blockage of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery results in structural and functional deficits similar to those in humans, to develop novel treatments for stroke. To replace the dead neurons in the cerebral cortex, we are reprogramming support cells in the damaged area into neurons or transplanting specific neurons, produced by reprogramming the stroke patient's own skin cells, into the stroke-affected brain. We are also adding immune cells (monocytes) to stimulate neuronal regeneration from the adult brain's own stem cells and from the transplanted cells, and to optimize other regenerative mechanisms. Within the framework of the project, we are also planning, based on positive animal experimental data, a phase 1/2 clinical study in stroke patients with the aim of improving functional recovery by adding monocytes in the post-ischemic phase. This translational research uses cell therapeutic strategies to recover brain function after stroke. If successful, the project could have a major impact on the treatment of many stroke patients.Carlsson, Per-OlaUppsala UniversityMesenchymal stem cells to stop type 1 diabetes developmentMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Type 1 diabetes is the most common chronic disease in children for which there is no cure. At the onset of type 1 diabetes, there is a gradual cell death of the insulin-producing cells due to an immune attack, causing patients to lose all insulin production and become dependent on insulin injections. Insulin treatment is far from being able to mimic normal insulin production and individuals are at risk of developing a number of late complications of their disease such as blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke and premature death.Previous studies have shown that specific cells in bone marrow, mesenchymal stem cells, can have powerful immunomodulatory properties, including preventing organ rejection after transplantation. These cells have also been shown in animal models of type 1 diabetes to prevent the onset of the disease.This research project aims to investigate whether the remaining insulin-producing cells can be rescued by transplantation with autologous mesenchymal stem cells in new-onset patients with type 1 diabetes, who have 20-40% remaining insulin production. In a Phase I/IIa study, we have seen maintained or increased insulin production in treated patients and no side effects. Through the use of autologous cells, no immunosuppressive drugs are needed. The successful development of a curative treatment for type 1 diabetes would be expected to have a major impact on society and especially the individual.Pejler, GunnarSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesThe role of the mast cell in cancerMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

The mast cell is best known for its harmful effects in allergy, but much research suggests that the mast cell also has an important and harmful role in cancer. However, very little is known about the exact mechanism of action of the mast cell. When the mast cell is activated, it releases a number of components that are normally stored inside the cell's so-called secretory granules, such as various protein-degrading enzymes (proteases) and growth factors. Together, these components could have major effects on a tumor, such as facilitating the tumor's blood supply, but there is only limited knowledge about this.We want to find out exactly how the mast cell affects cancer. To this end, we will compare tumor development and metastasis in normal mice and mice that either completely lack mast cells, or lack different mast cell components. We will also investigate the role of mast cells in blood vessel formation, and isolate and characterize tumor mast cells from lung cancer patients. Furthermore, we will develop a novel technique to induce mast cells to commit "suicide" and investigate whether this technique can be applied to mast cells in clinical tumors.Since there is now much research suggesting that the mast cell has a detrimental role in cancer, there is a strong case for developing new cancer therapies and diagnostics that target the mast cell, e.g. to be used in combination with existing therapies/diagnostics. We believe that this project can contribute to such developments.Smith, UlfUniversity of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska AcademyPrevention of the metabolic syndrome and ectopic fatMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

The project is focused on the obesity-related complications; Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Individual changes in the adipose tissue are linked to MS; in particular the ability to store fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and thus prevent fat accumulation in ectopic fat depots (liver etc.) and T2D/MS. We found that genetic predisposition to T2D (first-degree relatives, FDR) is linked to an impaired ability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous tissue, which is instead stored in ectopic depots. FDR has an impaired ability to recruit mesenchymal stem cells to adipogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue. The recruitment is dependent on BMP4 and FDR has increased levels of the BMP antagonist Gremlin1. BMP4 also regulates the ability to form oxidative beige/brown fat cells (anti-obesity) in the subcutaneous tissue, which is also inhibited by Gremlin1. Animal models, where we have increased BMP4 levels in the blood of mature mice (gene therapy model), have shown that they are protected from developing obesity and its complications due to increased beige/brown oxidative subcutaneous fat tissue. These findings will be developed into a possible new treatment for T2D/MS. We have also identified that a new family of lipids formed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is released into the blood and is closely linked to insulin resistance. Administration of these lipids in animal models increases insulin action and improves glucose levels. We will further characterize their effects and plan to test them in humans.Nilsson, CarolineKarolinska InstituteCan we cure peanut allergy with oral immunotherapy and anti-IgE antibodies?Medicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Severe food allergy (MA) is more common than severe asthma. Many people with SEA have a great fear of accidentally ingesting what they cannot tolerate and it is an invisible disability. Life-threatening allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, are mainly caused by soil/tree nuts but there is no cure. Oral immunotherapy (OIT), where the food is eaten in increasing amounts until a maintenance dose is reached, has been tried. Allergic reactions to OIT are a problem. Anti-allergy antibody (anti-IgE) is a drug that binds allergy antibodies and prevents the allergic reaction. Stimulation of basophilic cells with allergen in test tubes (CD-sens) reflects the individual's allergen sensitivity. Three pilot patients have undergone treatment with anti-IgE and OIT, followed by CD-sens, with good results.Question: Can we improve quality of life and can tolerance be developed in adolescents with severe AD?Method: The study is independent of pharmaceutical companies. 20 adolescents with severe peanut allergy are treated with anti-IgE and start OIT with peanut (escalation from 1-10 g/day) during continued anti-IgE treatment, when CD-sens to peanut is 0. Anti-IgE treatment is tapered when the participant has eaten 10 g peanut/day for 2 months.Benefit: A curative treatment without severe side effects for those with severe AD would be of great benefit. The individual with MA can avoid the fear of life-threatening allergic reactions and unplanned hospital visits with possible hospitalization. There are major health economic benefits to be gained.Normark, StaffanKungl. Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Academy Chair in Medicine 2015Medicine2014

Amount awarded: SEK 10 000 000

The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis is placed on research carried out during the last five-year period. The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed.The professorship is worth SEK 10 million over five years.Collin, MattiasLund UniversityTranslational glycoimmunology - from pathogens to drugsMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

About half of all our proteins are decorated with carbohydrate structures. These give proteins essential properties such as solubility, half-life, protection against degradation, and are often part of the functional interaction surfaces with other proteins. Proteins in the immune system are no exception; for example, antibodies are completely dependent on carbohydrates to function. Bacteria that live in more or less harmony with us have learned to influence these carbohydrates in different ways during evolution. We have shown that endoglucosidases from pathogenic bacteria can modify carbohydrates on human antibodies with dramatic effects on their immune-stimulating functions. These effects can be exploited to switch off a faulty immune response in several animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune anemia and autoimmune bleeding disease. Some of our enzymes have also been used as tools for the production and analysis of antibody-based drugs. However, we have only scratched the surface of the probably very extensive arsenal of carbohydrate-modifying enzymes found in our normal flora and pathogenic bacteria. Increasing our knowledge of the structure and function of such enzymes increases our understanding of how bacteria interact with us in health and disease. In addition, new types of enzymes can be of great importance for the modification and analysis of new protein drugs.Aperia, AnitaKarolinska InstituteWhy Chronic Kidney Disease is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular DiseaseMedicine2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Chronic kidney disease is common but often underdiagnosed. About 10% of the population is estimated to have some form of kidney damage. Cardiovascular disease is much more common in people with kidney damage than in the general population and is the most common cause of death in kidney failure. Although the link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease has been known for over 100 years, the cause is not yet known.We have found in preliminary studies that the hormone Angiopoietin2, which if it reaches the circulation leads to pathological changes in blood vessels, is highly present in kidney tissue from rats with chronic kidney disease.Our hypothesis is that, in kidney disease, large amounts of this hormone are formed and released, leading to pathological changes in the blood vessels. We test our hypothesis in 3 steps. 1) We study the molecular mechanisms behind increased Angiopoietin2 production in kidney cells that are exposed to the stress of dealing with the increased amount of egg white secreted in the diseased kidney. 2) In rats with human kidney disease, we study the function, structure and amount of Angiopoietin2 in the kidney and vessels. 3) We study a group of young patients with chronic kidney disease with respect to the amount of Angiopoietin2 in blood and stiffness in arteries.If we succeed in identifying the molecular mechanism behind the link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease, this will enable the development of a targeted treatment to protect against the cardiovascular complications.Swiss, RogerUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawDeveloping R&D capacity in emerging marketsEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 667 500

An increasing number of multinationals have come to realize that the so-called emerging markets such as Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) offer very good conditions for conducting research and development (R&D) activities to develop innovative and resource-efficient products and services for the global market at relatively low cost. To exploit this business opportunity, multinationals need to build up the necessary R&D capacity and knowledge in local units and integrate the new unit into the existing global organization to enable the new knowledge developed to be shared with other R&D units in the group. Research to date has not studied these two interconnected processes. By studying a number of Swedish multinational companies' R&D units in India and how they have built up the necessary local R&D capacity and knowledge and how this affects the companies' global R&D strategy and organization, the study will not only address the research gaps outlined above, but also contribute knowledge to practitioners on how this process can be managed and how challenges can be addressed.Andersson, MagnusUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawStage II The European goods and credit market in the pre-industrial eraEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 447 500

The trade that drove the development and transformed Gothenburg's role as a gateway and enabled greater financial integration was the extensive export of herring from Gothenburg with grain in return loads from the Baltic region. This trade laid the foundation for the prosperity achieved among groups of merchants in the early 19th century. The aim of the project is to analyze the European payment and credit system in the early modern period, based on the flow of goods under changing international economic conditions, and to map the actors involved in trade and credit networks. The significance for the research situation is that it will be possible to systematize the path of goods flows through the gateway systems that emerge around important trade routes. Early modern cashless payments, through e.g. bills of exchange, "Cashless Payment" are assumed to create extended trade opportunities and ensure a credible financial, credit and trade system.Examples of central questions that are asked are: How did trade develop for Gothenburg during the period? What competitive advantages did it have compared with other cities in Europe? What role did Swedish trading cities play in a larger system of European gateways? The project is carried out by systematically mapping the foreign ship traffic to and from Gothenburg, through a continued expansion of the database of Gothenburg's two-day journals that I work with, which is then compared with other databases and with economic and legal material.Husebye, AlexanderCenter for Business HistoryPeder Herzog - Jewish migrant, successful entrepreneurEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 374 000

The Center for Business History is conducting a combined research-preparatory archive and book project to shed light on Peder Herzog as an entrepreneur and the companies he started and ran during his life. Herzog worked as an immigrant entrepreneur during a dynamic period of the emergence of modern Sweden. He operated in an industry, printing, that was characterized by strong growth and new technological innovations that developed book and newspaper reading into a mass market. Studies of this development and the actors are lacking except for small parts that are included in other research. The biography of Peder Herzog as a person has so far been only modestly elucidated.The project is carried out in two stages, the first of which is to inventory and compile material from various public and private archives. A selection will also be digitized and published on the internet as a complement to the content of the book. In the second stage, a book is produced with the writer Per T H Dahl as author and richly illustrated with images and original documents from the archives.Loft, AnneLund UniversityAccounting regulation and practiceEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 2 944 000

In recent decades, the number of regulations in the field of accounting has increased significantly. Globalization, increased environmental concerns and financial crises are some of the explanations for the increased scope of new regulations. An important question in this context is what effects the new regulations have on companies' operations. Accounting plays a central role in companies' economic decision-making. New regulations can affect the accounting practices of companies and changes in accounting practices can in turn affect the economic decisions made by company management. Although regulation and accounting are significant activities in firms, knowledge of how regulation affects firms' practices is limited. To develop knowledge on the relationship between regulation and practice, three related sub-projects are being carried out.The first subproject focuses on how the new IFRS accounting model affects firms' decision-making. The second subproject focuses on comparing the impact of regulations on accounting practices in two industries with different levels of regulatory requirements. The third sub-project focuses on the impact of accounting regulations on the practice of the accounting and auditing profession.Palme, MårtenStockholm UniversityEquality before the law? The effect of judges' background on their decision-makingEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 875 500

Being tried in an impartial court is a fundamental human right and means that everyone should be treated fairly in a trial regardless of gender, socio-economic background and ethnicity. Understanding whether the opinions and values of judges and jurors influence their decisions is therefore fundamental to ensuring equality before the law. However, there is currently very limited knowledge about the extent to which courts are impartial.This research project aims to analyze whether discrimination occurs in the Swedish legal system. From a research point of view, the Swedish court system offers a unique opportunity to investigate this, as it is random which judge and which members of the jury judge a particular criminal case. Common methodological problems such as the correlation of the judge's background with the nature of the criminal case can thus be avoided. The availability of Swedish register data also makes it possible to study the impact of background characteristics such as socio-economic background, gender, ethnicity and criminal history. The fact that jury members participate also allows us to examine whether political views influence decision-making in the courts. No previous study has been able to combine detailed register data with an experimental research design to answer this question in a credible way. Our research contribution will thus be of great importance for both the political debate and international research in this area.Marton, JanUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawUncertainty in external accountingEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 947 000

Capital markets put a price on investment-ready capital and have the function of allocating capital to the activities where it is most useful, thus contributing to growth and job creation. This contributes to growth and the creation of new jobs in the economy. For capital markets to function, it is essential that investors and lenders have access to high-quality information. The most important and systematic source of information is external accounting, such as annual reports.Uncertainty in reported figures can reduce the usefulness of financial statements for investors, which can lead to a poorer functioning of capital markets. There are several reasons why accounting uncertainty has become more important in recent years, including the internationalization of capital markets, the introduction of international accounting standards, financial crises and an increased emphasis on previously unregulated areas such as environmental accounting.This study focuses on the causes of accounting uncertainty and on measures that can be taken to reduce uncertainty. In terms of causes, it studies which items in the income statement and balance sheet show high uncertainty. Regarding measures, the study focuses on additional disclosures and the role of trust in companies and their management in reducing uncertainty. The results can provide guidance to accounting standard setters, reporting companies and users of accounting in the capital market.Catasús, BinoStockholm UniversityResearch School in Accounting - FIREEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 2 280 000

Accounting is one of the largest teaching subjects in universities. However, it is almost impossible to recruit good teachers and researchers to the subject. We have experienced this ourselves as experts in Sweden and the other Nordic countries. In recent years, it has turned out that it has not been possible to fill professorships at Lund University and KTH. The description of the situation in Sweden is not unique; a similar situation exists in the Nordic countries, Europe and the USA. Over the next five-year period, there is a need for at least 50 new PhDs in accounting.The three universities (HHS, SU, UU) have a critical mass and can create a good environment for doctoral students. The faculty is internationally oriented and publishes regularly in the leading accounting journals. The research environments have succeeded in attracting research grants from funders with very high quality requirements. Since 2007, 23 doctoral students have completed their PhDs and 8 of these have received Wallander scholarships.Our ambition is to accept 6 doctoral students in the first year and then accept 3 doctoral students per year. Twice a year all doctoral students and supervisors will meet to discuss the doctoral students' thesis work. Two internationally leading researchers will be associated with the graduate school. The doctoral students at the graduate school will also be a natural part of the doctoral education at their home institutions.Palmertz, CamillaFrom the Volvo YCC concept car to inclusive business developmentEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

The publication describes how, over ten years, we have refined our knowledge from creating Volvo's YCC concept car, often called the girl car, to become a method used for business development in many other industries. We call the method LASS, which involves focusing on new customer groups where purchasing power is growing and including them in product development, marketing and sales.The book mentions a number of examples that we have worked with, including the idea boat All Aboard, interior solutions for a city bus on behalf of Volvo Buses, IHM Business School and the future development of Stenungsund's marina and guest harbor.The LASS method is also the basis for creating a national index where companies and authorities can measure how inclusive their products/services are from a customer/user perspective. The project to create a LASS index is funded by the Swedish Agency for Innovation VINNOVA. We also talk about how we created a unique conference where product development/innovation, marketing, sales & service and research are intertwined and the positive results this gives.Kowalkowski, ChristianLinköping University of TechnologyValue creation through innovative service systems in industrial networksEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 749 000

In order to maintain their competitiveness, traditional industrial companies are increasingly offering innovative, service-based solutions, which increases their dependence on and to other actors in the environment. From having worked mainly with a production logic, companies are thus working with a service logic, which is based on supporting the customer's value creation processes. The study focuses on the transformation that occurs when industrial companies change their business logic in this way. To develop knowledge about the consequences for both the individual company and its environment, both selling and buying companies as well as other key network actors will be studied.The study will primarily build on two theoretical fields that together can increase the understanding of the problem we intend to study: service marketing and the resource-based perspective on the firm. Since existing literature is mainly based on the selling firm's perspective, we also intend to incorporate a network perspective in order to understand the value creation system and the links between its actors. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used and networks in both the private and public sectors will be investigated. The application concerns support to further develop a research environment with industrial services research at Linköping University. The study will last four years and fund one PhD student.Englund, PeterInstitute for Financial ResearchConference on insurance economicsEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 400 000

SIFR organizes an annual conference on a theme in financial economics. 2015's theme is insurance economics. The conference is based on a dialog between academic economists and insurance industry representatives. We intend to highlight how the industry can adapt to new risks, e.g. in the climate area; how insurance contracts can be designed to make it easier for consumers to choose the right protection; how new products can be developed against risks that are not insurable today; how financial contracts can replace traditional insurance products; how the industry is affected by regulations, etc.Åkerman, AndersStockholm UniversityThe impact of the internet on income inequality, productivity and globalizationEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 812 500

One of the biggest questions of our time is how accelerating technological developments are affecting the way our economies work. The internet, the 'third industrial revolution', is considered the latest example of a technology that has fundamentally changed modern economies and it is on the internet that this project focuses. The first part of the project concerns the impact on labour markets and the fact that information technology has been seen as particularly beneficial to highly educated workers. In most countries, the income gap between the low and high educated is widening, but it is difficult to know how much of this is due to technological development rather than, for example, increased globalization. And, to be more precise, what kind of education, experience and other characteristics are in demand when technology is renewed? We also examine the extent to which firm productivity is affected by technological change and how changes at the firm level affect the development of aggregate productivity in society. The second part concerns the extent to which globalization is increasing due to the spread of the latest of the most important technological changes in modern times, namely information technology. Will the role of geography in trade decline with the development of the Internet, leading to the so-called "death of distance"? The final part examines what determines how the internet spreads and when and why different firms or regions adopt new technologies at different rates.Lönnroth, JohanWhat are the current views of politicians and central bankers on central bank reforms?Economy2014

Amount granted: SEK 60 000

The project involves interviews with leading Italian and Swedish politicians and central bankers, who were involved in deciding on the reforms that made central banks more independent of the political system, on how they view these reforms today. What were the benefits? What were the disadvantages? Is it time for new reforms? Having lived in both worlds - the world of economists and the world of politicians - I think I am well placed to understand both. I also know the politicians who were mainly responsible for the Swedish reform in 1998/1999. With the help of Lars EO Svensson and Lars Jonung, both of whom have promised to act as my reference persons, and with the help of a number of Italian economists I know, I believe I have a good chance of interviewing others as well.My intention is to compile the results and present them at ESHET's (European Society for the History of Economic Thought, of which I am a member) annual conference in Rome May 14-16, 2015.Ruist, JoakimUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawEastern European immigration and the Swedish economyEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 477 000

The eastward enlargement of the EU in 2004 and 2007 is the only example in modern times of the introduction of free movement of labor between countries with such widely differing income levels. The economic consequences of the ensuing migration have been a hot topic of political discussion in several of the old EU countries since then. Of these countries, Sweden was the only one that did not introduce temporary restrictions on the access of new EU citizens to the labor market and welfare system in either 2004 or 2007. Sweden is therefore uniquely placed to explore the economic consequences already now. Previous research has reported on migrants' employment, income, benefit receipt and short-term impact on the public sector. However, these early results are static averages of more experienced migrants and a significant proportion of newly arrived inexperienced migrants. They are therefore likely to be misleading for the longer-term situation.This project uses register data where migrants are followed for up to ten years to study income assimilation and selective re-migration and thus the long-term economic consequences of migration. The following five sub-questions are answered: 1. How long do migrants stay? 2. do the economically more or less successful stay longer, i.e. is there positive or negative selection in return migration? 3. how does income and benefit receipt evolve over time for those who stay? 4. What is the impact of boom/bust cycles on 1-3? 5. What are the likely long-term consequences for Sweden's public sector?Umans, TimursKristianstad UniversityMulticultural management teams in Swedish companiesEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 260 000

Multicultural competence in business is emphasized by researchers, politicians and business representatives, but how does a multicultural management team actually work? If they work at all, what determines whether a multicultural management team has a positive or negative impact on companies? Management teams in Europe are becoming increasingly multicultural. However, compared to the rest of Europe, multicultural management teams in Sweden are a relatively new phenomenon. Research exists on management teams from a general diversity perspective, but relatively little on cultural diversity. This project aims to generate new relevant knowledge about this phenomenon. Previous research shows ambiguous results and the research area is theoretically fragmented, indicating unexplored factors that affect the consequences of a multicultural management team.The project intends to explore such factors via case studies and statistical analysis with a specific focus on management team processes. The contribution will be theory development and new empirical knowledge about the relationships between the functioning of multicultural management teams in Sweden and their effects on companies. We also aim to generate practical knowledge about how companies can manage multicultural management teams and create opportunities for the companies. The research group has a large network of contacts in Swedish management teams, has good experience of both qualitative and quantitative analysis, and is well established in the international research community.Rydqvist, KristianStockholm School of EconomicsHistorical share price and accounting databaseEconomy2014

Amount granted: 850 000 SEK

Swedish share price and accounting data are available in the Finda database from 1979 onwards. The purpose of this project is to update the Finda database back to 1912. The work on collecting daily share prices and turnover figures is ongoing and so far covers 25 years (1950, 1952, 1954 and 1957-1978). This project involves scanning the School of Economics' historical collection of annual reports from listed companies 1912-1278. The Center for Business History will carry out the actual scanning. When digital copies are available, the work of manually coding accounting information in Findata can begin.Berggren, NiclasInstitute for Business ResearchTrust, tolerance and growth - new methods to find causal linksEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 2 440 400

It is not a given that an economy will function well and contribute to increased prosperity. In recent years, economists have recognized that laws and regulations are important and affect people's willingness and ability to behave productively. "Soft" factors are now also analyzed by economists, who research morals and norms, as well as social attitudes such as trust and tolerance. People's views on their own actions and on other people can be of great economic importance. For example, honesty and trustworthiness can stimulate economic growth by enabling innovative risk-taking and smooth transactions.This project studies precisely how such cultural and social factors have an economic impact. Particular emphasis is placed on trying to establish causal relationships, i.e. what causes what in society. For example, there is much evidence that social trust leads to economic growth, but it is also possible that economic growth promotes trust in a society. Methodologically, it is often difficult to determine which is the case, but it is of great importance to clarify the nature of the causal relationship, not least to be able to give more precise advice to economic policy makers on how they should design policy. In three sub-projects, we explore how individuals' norms are shaped and how norms affect their choices, as well as the relationships between norms, institutions, and economic outcomes at the country level. In each sub-project, we use a newly developed methodology that allows us to establish causal relationships.Hagberg, AxelStockholm School of Economics, EHFFExperiences from the early 20th century Swedish shadow banking sectorEconomy2014

Amount granted: SEK 835 000

The Swedish issuing companies operated in a zone that is today known as shadow banking. The project "Shadow Banking in Sweden - Experiences from the early 19th Century" will study the emergence, activities and rapid exit of the Swedish issuing companies from the financial playing field in connection with the financial crash of 1922.Issuing companies were established as ordinary limited companies in 1914-1918 with the aim of promoting Swedish industry and increasing cooperation between industry and the financial sector. Their task was to channel a large surplus of deposits into new productive investments and to create new, untested combinations from the existing resources of Swedish industry. The issuing companies were initially very successful and quickly became an important part of shaping the strong optimism about the future in the 1910s. For posterity, however, the issuing company industry, which disappeared with the crisis of the 1920s, has perhaps come to be associated mostly with speculation.In the light of the current European situation with an increased focus on regulation, what lessons can be drawn from the rise and fall of the Swedish issuing companies in the 1920s crisis? It may be interesting to consider the similarities between the issuing companies and today's venture capital companies. Could it also be that one of the major Swedish financial innovations of the early 20th century, the issuing companies, was in fact one of the first victims of the 1920s crisis and not, as they have often been described until today, one of its causes?Flodgren, BoelLund UniversityContract law in transitionJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 880 000

Contract law is currently undergoing a major transformation as a result of various developments in the economy. The division into different categories, on which Swedish contract law previously rested, no longer applies, such as the division between national and international, between public and private and between goods/services and intangible assets. Within the overall research project, of which this doctoral project is a central part, we seek to analyze and find common principles in today's general contract law based on these three trends.The doctoral project focuses on the public-private dichotomy. The division in contract law between public and private law is today under strong pressure due to privatization, new rules for public procurement, etc. Situations often arise where public and private law rules both overlap and counteract each other. The collision between public and private law is particularly evident in public procurement. With a focus on the contracting authority's civil liability, and in particular on presumptive conflicts between general contract law and the EU Procurement Directive, the purpose of this doctoral project is to clarify whether and if so, how the general doctrines of national contract law on duty of loyalty, pre-contractual liability, etc. are reshaped in the light of EU law's requirements for equal treatment of suppliers and the safeguarding of competition in the market for public contracts.Bernitz, UlfStockholm UniversityResearch cooperation in European Law Stockholm - OxfordJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 300 000

The project concerns The Oxford/Stockholm Torsten Söderberg Venture in European Law. It is a continuation of the ongoing research collaboration with The Law Faculty, University of Oxford, focusing on European law in a broad sense, now called The Oxford/Stockholm Söderberg Venture and led by Professor Ulf Bernitz at Stockholm University. The overall aim of the project is to contribute to an increased international impact of Swedish legal research and a stronger international orientation through collaboration with the extensive legal research activity conducted in Oxford and to act as a catalyst.The Venture is mainly focused on limited sub-projects in the form of conferences, seminars and workshops as well as guest visits by Swedish legal researchers in Oxford, which normally lead to subsequent publication.Hilling, MariaLund UniversityGeneral anti-avoidance clauses and tax treaties - a comparative analysisJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 705 000

The research project addresses some of the legal challenges of combating tax evasion in a globalized world. Although the problem of tax evasion seems to have existed at all times, increasing globalization gives rise to legal challenges that credible tax systems must be able to deal with.The purpose of the project is to clarify the legal relationship between internal law general clauses against tax evasion and tax treaties in the legal systems of three countries. A prerequisite for general clauses to constitute a countermeasure against tax evasion is that they are not limited by concluded tax treaties, which is determined by the legal relationship between these regulations. It can be noted that the relationship between general clauses and tax treaties is perceived in different ways in different countries, which justifies the comparative perspective. The study compares Swedish law with Canadian and Australian law.The project is of value in several ways, but above all because it clarifies, on a scientific basis, some of the legal possibilities and limitations that must be considered in order to effectively counteract international tax evasion. Since tax evasion leads to loss of tax revenue, reduced respect for the tax system, increased complexity of tax legislation, non-economic allocation of resources and unfair distribution of the tax burden, it is a significant issue for industrialized countries.Refors Legge, MariaStockholm UniversityBullying in schools - responsibilities and enforcementJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 871 000

All children in Sweden have the right to education. This is something that is guaranteed to them in both Swedish law and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. While the children are in school, they must be protected from various forms of abusive treatment. This protection is very important because children in Sweden not only have a right to education but also an obligation to participate in it. Despite the statutory protection against abusive treatment, many children are subjected to such acts during and after school hours. The abuse can take the form of both physical and psychological violence and have both short-term and long-term consequences for the children involved.The purpose of this research project is to examine the legal responsibility of schools and the application of the laws and regulations that are intended to protect children from abusive treatment in schools. In the research project, relevant legal sources will be studied together with both court practice and authority decisions. A study of all cases received and decided by the Ombudsman for Children and Pupils over the course of a year will also be conducted to further examine the practical application of the law. Based on these studies, it is hoped that the project will deepen the understanding of how children exposed to violations are treated by schools, authorities and courts. The idea is also that the research will form the basis for discussions on how the law can and should be reformed to strengthen children's right to safe schooling and participation in cases of abuse that concern them.Lindell, BengtUppsala UniversityAdministration of justice - what is it?Jurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 158 333

For the administration of justice there must be courts. It is usually said that the administration of justice should be cheap, fast and safe and that the courts' tasks should be streamlined so that they can devote themselves to the administration of justice. A large number of statements of this kind can be found in the legislative history of our courts. However, the central concept of administration of justice is not defined, not even in the Constitution, although there is some discussion of the dynamic nature of the concept. This means that it changes over time: what was justice yesterday may not be justice today.The purpose of the project is to examine the concept of administration of justice in Swedish law in general proceedings (criminal and civil cases) and administrative proceedings, among other things to show how its content has changed over time. The study will be based on a number of well-known criteria (e.g. the reviewing body and its composition, the right to an oral hearing, the possibility of appeal, enforceability). These are intended to provide a descriptive attempt to classify different types of cases and procedures as judicial or other forms of judicial review. On the basis of the data collection, the criteria used and the objectives of judicial review, a normative concept of the administration of justice will then be formulated, with a view to formulating a minimum level of activity that should be called the administration of justice.Jonsson Cornell, AnnaUppsala UniversityDigital freedom of expression - a comparative studyJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 780 000

The internet and other digital technologies have made it possible to communicate and study information faster and in greater quantities than ever before. Freedom of expression remains one of the most important rights in a functioning democratic society.The aim of this project is to analyze whether the conditions for exercising freedom of expression can be considered to have changed fundamentally since the beginning of the digital age. This is done by comparing how four different countries have adapted their national freedom of expression guarantees to the digital environment. The countries covered by this study are Sweden, Finland, France and the United Kingdom. Different ways of regulating freedom of expression online, possibilities to censor online communications and content, and conflicts between freedom of expression, on the one hand, and the right to privacy and security, on the other, will be studied in the context of these four legal systems. Similarities and differences between these countries will be analyzed in order to draw general conclusions on the adaptation of freedom of expression to the digital environment.Based on these conclusions, it will be discussed whether our understanding of freedom of expression is outdated and should change as a result of the changes brought about by the digital age. In addition to offering an insight into the status of digital freedom of expression in four legal systems, this project aims to highlight how the nature and context of freedom of expression can change over time.Arnerstål, StojanUppsala UniversityUse of another's trademark in advertisingJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: 628 000 SEK

Sometimes there is a need for a trader to refer to a competitor's business or trademark in his marketing. The need can arise in several situations. A common example is the provision of a service relating to another trader's products. Another example is the production by a trader of goods that are compatible with another trader's goods. For the provider of such goods or services, it is necessary to be able to refer to the product to which the accessory or service relates. The easiest way to do this is to use the trademark of the product.The purpose of the research project is to investigate the conditions for the right to use another's trademark in marketing. There is considerable uncertainty about the legal situation and the limits of permissible use. The uncertainty can be said to have arisen as a result of the harmonization and interpretation of trademark law within the framework of the EU and the European Court of Justice. These questions relate to central parts of trademark law, as they concern the delimitation of what the exclusive right to a trademark means in legal terms. There is therefore a strong practical need for these issues to be analyzed from a systemic perspective, where the various developments in the case law of the CJEU are discussed within a broader trademark law context.Leviner, PernillaStockholm UniversityChild participation through public counsel in LVU casesJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 816 667

According to fundamental principles in both the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and national law, children have the right to participation and to be heard in official matters affecting them. Participation for children is particularly important in child welfare and especially when children are forcibly removed and placed outside their homes. However, studies have repeatedly shown that children in such situations often feel neither informed nor involved. This is remarkable and problematic, especially given that in such cases children are represented by public counsel who are tasked with representing their interests and best interests. A key issue is therefore the role and function of such advisors.The idea of this legal research project is to examine and review both legal regulation and practical application linked to children's right to be heard through public counsel. Therefore, in addition to reviewing and analyzing legal sources, both court practice will be examined and interviews will be conducted. An important part is to interview children about their own experiences of the LVU process and being represented by legal counsel. By deepening the understanding of the legal regulation, the intention is for the research to form the basis for proposals on how the law can and should be reformed to create better conditions for the participation of children in child welfare services.Svensson, OlaLund UniversityDeviating from the lawJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 550 000

It is characteristic of Swedish law that there is limited scope for the courts to restrict the scope of a statutory rule. One of the reasons for this is that statutory texts are often of a general nature and that it may be difficult for the legislature to predict in advance which application situations may arise and how they should be regulated. By assuming that there are so-called unspoken exceptions, the courts are thus empowered to make the necessary adjustments. For example, the Supreme Court has in several cases deviated from the letter of the law based on considerations of the purpose of the provision. However, a more precise theory of when courts are entitled to deviate from the wording of the law has not emerged.In my work, I intend to review a number of statutory rules in the field of contract law and examine the extent to which the courts have tended to restrict the scope of the rules in question and whether any patterns can be discerned. Furthermore, opinions expressed in Swedish doctrine are inventoried and analyzed. Attention is also paid to well-known international theories in this area. An important part of the work is the development of a theory of a rule formulation's lack of finesse. This theory can be used both as an analytical tool for examining existing law and for proposing changes to it as regards the possibility for the courts to deviate from the scope of a statutory rule.Maunsbach, LottaLund UniversityAgreement on access to justiceJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: 145 000 SEK

The right to justice is a fundamental right that exists in all democratic states. The starting point is that everyone has the right to have their disputes heard by a court in a procedure that meets certain qualities, a fair trial, and that the State has a responsibility to provide the conditions for such dispute resolution procedures before the courts. However, it is not clear from the right to judicial review whether it also includes a right for the parties to voluntarily waive access to a court and a fair trial with binding effect. It is this latter question that is addressed in this thesis.The study deals with situations where the parties waive a procedural right in various ways by agreement. It is partly about agreements where the parties completely waive judicial review, and partly about agreements where the parties waive some part of the judicial review. The thesis analyzes whether the agreement entered into in advance is binding when invoked before a court and what procedural legal effects the agreement gives rise to between the parties and in relation to the court.The starting point is the situation where two commercial parties, before a dispute has arisen, agree by contract to waive the right to judicial review, in whole or in part. Once a dispute arises, one of them no longer wishes to be bound by the contractual arrangements and brings an action before the court in breach of the contract.Lagerlöf, ErikHarward Law School, USAFederalism and mixed agreementsJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 184 000

From being considered an international organization, a constitutional classification of the EU is today much more difficult, its function and federal structure being unprecedented in the world. With the division of competences, or the division of power to put it differently, between the EU and its Member States, the EU acts externally, internationally, often by concluding so-called "mixed agreements". This is a type of legal instrument whereby the EU and its Member States individually, on their own, express a willingness to be jointly bound by an agreement with one or more third parties. By coming together and jointly assuming the obligations and commitments of the agreement, the EU and its Member States can act as a single entity where the international agreement requires it. Thus, neither the EU nor the Member States could conclude the agreement in question on their own. Examples of these mixed agreements include the agreement concluded with the World Trade Organization (WTO), the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and a number of trade agreements with countries in, for example, Africa.The purpose of my future research at Harvard Law School is to build on previous research and study mixed agreements in order to contribute to a clearer legal structure for these agreements. The research will largely be of a comparative nature, where the US and its federal structure will be contrasted with the federalism chosen by the EU and its member states.Ågren, JackStockholm UniversitySocial adequacyJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 813 000

A fundamental task of criminal law is to determine whether an act constitutes a crime. In this assessment, it is essential to distinguish between permissible and impermissible acts. The admissibility of an act may follow from the existence of an express statutory rule setting out the conditions for exemption from liability. But an act may be permissible in the absence of an express statutory basis on the basis of a doctrine of social adequacy.Despite the importance of social adequacy, legal research in this area is extremely limited. The need for a coherent and in-depth legal research must be described as very great.The project aims to analyze social adequacy partly from a practical perspective with a focus on investigating issues of identification, systematization, delimitation and scope, and partly from a legal philosophy perspective with an emphasis on investigating issues of a more legal ideological and legal policy nature.The main purpose of the project is to link legal doctrine, theory and legal policy in a way that can lead to insights and knowledge for legal practitioners and legislators, but also be important for both the internal legal science debate and the general debate on the need and importance of a doctrine of social adequacy.Ahlin, PerStockholm UniversityInternational law in Swedish security policy. Part IIJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 835 000

In my thesis Folkrätten i svensk säkerhetspolitik (1993) I studied how Sweden has used international law in its security policy. The period studied was 1945-1992. Since then, both international law and Swedish security policy have undergone major changes. The neutrality policy has been abandoned, Sweden is a member of the EU, the role of the UN has changed, and new threats to world peace have emerged. There are more examples.The starting point for the current study, which covers the period 1993-2015, is that Sweden's use of international law in its security policy has changed accordingly. The question is to what extent this change has occurred, why it has occurred and whether the change has had any decisive legal or political consequences. One aim is to find out whether Sweden still uses international law for protection, whether Sweden still has a strong belief in international law and collective security, whether Sweden still tries to limit states' freedom of action by means of legal and political commitments, and whether Sweden still interprets international law strictly when it favors Swedish interests and flexibly when it is considered more appropriate. The study will be divided into five main parts: Neutrality, Membership in the UN, Protection of its own territory, Reduction of external threats and International courts.Hilling, AxelLund UniversityInterpretation of tax lawJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: 860 000 SEK

Despite the fact that the fundamental principles of fairness and neutrality in taxation have been leading starting points in the legislative work, legal developments have meant that current tax legislation is in many cases perceived as both unfair and non-neutral. This development has motivated new legislation against perceived unfair taxation, as well as an extensive investigation for a new, more neutral corporate tax.One possible reason for the legal development that has proved contrary to the fundamental principles of tax law, which are clearly stated in the preparatory works, may be the Swedish tradition of interpreting tax law in the light of civil law, which in recent years has also proved to include both international accounting law and financial theory. Through such an interpretation, the law is given its content with reference to non-tax law, extraneous facts and the possibilities of relating to tax law principles in the application of the law are thus limited.In this research project, the Swedish tax law interpretation tradition is analyzed against the background of accepted legal theory, and in comparison with the Anglo-Saxon and continental European interpretation tradition of tax legislation. The research is important because it presents legal arguments for alternative ways of interpreting tax law, which in Sweden may eventually lead to a legal development that is more compliant in relation to the purpose of the legislation - which would benefit both the legislator and the legal practitioner.Vahlne Westerhäll, LottaPatients' rightsJurisprudence2014

Amount granted: SEK 90 000

In this research project, two overarching questions will be answered on the basis of three pieces of legislation, namely HSL, PSL and the Patient Act applicable from 2015. The first question concerns whether there is a legal right to become a patient and thus receive care ("get patient status"). The second concerns whether the person who has obtained patient status has any legal rights in this capacity as a patient.Becoming a patient implies an opportunity to receive treatment and hopefully get well. Most people find it essential to be involved in the provision of health care as part of society's welfare and security benefits. The right to participate in health care can be seen as a central human right.In Sweden, however, this does not mean that sick people have a legal claim to medical assistance, but only a right to compete for scarce resources. This is developed further in this work. Thus, the issue of the right to become a patient will be analyzed from the perspective of the objectives of health care and the obligations of health care providers, as well as from the perspective of the obligations of health care professionals.The issue of patient rights relates to the patient's requirements for care and treatment, such as good quality and ensuring patient safety in care, treatment in accordance with science and proven experience, accessibility of care, respect for the patient's autonomy and integrity, courtesy, information and consent. Patient safety issues are of central interest in this context.Normark, StaffanKungl. Academy of SciencesIngvar Lindqvist Prize 2015Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 300 000

Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien wants to show Sweden's teachers in mathematics and science their appreciation, and at the same time draw society's attention to the teachers' important role in the country's development. The prize is named after Professor Ingvar Lindqvist, who was President of the Academy from 1987 to 1991. He initiated a number of Academy activities to highlight the importance of teachers in society. The prize has been awarded since 1991.Colleagues, principals, students and parents are invited to nominate candidates. After preparation by the Academy's Committee on School Affairs, the proposals for winners are submitted to the members of the Academy, who decide on the winners at a regular meeting. The Committee on School Affairs consists of representatives of the Academy's classes of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, technology and social sciences, as well as didacticians and former laureates.The award ceremony takes place on the Academy's anniversary day. A half-day symposium is also held in conjunction with this event, where the laureates present their work and Academy members give scientific lectures.Fischer, PeterUniversity of GothenburgThe Swedish Cyprus Expedition: a palace complex from 1200 BC.Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 1 022 000

Excavations in the Bronze Age town of Hala Sultan Tekke, Cyprus - supported by the Torsten Söderberg Foundation - have resulted in exceptional finds from the period 1600-1100 BC. The results have attracted considerable international attention. The Swedish expedition has been able to provide evidence for long-distance connections with southern, central and northern Europe including Sweden, the eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia, the Levant and Egypt.A large-scale geophysical exploration using georadar and magnetometer and a radio-controlled helicopter drone with camera led to the discovery of a monumental 50 x 40 meter building, which due to its size and the width of the walls was given the working name "palace". This new discovery makes Hala Sultan Tekke the largest Bronze Age city not only in Cyprus but also in the entire Eastern Mediterranean. Test excavations in 2014 in the eastern part of the palace verified the geophysical findings: the expedition found stone foundation walls and outstanding finds that include human/god and animal figurines. The finds are from the period 1300-1150 BC.The project provides for advanced archaeological research in connection with the uncovering of this palatial building complex, thus ensuring the continued existence of the Swedish Cyprus Expedition in the years 2016-2018.Arvidsson, KristofferGothenburg Art MuseumOverview work for the Gothenburg Museum of Art - English editionOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 350 000

In February 2014, the book Samlingen Göteborgs konstmuseum was published with the support of the Torsten Söderberg Foundation. The book, which comprises 497 pages with 350 color illustrations, presents the museum's collections in an appealing design. Popular science essays are interspersed with shorter texts to present the latest research on the collection in an accessible form. The museum now wants to publish an English-language version of the book entitled The Collection. Gothenburg Museum of Art.The Gothenburg Museum of Art has previously lacked an up-to-date overview of its internationally sought-after collections. The museum therefore wanted to create a book that would serve as both a catalog of a selection of works and a popular science presentation of the collection. An English-language book on the collection is particularly needed.A previous project to create an online catalog of the collection has provided the basis for the book. The texts in the book have been produced by museum staff in collaboration with the research department. Project management and editing took place at the museum.Herjulfsdotter, RitwaRöhsska MuseumThe collections and history of the Röhsska MuseumOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 335 000

There is a lack of research and compiled knowledge about the emergence of the Röhsska Museum and the development of its collections, which is regrettable as this is an important social institution with great influence in design. In this respect, the Röhsska Museum differs from other major museums for which thorough historical work has been done. The aim of the Röhsska Museum is to exhibit high quality craftsmanship and to inspire innovation. Much of the inspiration has come from the East. The 18th century is another important area of interest for the museum. The research project Röhsska Museum Collections and History now focuses on the museum's 18th century collections.The museum's 18th century objects come mainly from high society environments. Late Baroque, Rococo and Gustavian styles are represented, both imported and Swedish-made. The museum also manages several 18th century interiors and a gazebo. But what kind of 18th century is the Röhsska Museum showing? The choice of collections has been influenced by a number of factors such as personal interests and fashion trends of the time.The purpose of the research project is therefore to fill the knowledge gap that exists through broad cultural history research. The project aims to contribute to making new knowledge about the Röhsska Museum and its collections available for further research and to provide a broader perspective on the museum's activities.The research results will be presented in an exhibition in collaboration with the Gothenburg Museum of Art, web text and in articles.Klackenberg, DayThe Swedish History DaysThe Swedish History Days 2015Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

The overall aim of the Swedish History Days is to encourage contacts and exchanges between professionals from different professions related to the subject of history, and history enthusiasts in general, thereby increasing the historical knowledge of as many groups in society as possible. The ambition is therefore to present historical topics and historical research in a way that is popular science but also accessible to non-specialist participants. For many history teachers, the History Days are the primary opportunity for continuing education, particularly in terms of reconnecting with the research community, and for professional historians this forum is an opportunity to make new research results available. Many of the lectures are published in print.Larsson, AnnikaUppsala UniversityBumps on the head 2 - in-depth practical studies and reconstructionsOther2014

Amount granted: 157 500 SEK

In 2008, research into Viking Age women's dress began. It was soon established that the oval buckles, so specific to the female burial costume, disappeared at about the same time as the male costume became Christianized. The initial hypothesis was that the changes from pre-Christian to Christian society should not only be seen in the burial customs themselves, but also reflected in the change in the female burial costume. The dress became the key to an entirely new understanding of norms and rituals in pre-Christian society - a problem area that will be presented in a forthcoming book.In connection with the presentation of the project in an exhibition in the fall of 2014 at Uppsala University's Museum Gustavianum, sewn-up reconstructions and drawn illustrations with great importance for communication have been used. It is of great importance for the final book product that these presentations can be reworked and adapted to the script and its layout. Stage 2 of the project involves a couple of months of work for microscopic studies and subsequent practical reconstruction, and a couple of months of work for cartoon illustrations where photographs cannot be published. The applicant is the project manager for the manuscript work, which is expected to be completed by the end of June 2015. The ongoing research is presented on Museum Gustavianum's website.Wilhelmson, HeleneLund UniversityÖland's Iron Age population: bioarchaeological studies of migration, diet and demographyOther2014

Amount granted: 190 000 SEK

The thesis project aims to study the Iron Age population of Öland based on the graves, in order to highlight the structure and dynamics of the society. Öland had an extensive flow of goods and people during the Iron Age and has varied and rich archaeological sources. The material is both large and well dated to sub-periods of the Iron Age and covers the entire period 500 BC-1050.Based on isotope tests on bones and teeth, I discuss variations in migration and diet in comparison with, among other things, health and disease, traces of violence, body length, gender and age of death as studied osteologically in the skeleton. I also compare these results with the archaeological aspects of the graves (grave shape, finds, etc.) to get a multifaceted picture of social structure and identity at both the individual and community level. Since the different results reflect different specific periods in an individual's life, they are interpreted in relation to the life cycle as well, something that is rarely fully taken into account in the interpretation of isotope analyses.A similar study, which integrates the isotope results in an osteological and archaeological context in this way, has never before been done in Scandinavia. The study takes advantage of the exceptionally rich burial material from Öland in a broad and interdisciplinary way and contributes to broadening the perspective on Iron Age society while developing the field of bioarchaeology.Bjerrhede, StaffanKållereds hembygdsföreningThe Sagared farm in Kållered - linked to the East India Company.Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 216 000

Kållereds Hembygdsförening has an extensive archive consisting of documents and photos. This material was inventoried in the spring of 2014 with a grant from the foundation. The very extensive and interesting farm archive from the Sagered farm in Kållered will also be inventoried this fall with a grant from the Foundation. Sagered has a strong connection to the East India Company, which makes it even more attractive to historical researchers.Now that the Sagered archives have been listed, further research on the estate and compilation of the material is needed. Above all, it is the ownership list with families and their connection to the East India Company that should be explored. The history of the farmhouse, interior design, furnishings through estate inventories, stories through archive searches and other aspects of the farm are also included.Areskoug, Nils-GöranTransdisciplinary dialoguesOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 120 000

The aim of this network of interdisciplinary dialogues is to create an infrastructure for a strategic observatory and a meeting place for integrative discussions to better address the complex challenges facing the future society, the solutions to which require a particularly broad range of skills. Decision-making with far-reaching consequences depends on considerations that affect an increasing number of adjacent areas. There is a great need for action models that provide new ways to develop knowledge-based policies for coordination across disciplines.These dialogues are conducted in selected media platforms and communication channels that promote a Nordic knowledge exchange and aim to actualize a future potential based on shared values and common history. An increased strategic and critical dialogue on the future through constructive cultural exchange aims to deepen the sense of belonging and improve the conditions for value creation and growth through cooperation in business, politics, academia and culture. The network of dialogue partners includes face-to-face dialogues at a high strategic level (entrepreneurs, ministers, researchers).Completed knowledge dialogues are published in online arenas for opinion and debate and in topical publications under production. With network-based knowledge integration, a basis for future project and programme organization is developed that generates stability and sustainability with the cultivation of values rooted in a creative dialogue between science and business.Nordqvist, BengtArchaeology Victim site FinnestorpTime of gold and Finnestorp sacrifice siteOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 695 000

During 2000-2004 and 2008-2012, research investigations were carried out at the Finnestorp sacrifice site. A site that turns out to contain a find material that belongs to the category - "the finest and most exquisite objects from Sweden's pre-Christian era" and it belongs to one of the most important remains from the prehistory of the Nordic region. At Offerplats Finnestorp, warrior after warrior has been sacrificed along with their battle stallions and valuable weapons. These mighty men whose arsenal consisted of magnificent gilded swords, lances and golden horse equipment. Magnificent items of royal value, made by the most skilled craftsmen in Europe at the time.A very limited fieldwork concerned the Finnestorp sacrificial site and one of the most spectacular gold finds, such as the site of the gold collar from Möne (north of Ulricehamn) and the battlefield at Varola. The ongoing research work includes a small excavation (search for helmet details), conservation of a small amount of objects, international comparisons and publication of the research work in the form of a major scientific book and a popular science book. In 2013, analysis of the metal objects from Finnestorp began. The first book volume on Finnestorp will be published in 2014-2015.Rollenhagen Tilly, LinnéaCarl Johan Cronstedt, architect and organizer - a man of his timeOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

Printing of a book on the activities and collections of the superintendent Carl Johan Cronstedt (1709-1777).Count Carl Johan Cronstedt is mentioned in numerous studies on 18th century Sweden: as the rationalizer of the tiled stove, as a superintendent or in connection with the world-famous collection bearing his name at the National Museum. Unlike the other superintendents, Cronstedt showed a great interest in economics and his very pragmatic approach is one reason why he has not gone down in history as a 'great' architect. However, his activities are often considered boring or uninteresting, which has led to the lack of a biographical account of him so far. However, a compilation of existing research and a closer examination of an incredibly rich archive material suggests that his role in Swedish architectural history should be re-evaluated. There is every indication that through his pragmatic approach he very actively contributed to the modernization of our Swedish architecture, urban planning and living environment.The aim of this book is therefore to provide a better insight into Cronstedt's theoretical and practical contribution to Swedish architectural history. Four chapters present Cronstedt's education, a selection of his activities as a civil servant and architect, and the history and content of the library.Wadell, LeifFreemasonry in GothenburgLouis Jean Desprez, ceiling painting 'Apollo the Sun God'Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

The ceiling painting is irreplaceable and unique to Gothenburg, and if it were left to undergo further degradation, an object of cultural-historical value and national interest would be lost.Eliasson, RogerAeroseumAeroseum Science CenterOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 90 000

The Aeroseum launched a school project in 2010 with the aim of opening up the aviation experience center/museum for teaching students from pre-school to university level. The motivation was to increase interest, motivation and understanding in MNT - math, science and technology. In the future, our subjects will cover everything from our cultural heritage to different subject areas according to the new curriculum. A large part of the teaching is based on practical teaching, which is why we build up different stations and environments in an interdisciplinary way. The aim is to accommodate around 500 school classes per year.The original project has now moved on to the Aeroseum becoming a Science Center. The reason for this is that it is now a condition from the authorities to be granted public funds for school activities in the future. This places new demands on our school activities. More interactive workstations are required today. All this places new demands on our computer network, which is under-dimensioned and must be developed to cope with the approximately 60 Science Center stations required. At present, 6 stations are up and running and more are under construction. The Torsten Söderberg Foundation has funded 4 of these in 2014. The project is a continuation of our last application and the project will continue until the Aeroseum is approved by the authorities so that financial support can be obtained.Andersson, ChristerAbbey, ground penetrating radar 2015Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Ground penetrating radar as part of archaeological research is a method that has become increasingly common. The reason is, of course, the rapid development of electronics, with smaller and cheaper components for ground penetrating radar, but also increasingly sophisticated software in line with the development of computers.Ground penetrating radar is similar to the sonar used by fishermen to locate schools of fish, but instead of sound waves, it uses radio waves that are reflected from the ground when the radio wave encounters another medium. A radar wave transmitted through the ground is reflected when it hits a rock in the same way that a wave on a line attached to a wall is only reflected when it hits the wall. If you know how fast the wave is traveling, you can calculate the distance to the wall and the same is true for ground penetrating radar waves.We can also get some information about what the ground penetrating radar's radio waves were reflected against by studying the reflected wave. A line attached to a solid wall will also produce a reflected wave that is different than if the line is attached around a narrow flexible tree branch.The advantage of using only ground penetrating radar in an archaeological survey is that it is a non-destructive method. During an archaeological excavation, the soil is inevitably disturbed and any subsequent excavation on the same site has been deprived of any information. Using ground-penetrating radar in an archaeological excavation also avoids the need to dig up a large area and allows you to go directly to the desired location.Botwid, KatarinaLund UniversitySkärvan's Renaissance - a new method of analysis for the interpretation of archaeological potteryOther2014

Amount granted: 121 125 SEK

As a researcher and archaeologist, I work to convey the stories that can be interpreted from the concrete material that emerges from an archaeological excavation. The craftsman is often the focus of today's archaeology, and in the future we may be able to identify individuals or small groups that have specialized in crafts.There are several challenges in the craft perspective. Some challenges may be to investigate how people in the past organized their craft environment and how they made use of the surrounding resources. Other questions may concern how the environment and climate change may have affected the situation and development of crafts. The ancient craftsman probably had to change his way of working when the climate became colder or more humid. In ceramic artifacts, fingerprints and marks from different tools can be left for us to interpret. You see the traces burnt and solidified into the shape that can now give us the information we so eagerly seek.As a potter and archaeologist, I can read the vessels. My ability to see how an ancient colleague suddenly went into a hurry and hastily finished an initially meticulous job two thousand years ago allows these wordless events to be verbalized and understood over time. Being able to see and make use of this information provides another opportunity to see the vast archaeological pottery material in museum stores as a highly interesting source of new knowledge.Söderberg, ElisabetStockholm UniversityThe aspirants - young people with disabilities and their career choicesOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 305 000

Choosing a study and career path can be tricky for everyone. What am I good at, what do I enjoy, what are the opportunities in the labor market, etc. are reasonable questions to ask. If you have difficulties in the form of disabilities, this can cause you and others to doubt your abilities, which makes the choice no easier.The thesis deals with inhibiting and promoting factors in career choice. The inhibiting factors have so far in the thesis work proved to be e.g. poor accessibility, complicated rules and an environment that tries to limit the individual's room for maneuver. Many of the respondents have proved to be exposed to overprotection by the environment, which has constituted a strong inhibiting force in their lives and negatively affected their confidence in their abilities. These inhibiting factors together provide incentives for a vicious cycle that leads to a devalued self-image. This, in turn, reduces the room for maneuver in the choice of study and career. A strong facilitating force seems to be the goal of an independent and professional life, based on one's own conditions. Another important facilitating factor is an environment, such as family and friends, which affirms the individual and encourages them to dare to do more than they may think they can.Hadenius, PatrikResearch & ProgressPublication of Research & Progress in 2015Other2014

Amount granted: 44 500 SEK

Forskning & Framsteg is one of Sweden's leading popular science journals. It was founded in 1966 and has been published by a non-profit foundation since 1979. The foundation is supported by a large number of research funding organizations. The journals operate at a loss. Without external funding, continued publication would not be possible. Since 2010, several measures have been taken to strengthen the finances, including an increase in publication to 10 issues, advertising sales, a new layout and editorial collaborations. By providing grant funding for some of its activities, the Foundation can staff a qualified editorial team with expertise in the natural sciences, humanities and social sciences, and maintain a broad coverage and reporting of Swedish research. The content of Forskning & Framsteg should not only be governed by demand, but also by the Foundation's purpose of broadly communicating the results of Swedish research and stimulating interest in science.Gunneriusson Wistman, ChristinaMuseum crews in the Swedish art field in the mid-20th centuryOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

In 1958, Moderna Museet opened in Stockholm. The museum collections then consisted largely of art transferred from Nationalmuseum, but also of purchases, gifts and donations intended specifically for a future Swedish modern art museum. Ten years earlier, at the end of June 1948, Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde was inaugurated, a museum that by definition can be considered Sweden's first museum for modern and contemporary Swedish art. In his will, Prince Eugen handed over his former home with the art collections to the Swedish state with the aim of turning it into a public museum. This gave the prince's art collection of more than 2,000 works, as well as his own artistic production, a permanent place of display.These two museums are examples of two different types of museum foundations: one is a private initiative, the other a publicly founded institutional museum. They are also only two examples of new Swedish art museums opened around the middle of the 20th century. A number of county museums have focused on art in their collections and a number of donor museums/artists' homes also opened at this time. Swedish art museums are a largely unexplored area and the art sociology perspective used in this study will provide results both for basic knowledge in the area and serve as a basis for further analysis of the role of art museums in society yesterday, today and tomorrow.Ivansson, BirgittaDocumentation of local history interviewsOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 15 000

Transferring some 50 cassette and reel-to-reel tapes of local history interviews to modern technology to make the material more accessible and preserve it for the future.Rydin, UrbanThe Röhss brothers - the Röhsska Museum's first donorsOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

The present work is a study of the entrepreneurial activities of the first two generations of the Röhss family in Swedish industry from about 1825 to the turn of the century. With this starting point, important parts of Gothenburg's history as well as the breakthrough and development of industrialism in Sweden are touched upon. Wilhelm Röhss the elder and his sons Wilhelm and August were important parts of the leap in prosperity that Sweden took from being a poor agricultural country to becoming one of the richest countries in the world. The Röhsska trading house began with a rather scattered business but soon specialized in wood and iron.As these capital-intensive activities required more capital for their development, the initiative was taken to set up banks, which then took over the role of the trading houses as credit intermediaries. Not surprisingly, the Röhsska trading house was also involved in the development of transportation, particularly railways. Almost as natural was the activity in insurance companies.The development of Gothenburg is very much linked to the business community. Growth then created major social problems for the working class. This gave rise to individual initiatives and donors made large amounts of capital available to the city for social purposes. The Röhs family is an important part of the spirit of donation in Gothenburg and their donations are covered in the work.The book also touches on the Röhs family's origins in Germany and Denmark and other members of the family.Sidén, KarinPrince Eugene's WaldemarsuddePrince Eugene 150 yearsOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

In connection with Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde organizing a major anniversary exhibition to mark the 150th anniversary of Prince Eugen's birth, a magnificent and comprehensive book on Prince Eugen's art and life will be produced.Prince Eugene (1865-1947) was one of the foremost landscape painters of his generation and an important art collector, patron and cultural politician. The book, which will include new research and numerous articles by expert writers, will describe Prince Eugen's political activities and his active opposition to Nazism during the Second World War, as well as his relations with the writer Verner von Heidenstam, the musicians and composers Wilhelm Stenhammar and Tor Aulin, and his collaboration with the architect Ferdinand Boberg. Articles on the landscape painter, patron, art collector and person of Prince Eugen will also be published. Waldemarsudde's park and garden will also receive a chapter in the book.The book will be published in collaboration with Bokförlaget Atlantis.Nyqvist Thorsson, AnnaUniversity of Gothenburg12th and 13th century lily pads and staff crosses in the Venetian landscapeOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 195 000

The application concerns funding for the completion of my dissertation, which is based on a medieval material called lily stones and staff cross plates. At present, some text production and editing remains, about six months of work, to complete the thesis for printing and distribution. The chapters covering the introduction and research history, theory and method, and the three analytical chapters are in principle completed.Lily stones and staff cross stones are grave stones, usually in sandstone with images in the form of plant vines, trees of life and staff crosses. The stones can be linked to the oldest medieval stone churches and can be dated to the 12th and 13th centuries. Instead of understanding them from the perspective of art history, as before, I discuss the stone slabs as an archaeological material. Lily stones and stone crosses do not only provide knowledge about the visual world and artistic expression of the Middle Ages. As grave monuments, they also provide knowledge about social conditions, how death and the dead were viewed and related to, and how grave monuments and church sites played an active role in social strategies and the formation of social groups in medieval society. An important question to discuss has therefore been why it became so important for a certain group of people in the 12th and 13th centuries to express their identity through these specific grave monuments.Lysén, SvanteThe Bohus coast - a grumpy paradiseOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 100 000

In recent decades, only a handful of films on the Bohuslän coast have been produced, such as lobster fishing, archipelago communities and underwater films, but no comprehensive film on the flora and fauna of Bohuslän's coastal nature over four seasons.BOHUS COAST - an angry paradise (58 min) is a nature documentary about the nature of the Bohus coast during four seasons as seen through the eyes of a kayaker, but also about its change, ecology and environmental threats. It is a depiction of both the familiar where the viewer recognizes himself and the unfamiliar where experiences, facts, current scientific findings and philosophical observations will be thought-provoking and lead to new insights.The film will search for the soul of the Bohus coast and above all depict animals, plants and nature in changing light throughout the year. It will also give an insight into the exciting history of the coastal area from Bronze Age graves to more recent herring periods and quarries. Environmental problems such as oil spills, beach litter and overfishing will also be highlighted. The common thread will be a kayaker who in a personal way discovers and experiences diverse environments during his trips along the coast and who creates a sense of water from a close perspective.The fully edited nature documentary is planned as a screening right for SVT and neighboring countries' TV channels to give a wide audience insight into the unique landscape and nature of the Bohus coast.Linde Bjur, GunillaArchitects in Gothenburg over a hundred years. Women take their place in the 20th centuryOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

Gothenburg's architectural history over the last hundred years has been characterized by a large number of university-educated architects. In the early 1900s, the profession was practiced exclusively by men, while today more than half of all architects in Sweden are women. The working title of the research project is Architects in Gothenburg during a hundred years. Women take place in the 20th century. It is a continuation of the research presented in 2013 in the book Architects and Facades. Gothenburg 1850-1920. The breakpoint in 1920 is justified by the fact that women emerged as architects in Sweden during this decade. The development of the architectural profession and the city's architectural history over a hundred years will be highlighted by focusing on some thirty architects, all women, whose work has shaped Gothenburg.Through archive research and in-depth interviews, a number of short professional biographies are presented. Pioneers such as Dagmar Hall, Anna Lous Mohr and Ingrid Wallberg have been glimpsed in previous research, while Ingegerd Ågren (b. 1922) and her long activity starting in the 1940s remains to be highlighted. There is very little written about women architects in Gothenburg during the last fifty years. Several of the youngest architects in the study will probably remain active long after Gothenburg's 400th anniversary in 2021.Bergman, LarsRiksföreningen SverigekontaktCensored letters of the Carolinian prisonersOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 375 000

After the defeats at Poltava and Perevolotjna in 1709, 23 000 prisoners of war from the Swedish army were deployed in Russia, many in Siberia. The real Swedish city was Tobolsk. The Swedes were relatively well educated and therefore played a major role locally. Engineers supervised construction work, and Swedish schools attracted Russian pupils. There were conflicts, but the Swedes' efforts were appreciated. This is still talked about in Siberian cities. For example, the mayor of Yekaterinburg, Yevgeny Rojzman, has a strong interest in history and is a great friend of Sweden.Conditions are described in diaries and letters. Many letters from and to Swedish prisoners of war were caught by Russian censorship. Since the Russian archives were opened in the 1990s, the letters have become available. The planned project will primarily make these letters available to Swedish, Russian and international researchers and the general public. An edition of some kind (as a book and/or in electronic form) is the natural product.The project can be expected to provide historians with new information. Above all, the letters seem to shed light on the prisoners' own situation, their thoughts and beliefs, but also on daily life. The peace of 1721 marked a significant change in Swedish history. The prisoners of war who returned home (about a quarter of them) probably played an important role in further historical developments, but their role has been insufficiently investigated. The hitherto censored letters offer a fortunate opportunity.Nitenberg, AnnelieWest Swedish ArchaeologyRuling identities in life and death in Vendel and Viking Age Västergötland.Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 273 000

In the landscape, there are many different types of material remains that constitute the traces of human activity in the past. These traces can provide clues to the life, conditions and thoughts of the people of that time. In my dissertation Härskaridentiteter i liv och död: maktuttryck och maktstrategier i Västergötland under vendel- och vikingatid, I want to use status graves and the social elites' living and representation environments to study these elites' strategies for achieving the possibility to exercise power. I am also interested in ideologies of domination and the actions required to achieve and maintain positions of power. Furthermore, I want to examine what the positions of power were and what they contained and meant, so to speak. The goal is also to discuss and try to understand the formation of Västergötland.The starting point for the thesis is the results of the excavations I conducted at Sunnerby on Kållandsö in Västergötland between 2000 and 2012. However, Sunnerby will be placed in a larger geographical context, which is why both regional analyses and comparative studies in a broader perspective are included in the thesis. The source material is primarily the archaeological material, but as a frame of reference to the archaeological material I will use historical sources in the form of runic inscriptions and to some extent Old Norse and Old English literature.Nisser Dalman, MargaretaCourts of AppealHedvig Eleonora - Queen of the Swedish Baroque eraOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 490 000

For more than sixty years, Queen Hedvig Eleonora (1636-1715) was Sweden's most powerful woman. Her achievements are largely characterized by the dynastic and political ambitions of this period in European history. Her environments and court culture manifested the increasing power of the royal family, as well as Hedvig Eleonora's self-perception and strategies for dealing with the tension between power and gender. This visual rhetoric was addressed to her contemporaries, but also to posterity - Hedvig Eleonora has deliberately left a message for us today.The research on the queen of the realm connects to several current and vibrant fields of research, especially on the importance and conditions of princesses and northern European cultural relations. It also contributes to a deeper understanding of the Carolingian era as a whole, from a political, economic, intellectual, spiritual and artistic perspective.On the occasion of the 300th anniversary of Queen Hedvig Eleonora's death in 2015, Kungl. Husgerådskammaren will draw attention to her great importance with, among other things, a publication. An important starting point is the contributions to the symposium A Queen Emerges. Hedwig Eleonora and Court Culture around the Baltic, which the Kungl. Several of the prominent Swedish and international baroque researchers who participated in the symposium will write contributions to the publication.von Ehrenheim, Carl GustafGrönsööThe art of GrönsöööOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Through long successions, especially in the von Ehrenheim, von Engeström, Benzelius, Mörner and Blomstedt families, a collection of visual art, broad in time and genre, has been gathered at Grönsööö. Portraits, paintings and copperplate engravings provide an outlook on art history with Grönsöö as a starting point. The book and exhibition will be titled "The Art of Grönsööö" and will comprise about 100 pages. Fil.mag Greger Sundin has made himself available as author and the photographer is Gabriel Hildebrand, photographer at Kungl. Myntkabinettet.Johansson, AndersThe forgotten blockade runners - Norwegian-Swedish war drama in several acts 1940-1945Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 25 000

The occupation of Norway and Denmark by Nazi Germany in spring 1940 meant that Sweden's exports and imports were severely restricted by the 'Skagerack barrier'. Britain needed ball bearings and steel products for its armaments industry and tried to defy the blockade with freighters from the west coast of Sweden to Scotland. At the same time, the Norwegian High Command in London wanted to transfer male refugees in Sweden to Allied troops in the UK. A first escape with five Norwegian ships in January 1941 was successful, while the next attempt with twice as many boats in March/April 1942 was a disaster. Outside Gothenburg, the German fleet waited, sank three of the ships and captured 236 people, most of them Norwegian refugees, including seven women and a girl. Three ships were sunk by their own crews, two managed to get past the barrier to Scotland and two returned to Gothenburg.These ten ships were referred to as the "quarantine boats" after a long British-German process up to the Swedish Supreme Court. In addition to these two British-led blockade runs, there were several little-known Norwegian-British operations from Bohuslän. The majority of those involved were Norwegian citizens, but there were also British marines and sailors stranded in Sweden, as well as some Swedes. The prime mover was George Binney, whose clients were Churchill's sabotage organization Special Operations Executive (SOE) and Ministry for Economic Warfare (MEW).Aminoff, ChristinaLinköping UniversityActivities in pre-primary and 1st grade of primary schoolsOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 380 000

The pre-school class was introduced into the school and became a separate school form in 1998. With the establishment of the preschool class, there was an ambition to bring together the educational traditions of preschool and school. The starting point was that there should be a smooth transition and this would create a hom*ogeneous education system.The study is aimed at deepening the understanding of the activities that take place in the preschool class and the first year of primary school, as well as the transition between the activities. A special focus is directed towards how the work with early written language learning is designed in the preschool class and how this work is then received in grade 1. The area is particularly interesting as there are few classroom-based studies that have examined this transition from an early literacy didactic perspective.Olofsson, SofieLund UniversityGreen future - Botanical Gardens focus on children and scienceOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Children and young people's time in nature has halved over the last 20 years. At the same time, their ability to understand and learn about it is deteriorating. They miss out on understanding how life is connected and how we are ultimately dependent on nature. This is at odds with the fact that the challenges of the future are largely environmental (climate change, sustainable consumption and globalization).One of the Botanical Garden's most important tasks is to inform and inspire people to learn more about nature. It is now planning an educational initiative aimed at children and young people. The project involves exhibitions, teaching and activities for all interested school children in 2015. The overall aim of the initiative is to increase children's interest in natural science.Andersson, TommyBronze Age tombsOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

During the ongoing documentation of the rock carvings in the Kiviksgraben, we have found several never before observed figures. We already know that the results will exceed our expectations. This has inspired us to also want to document the other 20 or so ancient sites with Bronze Age-type rock carvings that have been found in or on prehistoric graves in Sweden.Although the carved grave slabs have a prominent place in rock carving research and are of great importance for the chronology of rock carvings, most of the depictions are outdated or substandard. Many have not been documented since the beginning of the 20th century. We therefore believe that it is important that a professional and uniform documentation of all of Sweden's figurative carved grave slabs from the Bronze Age is carried out.Andersson, KentGödåker - a burial site from the Old Iron Age in Uppland.Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 20 000

The cemetery at Gödåker was investigated on various occasions during the 20th century and very remarkable graves and finds emerged. Despite its great significance for the understanding of Uppland and central Sweden during the period around 100 to 400 AD, the cemetery has never been published in its entirety. Instead, individual graves or finds have been discussed in smaller essays. In the book "Gödåker - an Uppland cemetery from the older Iron Age", this internationally and nationally significant material is published for the first time and analyzed in the light of modern research findings. Through a detailed analysis of the objects from the graves, it is possible to date the cemetery in a way that has never been done before and to link the objects to status groups. Using these analyses, it is possible to show that Gödåker is completely different from contemporary cemeteries in central Sweden. No cemetery has so many finds of Roman import objects and gold objects and the status continuity that has been demonstrated, which extends over about 300 years, is unparalleled in the region. The results of the analyses show that the grave field belonged to a settlement that was a regional center, perhaps a predecessor of Gamla Uppsala.In addition to the analyses of the objects from the graves, the book also contains an analysis of the graves, both the superstructures and the internal construction, a report on the osteological analysis of the bone content of the graves made especially for this publication, and a catalogue of all the graves.Nyberg, GudrunSisters of learned men - 18th centuryOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Sisters of Learned Men is an account of the lives of eight women in Sweden in the 18th century. The women are historical and chosen because their brothers were educated and successful. Facts about the women have been found in documents of many kinds, preserved since that time in various archives and libraries. The women were subject to certain common laws and customs, but met different fates in completely different environments: a priest's daughter in Piteå and Northern Ostrobothnia, three sisters in Åmål with links to the town's government and to the timber and iron trade, an academic's wife in Lund, and three noble sisters who grew up in Stockholm but were married and lived on small farms on the Uppsala plain.Since events in the lives of other women, such as their daughters and servants, have also been woven into the narrative, the stories together constitute a broad portrayal of women's conditions during this period. There are dramatic, comic, moving and tragic elements, and all are true. The manuscript is accompanied by 150 photographs of environments, objects and people, illustrating both the individual stories and the general styles of the period.Stolpe, JanDialogues of RousseauOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 30 000

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 'Rousseau juge de Jean Jacques. Dialogues' is probably the author's most unknown work, hardly read by anyone other than specialists. It was only translated into English in 1989. This 400-page work was written after Confessions and before The Dreams of a Solitary Wanderer, towards the end of the author's life, and describes in the form of dialogues how the author, who at that time was severely harassed by opponents, experienced his situation. Conspiratorial ideas are mixed with deep analysis of the struggle of a famous and acclaimed writer to be understood and perceived correctly. The work provides new perspectives on a peculiar and complex authorship.Larsson, DanielCholera - society, ideas and disaster in 1834Other2014

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

At the end of the 1810s, worrying reports began to emerge from Asia: a dreaded plague called cholera had begun to move out of its old territory around the Ganges delta. Just a decade later, it was clear that the disease was headed for Europe. People everywhere began to wonder how to protect themselves from the plague - a plague that seemed to kill everything in its path, and was completely new to the European medical profession. Did it spread from person to person? Or was it bad air, and more a matter of dirt and lack of morals that made people sick and dead? Did the quarantines not help? What steps were actually taken at a time when the existence of bacteria was not known?In this book, we follow the fight against cholera from a Swedish perspective. How they tried to build up protection, how the cholera nevertheless broke in, what was done once the cholera had gained a foothold, the debates about the quarantines, who died, what the care looked like and, not least, what ideas formed the basis for all this. The focus is on the first, most devastating epidemic in 1834, and for the first time in this book, the pathways of cholera have also been mapped in detail using GIS technology. Were some areas of the country worse affected than others? How did the plague actually spread?Nyström, BengtCeramics & porcelain in Sweden for 7 000 yearsOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 200 000

Ceramics & Porcelain in Sweden during 7,000 years is a scholarly, well-illustrated overview of interest to both the general public and universities. It should be cultural-historical and transnational ("ethno-archaeological", "ethno-art-historical") where, in addition to "development", the types of objects, production, technology, use, etc. are presented. This gives more aesthetic aspects to the prehistoric material, more functional aspects to the traditional art history.The book spans the early Neolithic to the modern period. The ceramics are described according to common periods that relate to both technical and aesthetic changes and fashions, e.g. German stoneware in the Middle Ages, Dutch faience in the 17th century, Wedgwood and other English influences from the end of the 18th century. The oldest prehistoric periods have indeed been depicted in archaeological contexts, but rarely in relation to later periods, e.g. the Middle Ages and "common" ceramics. Also new is Chinese porcelain and stoneware ordered with drawings from Sweden and how it has influenced Swedish ceramics to this day. There will also be sections on tiles and kilns, technical porcelain, building ceramics, etc. at various stages. Modern utility and art ceramics and ceramic design are described in two sections. A separate chapter presents the factories with signatures. A final chapter discusses which other materials ceramics have replaced and are being replaced by in our time.Hagberg, JohnnySkara Stiftshistoriska SällskapPrinters in medieval SwedenOther2014

Amount granted: 125 000 SEK

Swedish and foreign archives contain a number of medieval diplomas, letters and other documents where scribes have imprinted text. Some of these have been known and their identity has been established, but many have of course remained unknown until now. Among the known scribes are Birgitta Birgersdotter, Bishop Hans Brask, Birgitta's confessor Peter Olofsson of Skänninge and Bishop Henrik Tidemansson. Many scribes have been linked to various monasteries and convents.Through great expertise and diligence, Per-Axel Wiktorsson, professor emeritus of the Swedish language and associate professor of Nordic languages at Uppsala University, has now been able to identify 934 of the medieval Swedish scribes. This is a 30-year collection period that Wiktorsson has spent time analyzing the writing styles of these scribes. Based on eight letters, Wiktorsson tries to analyze the writing style. The letters selected are: g, w-, æ, ø, y, -n, k and h. At least in diplomas, the letters in the first line often show a different design. For this reason, letters have primarily been chosen from the following lines of the diplomas. Hereafter, some forms of writing are given, which may tell us something about the language of the writer. Where possible, it is also indicated how the scribe wrote his own name. Finally, some sources for our knowledge of each scribe are mentioned.Wiktorsson defended his doctoral thesis in 1976 on Södermannalagen's B-handwriting and has published a number of linguistic works. He published a new edition of Äldre Västgötalagen in 2011.Rydinger Alin, CeciliaRoyal College of Music in StockholmBuilding for the future - technical resources for research and educationOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 250 000

KMH is facing major challenges. The global landscape for music production and consumption is undergoing rapid transformation, with partly new demands on music experiences and their development. KMH intends to use its own and the Swedish music industry's internationally strong position to become an important force in the transformation. This applies not least to a strategic investment in infrastructure for research and education in the form of modern and appropriately built premises, which create the conditions for researchers, teachers and students to conduct a developed and future-oriented activity unlike any other music school in Sweden today. For this purpose, KMH is building a new campus area in central Stockholm.The campus area will be a new home for music and a cultural nexus for Stockholm, but also a central point for high-tech music research in Sweden and northern Europe. The advanced and dynamic spaces in the future studio complex and concert halls point to a modern concept with variable acoustics, flexible audience areas and high-tech audiovisual solutions - designed for research and musical performances.KMH's new premises will contribute to the possibility of exploring new aspects of the expanding field of interaction between live music and mediated/recorded music. This exploration also goes beyond the traditional focus on music production as it also includes research on perception: the listener's relationship to the music.Ulväng, GöranJournal of urban historySupport for Bebyggelsehistorisk magazineOther2014

Amount granted: SEK 50 000

Bebyggelsehistorisk Tidskrift (BHT), the leading Nordic journal in the field of building history and a forum for scientific exchange between disciplines such as art history, architectural history, agricultural history, economic history, cultural geography, history, archaeology, ethnology, and park and garden history. The journal is peer-reviewed and is Open Access. Each issue is published, with a six-month delay, in digital format on the website and is indexed in EBSCO.BHT is one of the journals that has long received support from the Swedish Research Council (VR), but the support was withdrawn at short notice in December last year. The annual support from VR has amounted to between 165 000 and 200 000 SEK. Since then, the board has taken a number of measures to save BHT, including raising the subscription price and increasing the number of subscribers from 230 to 300. The aim is to have 500 subscribers across the Nordic region within three years, which would make BHT less dependent on external funding. BHT has previously received a grant of SEK 150,000 from Handelsbanken's research foundations to be used for a period of three years, and has a promise of a grant of the same size from the Swedish Fire Insurance Agency's foundation.The support from the Torsten Söderberg Foundation secures the 2015 publication.Tegnér, JesperKarolinska InstituteTGF-β, RAPA and IL23 Dependent Regulatory Circuits in Human TH17 Cells and Induced Tregulatory CellsMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Patient-oriented research has clearly shown that the risk of getting another disease increases when the patient already has a disease. This has been demonstrated not least by Swedish registry research. Since the sequencing of the human genome in 2000, a very large number of genetic studies have been carried out and today we know that over 1000 different genetic DNA variants in the genome can be associated with various common diseases. An interesting finding in these studies is that several diseases share genetic variants, which suggests that different diseases may have similar biological mechanisms where especially immune-related genes recur. In the last 5-10 years, there has been an explosive development in translational cellular immunology where the adaptive immune system controls the development of diseases such as MS, RA, CVD, psoriasis, various cancers and gastrointestinal diseases. Several phase III studies are therefore underway where drugs that attack specific cellular mechanisms of these so-called TH17 and Treg cells in the adaptive immune system. There are also drugs on the market today that affect these cells' production of various inflammation-inducing cytokinins. In our project, we intend to experimentally map key signaling pathways in humans in these two cell types using new powerful genomic techniques closely linked to bioinformatic analysis. The clinical relevance is that we will be able to identify new selective mechanisms that intervene in the inflammation and also find new biomarkers.Zierath, JuleenKarolinska InstituteHow genes and environment affect insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in diabetesMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a strong resistance of the body's tissues to the hormone insulin and a reduced production of insulin by the pancreas. Both hereditary and lifestyle factors can cause insulin resistance but these factors are not yet understood. We will identify genes and proteins that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle, the largest tissue in the body, as well as mechanisms for how the genes may be affected by lifestyle factors. By unbiasedly investigating two different processes for how the environment can affect the genes, we can find genes that contribute to insulin resistance in the cells through the influence of lifestyle factors. The two processes we will focus on are so-called epigenetic changes of DNA (DNA methylation) and microRNA. By looking at all the DNA methylations that occur in insulin resistance, we can find the genes that are affected. In addition, we will scan all microRNA (miRNA) changes in insulin resistance to understand the role of these genes in the development of type 2 diabetes. Finally, we will validate the new genes identified above by investigating their function on insulin sensitivity in mouse models of Type 2 diabetes. Information on which genes are affected will enable future development of new drugs as well as new dietary and exercise programs to treat and prevent the onset of Type 2 diabetes.Svensson, TorgnyKarolinska InstituteDeveloping more effective drugs for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressionMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

The project aims to develop new and improved medicines for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, estimated by the EU as some of the most costly diseases for both society and patients, which is of key importance for psychiatry as current medicines are far from optimal and have a number of undesirable side effects. The research is based on extremely urgent clinical problems and aims to identify, using advanced basic science methodology and selective pharmacological tools, new targets for drugs that can be used in psychosis and bipolar disorder as well as in major depression. This includes some new antipsychotic drugs, such as asenapine, but also so-called allosteric AMPA receptor potentiators and glycine uptake inhibitors, as well as direct and indirect nicotinic alpha7 receptor agonists, which have recently been shown to have therapeutic effects in schizophrenic patients. Our research can stimulate drug development in the field that is currently losing momentum, not least in Sweden. The results have been met with great interest both among psychiatrists and the international pharmaceutical industry.Söderberg Nauclér, CeciliaKarolinska InstituteStudies on a new cytomegalovirus (CMV) for tumorigenesis, new treatment strategies in sight?Medicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

New evidence suggests that a virus, cytomeglaovirus (CMV), can be detected in several different tumors such as brain tumors, neuroblastoma, breast, colon and prostate cancer. We also find the virus in metastases from these tumors, but not in healthy tissue surrounding the tumor cells, suggesting that CMV plays an important role in the development of these tumors. Recently, we discovered that it is not the usual form of CMV that is found in tumors, but instead a new CMV variant that is detected in 90-100% of said tumors. We believe that the new CMV variant can play a significant role in tumor development, and that therapies targeting this virus in the future will hopefully be able to be used to improve existing cancer treatment as it may be able to target the root cause of the tumor. Our experience today shows that brain tumors treated with anti-CMV drugs have a significantly improved survival two years after diagnosis, indicating that this strategy may be possible in the future. In this project we will characterize the new CMV strain, identify new biomarkers for the virus for clinical diagnostics and we intend to develop new treatment strategies for CMV positive cancers.Svensson, MikaelKarolinska InstituteRepair of damaged spinal cord with peripheral nerve grafts and transplantation of stem/progenitor cellsMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 500 000

The aim of this project is to link basic research to clinical applications that benefit patients with neurological injuries. Our group is well positioned to study human stem cells from adult patients' brains through the organization and lab resources we have built up over the last 10 years. How can we use this knowledge of our nervous system and, more importantly, transfer it to our patients? We have chosen to focus on spinal cord injury where the need for scientific success is high. In a recent article published in Cell Transplantation, we have shown that stem cells can be transplanted into the nervous system with some success where these immature cells form new neurons and synaptic connections. In addition to stem cell transplantation, we have revisited the idea of repairing an injured spinal cord by bridging the area of injury with peripheral nerve grafts. We have shown that nerve fibers can be made to grow past (regenerate) the damaged area through these grafts. Using neurophysiology (motor evoked potentials), we have shown that after 3 months the regeneration establishes contact between the cortex and lower limb muscles. These studies have now led to a clinical trial where patients with spinal cord injury will be operated on using this technique starting in 2013.Nordquist-Brandt, ElisabethSahlgrenska University HospitalInvestigation of new clinical potential of the monoamine stabilizing substance OSU6162Medicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

OSU6162 is a drug developed by Professor Arvid Carlsson. The pharmacological action has been characterized as dopamine- and serotonin-stabilizing with beneficial effects in neuropsychiatric diseases. OSU6162 has also been shown to be almost free of side effects. In relatively recent treatment trials, it was somewhat surprisingly observed that the preparation had a significant and positive clinical effect on mental fatigue. In a double-blind cross-over study in 12 patients with mental fatigue triggered by stroke or traumatic brain injury, a significant effect was seen, which in some patients was quite dramatic. Extended open clinical trials to study the safety and long-term efficacy of OSU6162 are now planned. The optimal dosage of the drug and the side effect profile of the drug will also be further studied. These studies may include patients with different diagnoses, as previously studied in placebo-controlled trials with OSU6162. There are theoretical reasons for assuming that OSU6162 can counteract various symptoms of narcolepsy and thus replace the currently dominant but problematic central stimulants. Twelve patients with narcolepsy are planned to be included in a randomized double-blind cross-over comparison with placebo. Efficacy will be evaluated using rating scales and self-reporting of symptoms.Normark, StaffanKungl. Academy of SciencesFunds for the creation of an additional Academy Chair in MedicineMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 10 163 000

The Torsten Söderberg Foundation and the Ragnar Söderberg Foundation are currently funding five research professorships in medicine and the Torsten Söderberg Foundation is itself funding an academic professorship (currently being filled) in medicine at the level of SEK 2 million per year for five years. There is a great need for this type of research position, where proven outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further strengthen and develop their research, in order to further strengthen Swedish research in the light of international developments. The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis is placed on research carried out during the last five-year period. The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed. This grant will allow an additional five-year academic chair to be filled in 2013.Steensland, PiaKarolinska InstituteEvaluation of the dopamine stabilizer OSU6162 as a new medicine for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Medicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 986 000

Alcohol addiction is classified as a disease - but effective treatment is lacking. The need for new drugs is great. We have the necessary expertise to bridge the gap between basic research and clinical practice and thus accelerate drug development. One challenge in treating alcohol dependence is to prevent relapse, which is driven by a strong craving for alcohol that persists even after long-term sobriety. The ability to resist these cravings is also limited, as alcohol-dependent people have impaired impulse control. Dopamine increases when you drink alcohol - you feel intoxicated. However, with repeated intoxication, dopamine levels decrease, creating discomfort - a strong craving for alcohol - which can drive alcohol-dependent individuals to start drinking again. Dopamine is also involved in impaired impulse control. The dopamine system is therefore a possible target for new drugs for alcohol dependence. Dopamine stabilizers are a new group of drugs (developed by Nobel Prize winner Arvid Carlsson) that can normalize dopamine levels in the brain. This is sought after in the effective treatment of alcohol dependence. Our results show that the dopamine stabilizer OSU6162 reduces alcohol intake and relapse drinking in rats. We will now study how OSU6162 affects the release of dopamine in the brain and whether OSU6162 itself is addictive. We will also study for the first time whether OSU6162 can reduce alcohol cravings and improve impulse control in alcohol-dependent humans.Li, Jia-YiLund UniversityAssessment of far-reaching spread of Parkinson's pathology in Parkinson's diseaseMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 3 000 000

Recently, we have shown that transplanted fetal dopamine-producing neurons develop Lewy body pathology more than 10 years after surgery in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting the spread of disease from the host environment to the transplanted cells. Evidence also shows that the progression of Lewy body pathology occurs in anatomically interconnected nerves and that these susceptible neurons are not neurotransmitter-dependent, suggesting long-distance transport of the diseased protein, alpha-synuclein (a-syn) and its aggregates, Lewy bodies and Lewy neuron protrusions. However, these hypotheses have not yet been tested. Our hypothesis is that a-syn oligomers and fibrils are central to the long-distance spread of Lewy body pathology. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, in combination with imaging techniques to study living cells and biochemical processes, we will address two key questions about how PS can spread: (i) Whether, and if so how, oligomeric and fibrillar a-syn are transported via antero- and/or retrograde transport within the neuron, and (ii) Whether, and how, these a-syn species can be transported between neurons. Successful demonstration of the patterns and underlying mechanisms of long-range spread of Lewy body pathology in nerves will open new avenues to identify novel targets to intervene in PS pathogenesis and slow, or stop, the progression of the disease.Liljeqvist, Jan-ÅkeSahlgrenska AcademyDevelopment of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 infectionMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 3 000 000

There is an urgent need for a vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Firstly because HSV-2 is the most common sexually transmitted infection with >500 million infected individuals globally, and secondly because HSV-2 infection greatly increases the risk of HIV transmission. We have shown that HSV-2 glycoprotein G (gG-2) is necessary for HSV-2 to spread to the nervous system after genital infection and that gG-2 together with adjuvant provides good protection as a vaccine in a mouse model. The aim of the project is to present a new vaccine concept against HSV-2 infection based on gG-2. We will now optimize the process for large-scale production of gG-2 with a view to toxicological studies prior to phase I studies in humans. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects will be studied in an additional animal model, different adjuvants will be evaluated and immunological mechanisms will be mapped to understand why gG-2 provides protection during vaccination. The project has good prospects for successful continuation with support from several stakeholders such as the Swedish Research Council, VINNOVA, Innovationsbron, Novo Nordic A/S and GöteborgBIO.Lundberg, JonKarolinska InstituteThe importance of diet and oral flora for the cardiovascular system and metabolismMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 4 000 000

Nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter produced in the body by specific enzymes which, among other things, contributes to a healthy cardiovascular system and regulates metabolism. Reduced production of NO is a contributing factor to the development of atherosclerosis, high blood pressure and age-related diabetes. We have discovered an alternative mode of NO formation where the inorganic ion nitrate (NO3-) is reduced to NO. Nitrate is formed naturally in the body as a residual NO product but is also abundant in our diet, mainly in green leafy vegetables. Oral bacteria play an unexpected key role in NO formation by reducing nitrate accumulated in saliva to the more reactive nitrite ion (NO2-). Nitrite is then absorbed into the body where numerous enzymes can reduce it further to NO. The project aims to study the role of oral bacteria and our diet in the formation of NO and how this affects the body in health and disease. Researchers' view of our oral bacteria has been permeated by a negative image over the years. These bacteria are thought to be responsible for everything from trivial problems such as bad breath and tooth decay to more serious diseases such as tooth loss and cancer. We hope to show that parts of the oral flora are instead of great benefit and can help form an important neurotransmitter. In this way, the naturally high nitrate content of vegetables may contribute to the well-known beneficial effects of these foods on the cardiovascular system.Johansson, JanKarolinska InstituteMechanisms of BRICHOS protein aggregation prevention and treatment potential in Alzheimer's diseaseMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 500 000

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, which causes impaired memory, attention and language comprehension due to the loss of nerve cells. One of the reasons why nerve cells shrink is that a small protein, called beta-amyloid or Abeta, changes and begins to clump together into plaques of amyloid. There seems to be something in the process where Abeta goes from a healthy protein to amyloid plaques that are toxic to nerve cells. "We study a protein part called BRICHOS, which has been found in many different proteins, including the brain. BRICHOS has been shown to effectively prevent Abeta from clumping together to form amyloid. This makes administration of BRICHOS or activation of the body's own BRICHOS completely new possible treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease. We will now further study how BRICHOS affects Abeta and how it can prevent Abeta from becoming toxic to neurons. So far, we have used experiments in test tubes, cultured cells and fruit flies. Fruit flies are used as a model to study whether BRICHOS can prevent Abeta from becoming toxic in a living brain, and our preliminary results are very promising. BRICHOS prevents aggregation of Abeta and counteracts impaired neuronal function. Therefore, we now want to further study how to administer BRICHOS to the brain, and how well BRICHOS prevents Abeta aggregation and toxicity in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.Jonsson, Ann-BethStockholm UniversityBacteria-host interplay during disease progressionMedicine2012

Amount awarded: SEK 2 250 000

Infectious diseases kill millions of people every year. This project maps how bacteria that cause meningitis, sepsis and cancer interact with host cells. By understanding critical steps in the disease process, we aim to develop new ways to treat, cure and prevent these diseases. The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance makes it increasingly urgent and pressing to find new medicines for bacterial infections. The bacterium Helicobacter can cause gastritis, ulcers and eventually cancer. We have found a substance that specifically attacks the disease-causing functions of the bacterium. We want to develop this compound to go into clinical trials and test this as a new treatment method and a future alternative to antibiotics. Other serious bacterial diseases include blood poisoning and meningitis, which are dreaded medical emergencies. Still, mortality rates are as high as 15-50% according to various studies, which is due to the fact that the infection caused general activation of the inflammatory and coagulation systems. By mapping the infection, we have found new receptors and signaling pathways used by the bacteria. At the same time, the immune system needs to be characterized, as mortality is often due to the bacteria overstimulating our immune system. An important part of the project is to find new ways to influence these systems so that the disease process can be stopped.Kettunen, PetronellaSahlgrenska AcademyMechanisms of amyloid-induced memory impairment and neurodegenerationMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 750 000

We have developed the first functional zebrafish model of memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These "demented" fish have lost their ability to learn a simple escape behavior after injection of amyloid β, Aβ, into the brain. In Aβ-treated animals, there is also increased neuronal death and inhibition of caspases and p53 indicates that the learning problems are caused by cell death. We have also observed colocalization of fluorescent Aβ in dead neurons and microglia in vivo. Furthermore, we have injected fish with brain extracts from Alzheimer's patients and patients without dementia. Animals injected with AD brain cannot learn, while those injected with healthy brain have normal learning. This is the first time it has been shown that memory problems can be induced by brain extracts from AD patients. We are now further investigating how Aβ leads to neurodegeneration. We follow the formation of plaques, how neurons are killed and how microglia interact with the plaques. Important genes for disease progression are knocked out and learning ability/cell survival is measured. An interesting finding is that the learning ability in Aβ-injected animals returns after a few days, as previously observed in rodents. We believe that the mechanisms, such as clearance or regeneration, could form the basis for future patient treatment. We will also use the new model to screen future drugs and rapidly test genetic and clinical findings from patient material.Eriksson, KristinaSahlgrenska AcademyHow does the natural immune system work in the placenta and newborn during a viral infection?Medicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Newborn babies are highly susceptible to infection because their immune systems do not function as well as those of older children and adults. Children infected at or shortly after birth have much more serious infections, resulting in one million newborns dying each year from infection. The hypothesis is that the newborn's immune system is adapted to survive the fetal period, and that a more well-functioning immune system in the fetus would lead to spontaneous abortion. The aim of the project is to investigate why newborn babies have such a severe disease course when infected with the herpes virus, and whether this is linked to fetal survival in the womb. We are investigating how white blood cells from newborn babies work and how they react when they come into contact with the virus, and comparing this with how cells from adults react. We will also study whether white blood cells can be involved in preterm birth, i.e. premature babies. We do this in the placenta, the part of the uterus that protects the baby from infections and from being attacked by the mother's immune cells. We hope that these studies will enable us to prevent/treat preterm birth and severe herpes virus infections in newborns.Hansson, Gunnar C.Sahlgrenska AcademyDefects in the inner mucus layer of the colon in ulcerative colitisMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Our hypothesis, contrary to the prevailing models, is that the disease ulcerative colitis is due to defects in the inner mucosal layer of the colon that allow bacteria to penetrate it and trigger an inflammatory reaction when the bacteria reach the epithelial cells. We will now go on to examine the molecules and the changes they undergo in the large intestine so that the mucus first forms a dense mucus layer, sticks, then loosens and expands in volume and becomes a home for all the bacteria in the gut. Most of these events take place around the MUC2 mucin, which will be altered by cutting it in different places. Besides MUC2, there are many other proteins that we think or know are important for the proper functioning of the inner mucus layer. There are probably many different reasons why this inner mucus layer can fail, ranging from genetic defects in the MUC2 mucin to particularly aggressive bacteria that form, just as we have shown for a parasite, enzymes that can cause the inner mucus layer to break down. We will now collect material from a large number of patients with ulcerative colitis. In this material we will look for mutations in MUC2 and other interesting proteins, measure mucus thickness and especially mucus permeability. We will look at the composition of the mucus both by analyzing which genes are expressed and which proteins are present (proteomics) and study which bacteria are present and which proteins they produce.Eriksson, Lars IngvarKarolinska InstituteRespiration and cognition after anesthesia and surgeryMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

The project describes the mechanisms behind serious complications in respiratory and brain functions after anesthesia, and how we will create new treatment methods and safer care after surgery/trauma in adults and children in the future. We study the most common causes of serious incidents and long-term effects after anesthesia, surgery and intensive care, namely disturbances in respiratory regulation in case of oxygen deficiency and consciousness and cognitive ability. Serious adverse events after anesthesia/surgery due to disturbances in respiration, consciousness or cognitive functions can be explained by interactions with vital signaling pathways in respiratory control and the nervous system. With unique analyses of human oxygen-sensitive cells, we can describe central and peripheral regulation of respiration and how this regulation is affected by anesthesia and surgery. In animal and cell models, we further map the body's natural response to surgery/trauma and how we can use specific neurotransmitters to prevent postoperative cognitive disorders and dementia. We have built up advanced cellular and molecular biological research methodologies as well as physiological measurements in humans, anesthetized animals and individual cells to map in detail the effects of anesthetics on key functions behind the regulation of breathing, consciousness and cognition. This project increases knowledge of these regulatory systems and how they are affected by anesthesia and intensive care and has already created new routines for postoperative care both nationally and internationally.Flower, AnnaLund UniversityStrategies developed by pathogenic bacteria to outsmart the human complement systemMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 4 000 000

Infectious diseases are a global problem and about a third of total deaths are related to infections. Despite the successful development of antimicrobials in the 20th century, there has been a dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance in recent years. In order to develop new prophylactic methods and treatment strategies, it is essential to understand how pathogenic bacteria can manipulate the immune system.Any successful pathogen must avoid and defend itself against the complement system, a key component of the innate immune system, and develop mechanisms that allow the microbe to survive, colonize and, in the worst case, invade the host. The overall goals of the project are to increase the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of microbial survival and find new therapeutic opportunities. We will highlight how bacteria can avoid attacks from the complement system by hijacking human or producing their own complement inhibitors and how they use complement receptors to attach to and invade epithelial cells. We will focus on respiratory pathogens such as streptococci. In addition, studies are planned to investigate the role of periodontal bacterial pathogens in the development of rheumatoid arthritis as such association is evident in epidemiologic studies.Cao, YihaiKarolinska InstituteTranslational research of anti-angiogenesis in cancer therapyMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 4 000 000

Several common cancer drugs based on antiangiogenesis have become key components in the treatment of patients with different types of cancer. While antiangiogenic drugs in combination with chemotherapy significantly improve patient survival, the clinical benefits of antiangiogenic therapy alone remain modest. There are a number of still unresolved clinically related fundamental questions. Why does only combination therapy produce positive effects in patients? Why do patients become resistant to antiangiogenic therapy? How can we optimize existing treatments to maximize clinical benefits? Which biomarkers predict clinical benefit? In this research project, we seek to understand the basic mechanisms of antiangiogenic cancer therapy and translate our preclinical findings into clinical use to improve antiangiogenic cancer treatment. We will use different preclinical models to approach these clinically relevant questions. We also study the role of angiogenesis in cancer metastasis. In particular, we are interested in studying changes in vascular structures that facilitate tumor spread, invasion and metastasis. We will continue to study lymphangiogenesis, which is important as many tumors spread via the lymphatic system. Overall, our research program is translational in nature and the results generated by our research will benefit millions of cancer patients.Berghard, AnnaUmeå UniversityEstablishing a nerve and the olfactory nerve as a model for nerve-brain barrier healingMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 495 000

Our research has helped to show the connection between the development of the olfactory nerve and so-called GnRH cells (gonadotropin-releasing hormone cells). If the development of the olfactory nerve is disrupted, GnRH cells do not reach their final location near the pituitary gland. GnRH cells regulate sexual development and fertility, which cannot occur if this developmental stage shows a high degree of disruption. It is unusual combinations of genetic changes that underlie the disorders, which is in line with our working hypothesis that it is the interaction between many different types of cells that is involved in establishing a nerve. We address whether the so-called nerve-brain barrier cells participate in nerve establishment. The project is expected to show which precise step(s) in the formation of the olfactory nerve fails and thus causes lack of GnRH.By using the olfactory nerve as a model, new information is also expected on how nerve cell axons interact with a number of other, relatively little studied cell types to form and maintain the nerve-brain barrier. Nerves connect the periphery and the brain, making it important to know how the barrier allows axon passage but is not permeable to e.g. infectious agents, metastatic cells or toxic substances. Little is known about the cells of the barrier and how they are affected by nerve damage. The area around the olfactory nerve also contains an area for drainage of the fluid produced in the brain, making the healing process of the nerve-brain barrier in this area important to understand.Alftberg, ÅsaLund UniversityThe ideal and practice of medication. An ethnological study of older people's use of medicines.Medicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 151 500

Older people today use many medicines. Their use has increased significantly over the last twenty years. This is partly because new medicines have been introduced and can now be used for treatment, but also because ageing has been medicalized as a condition that should be treated. But medicines do not only have biological effects, they also have social and cultural consequences that affect people's daily lives. The focus of this study is on how the individual uses the medicine, how the medication is administered and what meaning and significance the medication creates. What norms, cultural beliefs and practices does medication require to be taken into account? How is the individual's identity ultimately affected? The aim of the study is to provide knowledge about the complex relationship between the ideals and practice of medication, i.e. the relationship between the prescription, how the medicine is intended to be used, and how it is actually handled. The study is based on people aged 80 and over living in their usual homes.Arner, PeterKarolinska InstituteThe turnover of fat cells and their fat content in humans. Mechanisms and clinical significanceMedicine2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Reduced resistance to the hormone insulin (insulin resistance) can cause the most common form of diabetes (type 2 diabetes) and other common conditions. We have long been investigating the role of adipose tissue in insulin resistance in humans. We have shown that the turnover of fat cells (formation and death) and their fat content (uptake and release) are important and that this is regulated by inflammation in the adipose tissue. Part of the project addresses the mechanisms behind these findings. It is also known that the adipose tissue forms a large number of different adipokines that are released into the circulation. We believe that several of these >600 adipokines may affect insulin sensitivity. The application also aims to define these candidates for insulin resistance and their regulation. The project may provide new treatments for type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as well as being used for preventive treatment.Rudin, AnnaSahlgrenska AcademyThe role of regulatory T cells and gut bacteria in reducing allergy riskMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

The allergic immune response is almost always established in childhood. Allergies result from an over-reaction to harmless proteins in allergens to which the immune system is not supposed to react and are due to a defective number or function of regulatory T-cells. These T cells can be stimulated by the normal flora in the gut and it is thought that an altered gut flora early in life is a cause of poorer regulation of the immune response to allergens. The project follows children from birth to six years of age to study the relationship between gut microbiota, regulatory T cells and allergic immune response and disease. This is a unique project as it is prospective and a collaboration between immunologists, bacteriologists and pediatric allergists. Preliminary data show an association between a type of bacterium in the gut early in life and increased numbers of regulatory T cells, and an association between increased numbers of regulatory T cells and allergic disease. The aim of the project is to find support for administering a killed bacterium or bacterial product on the intestinal mucosa early in life to prevent the development of allergic disease.Wold, AgnesSahlgrenska AcademyNew strategies to curb the allergy epidemicMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Allergy is the most common chronic disease among children and young adults in Sweden today. Allergies are almost non-existent among the population in poor countries and among children who have grown up on farms with animal husbandry. In this project we investigate which lifestyle and environmental factors are associated with protection against allergy development. Our aim is to provide a science-based strategy to protect future children from developing allergy. In particular, we are focusing on three approaches: - Stimulation of the child's immune system through natural exposure to a complex oral flora - Intake of fats that dampen the immune system's propensity to induce allergic immune responses - Development of an allergy 'vaccine' based on bacterial 'superantigens' that stimulate the infant's immature immune system and support tolerance development. Our studies are based on carefully monitored birth cohorts where lifestyle factors, diet, gut flora and immune responses are registered and analyzed in relation to allergy development, as well as relevant animal models to study the active mechanisms. We believe that our approach can lead to the development of effective strategies to curb the allergy epidemic that plagues the Western world and also affects the population in countries where economic development is accelerating and living conditions are improving.Marklund, StefanUmeå UniversityNeurotoxicity of superoxide dismutase-1 and other causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)Medicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 4 500 000

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the motor nerve cells that control the body's muscles die. The most common cause is inherited mutations in the protein superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), which is found in 6% of cases. We have recently presented evidence that normal SOD1 is also involved in the majority of ALS cases that lack mutations. The project aims to investigate this link further to understand the factors that trigger the disease. The studies are based, among other things, on transgenic mice that develop ALS during production of human SOD1 in the spinal cord. Complementary studies are focused on ALS patients without SOD1 mutations, and on patients with the related disease frontal lobe dementia. A second goal is to clarify how SOD1 causes ALS at the molecular level. Aggregation of SOD1 in neurons is central to the disease. We see that SOD1 aggregates are of two different types, depending on the mutation, and that ALS pathology differs between these aggregates. This link between aggregate type and pathology is found in the infectious prion diseases. We will now investigate whether the SOD1 aggregates can spread the disease via injection in the nervous system of transgenic mice with varying genetic backgrounds. Furthermore, we will map at the atomic level how the aggregates arise inside living human cells with newly developed strategies based on NMR. The goal is to identify suitable targets in SOD1 for targeted therapy with antibodies, which, by inhibiting aggregation, slow or prevent the spread of the disease in the nervous system.Normark, StaffanKungl. Academy of SciencesTorsten Söderberg Research Chair in MedicineMedicine2011

Amount awarded: SEK 10 000 000

There is a great need for this type of research position, where proven outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further strengthen and develop their research, in order to further strengthen Swedish research in the light of international developments. This research professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis is placed on research carried out during the last five-year period. The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed.Poellinger, LorenzKarolinska InstituteDevelopment of new therapeutic strategies for vascular regeneration in ischemic tissuesMedicine2011

Amount granted: 650 000 SEK

The research concerns a protein that detects low oxygen levels in a tissue. When oxygen levels are low, such as in the heart in the case of atherosclerosis, the function of this protein is activated, and it will activate genes that are important for the formation of new blood vessels (to increase oxygen supply) and for adapting the tissue's metabolism to the low oxygen levels. The latter is important for the exposed tissue's ability to survive the oxygen starvation. In this project, we want to use the protein that detects low oxygen levels to increase vascular regeneration in heart muscle or brain that is exposed to low oxygen levels due to reduced blood supply. In contrast to single growth factor therapies (which have a limited effect), this system represents a promising new approach to restore the oxygen balance in the diseased tissue. In detailed molecular studies, we will try to develop techniques to effectively activate the oxygen-sensitive protein, thus keeping an oxygen-starved heart cell (or brain cell in the case of stroke) alive. We will also investigate how different genes will be regulated when cardiovascular tissues are exposed to low levels of oxygen, e.g. in models of peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis and increased blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation. The project will provide important knowledge to increase vascular regeneration and exert positive effects on metabolism in tissues exposed to low oxygen levels (ischemia).Larsson, JonasLund UniversityDevelopment of new methods for blood stem cell expansion - implications for cell therapy in hematological diseasesMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 700 000

The aim of the research is to identify and characterize genes that regulate the growth of blood stem cells. It is the blood stem cells that are responsible for the regeneration of the blood system during bone marrow transplantation. This is a life-saving treatment for thousands of blood cancer patients every year. Unfortunately, a large number of patients are still unable to receive this treatment due to insufficient stem cells. It is therefore essential to find ways to make stem cells multiply before transplantation. A large number of research groups around the world have been working on this for a long time without much success and we currently know very little about the mechanisms that regulate the growth of blood stem cells. We have developed a genetic screening method based on so-called RNA interference (RNAi) that makes it possible to systematically inhibit the function of thousands of genes in hematopoietic stem cells and then study how this affects the growth of the stem cells. In our experiments with this method, we have succeeded in identifying several genes that can be inhibited to increase stem cell growth. In parallel with new screening experiments, we are now studying some of these genes in detail to understand how they affect stem cell function and whether they can be exploited to propagate blood stem cells outside the body under clinically relevant conditions.Liljeqvist, Jan-ÅkeUniversity of GothenburgDevelopment of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 infectionMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 200 000

There is an urgent need for a vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Firstly, because HSV-2 is the most common sexually transmitted infection with >500 million infected individuals globally, and secondly because HSV-2 infection greatly increases the risk of HIV transmission. We have shown that HSV-2 glycoprotein G (gG-2) is necessary for HSV-2 to spread to the nervous system after genital infection and that gG-2 together with adjuvant provides good protection as a vaccine in a mouse model. The project aims to present a new vaccine concept against HSV-2 infection based on gG-2. Now, prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy will be studied in an additional animal model and immunological mechanisms will be mapped to understand why gG-2 provides protection during vaccination. The project has good prospects for successful continuation with support from several stakeholders such as the Swedish Research Council, VINNOVA, Innovationsbron AB, Novo Nordic A/S and Göteborg BIO.Kisessling, RolfKarolinska InstituteImmunotherapy of cancer with genetically modified T cellsMedicine2011

Amount granted: 650 000 SEK

Cancer immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells. With several breakthroughs in basic immunological research, we are on the verge of a new generation of cancer therapies. There is now potential to develop immunotherapy based on well-defined molecules expressed on cancer cells and on the immunologically active white blood cells. Recent results show that immunotherapy can have a clinical impact, prolonging life and activating the immune system in a proportion of patients with severe cancer. However, methods need to be improved as only a proportion of patients respond to these treatments. Therefore, the aim of the research is to transfer the knowledge of modern immunology into clinically useful treatments for cancer, in close collaboration between researchers at Cancer Center Karolinska, doctors at Radiumhemmet and other research groups in the EU. A current series of experiments is testing whether white blood cells, known as lymphocytes, can be altered by modern genetic methods and thus manipulated to fight the patient's cancer cells. The method has already shown promising but preliminary results in the treatment of malignant melanoma, and it will be investigated whether it also works in patients with other types of cancerous tumors. The studies are carried out in collaboration with several other European laboratories.Karlsson, MikaelKarolinska InstituteRegulation of B cells in inflammatory diseasesMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 200 000

Our immune system protects us from infections and the inflammatory response resulting from its activation is designed to fight the infection and then restore the balance in the body. In autoimmune disease, this balance is disrupted and the inflammatory process goes out of control and instead participates in the destruction of different tissues depending on the disease. A key component of this misguided immune response is B cells, which usually produce antibodies against viruses and bacteria. The importance of these cells has been highlighted recently as a treatment that knocks them out (rituximab) has been effective in a number of rheumatic diseases. It has been known that the rheumatic disease SLE is linked to cardiovascular disease. In this project we investigate the mechanisms behind this link with a focus on the B-cell. The goal is to find new markers that can predict whether SLE patients will develop cardiovascular complications and to find methods to control B cells so that their beneficial properties are utilized in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.Karpman, DianaLund UniversityBacterial virulence factors, innate immunity and prothrombotic mechanisms in kidney diseaseMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 4 000 000

Chronic kidney disease often leads to kidney failure. We study four kidney diseases: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP), vasculitis and IgA nephropathy. HUS is characterized by low platelets, anemia and acute renal failure. There are two variants. Typical HUS is caused by intestinal infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) bacteria. There was a very large outbreak in Europe in May-June 2011. Atypical HUS is associated with gene mutations in complement proteins, part of the innate defense system. This activates the complement system and attacks the body's own cells. TTP involves a mutation in ADAMTS13, a plasma enzyme that cleaves von Willebrand factor within the blood's delivery system. This leads to the formation of blood clots. TTP patients have the same symptoms as HUS including fever and neurological symptoms. Vasculitis is characterized by inflammation of blood vessels that affects the blood supply to several organs, especially the kidneys. The cause is unknown but the body's own white blood cells and the immune system play a crucial role. IgA nephropathy is the most common form of kidney inflammation in the Western world. It can be triggered by upper respiratory tract infections. Our studies aim to identify the molecular mechanisms behind these diseases, both bacterial and host factors. We aim to map how the body's cells are affected, how blood cells are activated and vessels are damaged, in order to develop specific treatments that are currently lacking.Holmdahl, RikardKarolinska InstituteFrom genes and disease mechanisms to treatments for rheumatoid arthritisMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Chronic inflammation appears to be a contributing factor in a number of major diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). No preventive or curative treatment is yet available for RA or other chronic inflammatory diseases. We study experimental animal models with similar diseases to humans. These animal models allow us not only to identify the disease genes but also to study how they work. We will humanize the animal models so that we can directly study the genes identified in RA in an experimental model. Thus, we can also use these experimental animal models to investigate entirely new principles and new drugs to prevent and cure disease. We are concentrating on developing a) a new type of immune-specific vaccine against RA, b) a new type of diagnostic method where a large number of antibodies in serum can be simultaneously analyzed, c) a new type of treatment with oxidants developed on the basis of our genetic findings.Cao, YihaiKarolinska InstituteCold-induced lipolysis and angiogenesis significantly contribute to development of cardiovascular diseaseMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Coronary heart disease (CHD) caused by atherosclerosis is the most common cause of death in the western world, including Sweden and the rest of the Nordic countries. It has been reported that CHD incidence increases several times during the cold season and the highest incidence of CHD occurs in winter. Our aim is to understand the basic mechanisms of cold-induced lipolysis in CHD development that is related to atherosclerosis. Through this research, we hope to develop new approaches to the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We plan to use animal models of different vascular diseases under different conditions to study the role of temperature changes on plaque development in atherosclerosis, including introducing/removing some specific genes in animal models. We will use drugs according to different principles, either alone or in combination to treat atherosclerosis-related heart disease, and collaborate with clinical cardiologists and experts to perform clinical studies. Although the activation of brown adipose tissue is generally positive against obesity and diabetes, there are no studies on the question of how cold induces fat dissolution in the development of atherosclerosis. If our preclinical findings can be successfully translated into clinical settings, millions of patients who find themselves at risk of cardiovascular disease could benefit from our work. Our project therefore has significance for the benefit of millions of patients.Frostegård, JohanKarolinska InstituteImpaired natural immunity to phospholipid antigen as a cause of chronic inflammatory disease, mainly cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis: a new hypothesisMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since the mid-1990s, our group has been interested in how a particular type of fat, phospholipids, when oxidized ("hardened") can cause the inflammation of atherosclerosis. We have put forward a new hypothesis for atherosclerosis and CVD: low levels of natural antibodies against these fats including phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) cause CVD independently of and in the same order of magnitude as the established risk factors. In experimental studies, we have shown that anti-PC counteracts precisely the type of inflammation that is central to atherosclerosis. We have also shown that other antibodies against lipids, such as oxidized cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine (aOxCL and aOxPS), have similar properties. The aim is to develop improved risk assessment and develop new treatments (vaccines and/or antibodies for atherosclerosis and CVD and potentially for other inflammatory diseases). We combine animal, cell and clinical studies. In animal studies, we vaccinate with the lipids and deliver the antibodies themselves. The cell experiments test how immune responses in atherosclerosis are affected and the clinical studies investigate the role of the new factors, in several unique cohorts. Atherosclerosis and its consequence cardiovascular disease are dominant health problems. A new type of immunologically relevant risk factors and treatment based on natural immunity, focusing on lipids such as PC, OxCL and OxPS, may have a major impact.Hansson, StefanLund UniversityNew diagnosis and cure for pre-eclampsia (preeclampsia)Medicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 2 900 000

Preeclampsia is one of the most serious pregnancy-related diseases in the world, affecting 8.5 million women annually. There is currently no specific diagnosis or prediction method, nor a cure. We believe we can make early, reliable diagnosis by measuring fetal and adult hemoglobin and alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M) in the mother's blood. Our in vitro studies indicate that we should be able to cure the disease by giving A1M.Arnberg, NiklasUmeå UniversityViral receptors: importance for tropism, therapy and targetingMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Viruses cause a variety of more or less severe diseases in humans. In this project, we are mapping the molecules and mechanisms that regulate how viruses (winter flu viruses and so-called adeno- and picornaviruses) bind to and infect human cells. This determines, among other things, which cell types, tissues and organs viruses ultimately infect (virus "tropism"). We want to use newly acquired knowledge about these molecules and mechanisms to develop new drugs that prevent viruses from binding to and thus infecting cells. Our research results can also be used to improve so-called gene therapy, which means 'treatment with genes'. Harmless, 'disarmed' adenoviruses are excellent carriers of foreign genes and efficiently transport different genes into our cells. We and many others believe that in the future it will be possible to treat and/or prevent cancer, infections, hereditary diseases and metabolic disorders using gene therapy. This type of treatment is sensitive and needs to be fine-tuned in several ways. One such way is to ensure that the genes are delivered to the right cells. So disarmed viruses must be steered away from their usual target cells, and instead be directed to the very cells that need treatment. If we can learn more about the molecules and mechanisms that 'real' viruses use to bind to and attack human cells, it will be easier to direct disarmed, gene-carrying viruses to the right type of cells.Brorsson, Ann-ChristinLinköping University of TechnologyInterdisciplinary studies of the aggregation process of the amyloid beta peptide - parallel analysis of transgenic fruit flies and biophysical measurementsMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 200 000

The research studies the aggregation process of the amyloid (A) beta peptide linked to Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's is a dementia disease in which the nerve cells in the brain break down. To combat the disease, it is important to: a) identify which structures of the A-beta peptide are toxic to neurons, b) determine how the toxic structures attack the cells, and c) find molecules that can prevent the formation of toxic A-beta structures. To achieve these goals, fruit flies that can form toxic A-beta structures in the central nervous system are used. In parallel, the aggregation process of the A-beta peptide is also studied in a simpler environment, in test tubes, with different biophysical measurement techniques such as spectroscopy and microscopy, as well as how toxic A-beta structures attack cells from both rats and humans. By combining these studies, it is possible to link the emergence of different structures of the A-beta peptide with their ability to cause neuronal degradation and thus identify the structures that are toxic to the cells. This information is important for finding new treatments for Alzheimer's disease. Banana flies are also used to test different molecules (drug candidates) that can protect cells from being degraded by toxic A-beta structures or counteract the formation of toxic A-beta structures, thus preventing the onset of the disease.Bäckhed, FredrikSahlgrenska AcademyDeveloping a platform to study the metagenome and its role in metabolic diseasesMedicine2011

Amount granted: SEK 9 000 000

Our gut contains 10 times more bacteria than we have cells in our body. These bacteria express 150 times more genes than we have in our human genome and influence several cellular processes in the gut such as blood vessel formation, immune system development and even our metabolism. We have previously shown that germ-free mice do not develop obesity and that the composition of the bacterial flora is different in obese mice and humans. This makes the gut microbiota a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies for metabolic diseases. "Next generation sequencing has become a powerful tool for mapping the composition of the gut microbiota. However, the large data sets offer a major analytical challenge and even if we map the composition of the gut microbiota, animal studies are needed to understand how the gut microbiota affects our metabolism and metabolic diseases. The "Metagenome and its role in metabolic diseases" platform will bring together microbiology and systems biology in a unique translational setting and, in addition to studying whether the gut microbiome offers diagnostic or therapeutic targets for these diseases, will also study the underlying mechanisms using germ-free mice. As our platform will develop new analytical methods to study the composition of the gut microbiota, it will also constitute an important national resource for analyzing the composition and function of the gut microbiota.Svanborg, CatharinaLund UniversityGenetics of innate immunity and host susceptibility to acute and chronic infectionMedicine2010

Amount granted: SEK 4 500 000

Wallberg-Henriksson, HarrietKarolinska InstituteTorsten and Ragnar Söderberg Foundations' anniversary donation (part 2)Medicine2010

Amount granted: SEK 25 000 000

Smith, UlfUniversity of GothenburgWnt activation - role in obesity and its complicationsMedicine2010

Amount granted: SEK 4 500 000

Hellstrand, KristofferUniversity of GothenburgNew treatment strategies for cancer and viral infectionsMedicine2010

Amount granted: SEK 4 500 000

Normark, StaffanKungl. Academy of SciencesApplication for 10 million SEK for the creation of an additional research chair in medicine.Medicine2010

Amount granted: SEK 5 087 500

Bokarewa, MariaUniversity of GothenburgProto-oncogenes as effectors and therapeutic targets in inflammation and autoimmune arthritisMedicine2010

Amount granted: SEK 4 500 000

Cao, YihaiKarolinska InstituteTranslational study on angiogenesis in regulation of obesity and diabetesMedicine2010

Amount granted: SEK 2 700 000

Enerbäck, SvenUniversity of GothenburgFunctional brown adipose tissue in healthy humans- a new target for anti-obesity therapyMedicine2010

Amount granted: SEK 4 500 000

Swoboda, PeterKarolinska InstituteIs schizophrenia a ciliopathy?Medicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 100 000

Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic illness that can affect up to 1% of the population. Symptoms include hallucinations, personality disorders, distorted perception of reality, etc. The symptoms of the disease are caused by errors in the interaction of nerve cells. Schizophrenia is caused by environmental factors and genetic changes. Our research suggests that a number of schizophrenic genes are controlled by a special class of control genes, which in turn are normally important for the function of the cell's antenna, known as cilia. Cilia are found on neurons, where they are important for receiving signals from the environment. Being able to discern a link between the function of the cell antenna and the onset of schizophrenia is of great interest. We can then directly clarify the molecular mechanisms behind the disease and how they (cilia) affect the function of neurons. We use human neurons that have such an antenna, a cilium. We change the function of the schizophrenic genes and cilia and observe the effect directly in the cells. To see how schizophrenic genes affect the interaction of neurons, we use a mask as a model where the nervous system and all the connections between cells are mapped. The same principles apply to the mask and the human nervous system. In the mask, we can genetically alter individual neurons, detecting changes in their connections and activity. Our results can be used in the future to test the impact of different drugs and therapies on neuronal function.Tryggvason, CharlesKarolinska InstituteLaminins - cell differentiation, phenotype stability, pancreatic island expansionMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Most cell types in the body are located on or directly attached to thin connective tissue structures (basem*nt membranes) that contain specific laminin proteins, which come in over 16 different forms and are tissue-specific. The laminins are important for cell differentiation binding and for the tissue-specific stability of cells. We are the only research group that has produced these highly complex proteins and studied them. We have shown that laminins have severalSverremark-Ekström, EvaStockholm UniversityMicrobial exposure, immunological maturity and allergy development in childrenMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

The early years of life are central to the maturation and balance of our immune system. Many factors can influence this, including how and when we are exposed to different microorganisms. Changing exposure to different microbes is thought to be one reason for the recent marked increase in various inflammatory diseases. For example, allergies in children have increased significantly and are now a global health problem. Our research has previously shown a clear link between the presence of lactobacilli in the very early gut flora and early infection with two very common herpes viruses and a reduced risk of allergy development. We have also been able to show that these types of early microbial stimulation affect the immune system in a way that may partly explain the 'allergy-protective' effect. Here, we want to go further and study in detail the interactions between these microorganisms and the immune system at different ages and investigate how it relates to allergy development. The project will provide information on basic immunological processes during childhood and on how different types of microorganisms can affect children's immunological profile and allergy development. The studies are of an experimental nature but have a strong clinical basis. In our studies we use cell lines, animal models and experimental systems as well as material from a very well characterized allergy cohort, where we can correlate all findings to clinical parameters and allergy status up to 10 years of age.Olofsson, AndersUmeå UniversityPreeclampsia, Alzheimer's and Skelleftea disease - causes and links?Medicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 470 000

Amyloidosis is the result of a pathological phenomenon in which aggregating proteins are deposited in tissue. Today, 30 different diseases are associated with amyloidosis, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Amyloid deposits of the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) are directly linked to the development of familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP), a progressive nerve disease also known in Sweden as Skelleftejukan. Preeclampsia is a serious complication that affects 5-8% of all pregnancies and is one of the most common causes of fetal death. The cause of pre-eclampsia has been unknown until now. However, we will soon publish results describing how aggregates of TTR are very likely to be the direct cause of the disease. This is a breakthrough in many ways where parallels between the different diseases can now be made. FAP is one of the few amyloidoses that is currently clinically treatable and a drug and the possibility of treating pre-eclampsia according to the same principle is a very interesting question. Interestingly, the results also suggest that transthyretin may have an additional function in the body that could be linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Taken together, these findings, in addition to increasing our basic understanding of these diseases, provide opportunities for the development of new treatments.Schmidtchen, ArturLund UniversityHarnessing the body's immune system to fight infection and inflammationMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Infection and inflammation are behind many diseases. We can suffer from conditions such as chronic skin eczema, or chronic wounds, diseases in which we often see an overactivation of our immune system, leading to harmful and uncontrolled inflammation. Wound infections in burns or post-surgery (which in the worst case can lead to sepsis) are other major problems in healthcare, where we currently lack effective prevention strategies and are forced to use a lot of antibiotics. Infection treatments today only attack the microbe, and not the activation of various inflammatory cascades in the body. It is therefore crucial to develop alternative strategies to counteract infections and the subsequent harmful inflammatory process in wounds and various skin diseases. We have recently discovered several innate protection systems in the body that operate in our skin and during wound healing, based on various antibacterial and immunosuppressive peptides. Based on these discoveries, we are trying to develop therapies based on the modulation of the body's own innate immunity. These "natural" and interfering strategies are more effective and sustainable with respect to the development of resistance, and we therefore hope that the research will expand our treatment options, and complement existing treatments in both local infections (wound infections, postoperative, eczema), as well as deep infections and sepsis.Mjösberg, JennyKarolinska InstituteInnate lymphoid cells in inflammatory bowel diseaseMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) carries a dramatically increased risk of colon cancer. It is likely that the chronic inflammation in IBD is a direct cause of colon cancer. I, along with several other research groups, have recently discovered a new family of cells in the immune system. These are called 'innate lymphoid cells' (ILCs) and are found in both mice and humans. In mice, these cells have a very important role in intestinal inflammation and tumor development, but the specific link between ILCs in IBD and colon cancer in humans has not yet been established. The aim of my project is to investigate the role of ILCs in IBD and colon cancer and find new therapeutic targets associated with ILCs that can be utilized for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. My hypothesis is that these cells are directly involved in the development of IBD and thus colon cancer and also have an active role in regulating cancer growth. Through access to unique gut tissue samples and advanced molecular biology techniques, I can directly study ILCs located in the inflamed or malignant tissue. I can determine their function in detail and thus determine the role these cells may play in IBD and colon cancer. My research will increase the understanding of this group of cells in general, and especially their role in IBD and colon cancer. IBD can be seen as a precursor to cancer. Thus, knowledge about IBD is extremely important to prevent the development of colon cancer.Normark, StaffanKungl. Academy of SciencesCreation of an additional academic chair in medicineMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 10 200 000

The Torsten Söderberg Foundation and the Ragnar Söderberg Foundation are currently funding five research professorships in medicine and the Torsten Söderberg Foundation itself is funding two academic professorships (one of which is being filled) in medicine at the level of SEK 2 million per year for five years. There is a great need for this type of research position where proven outstanding professors are given the opportunity to further strengthen and develop their research and is needed to further strengthen Swedish research in the light of international developments. The professorship will promote internationally leading research in the medical field by enabling the holder to devote full-time to research for five years at a Swedish medical faculty. The holder of the professorship will be appointed based on the documented scientific quality of the research carried out. Particular emphasis is placed on research carried out during the last five-year period. The quality of the research program, the degree of innovation and the importance for the development of medical research will also be assessed.Ohlsson, ClaesSahlgrenska AcademyIs WNT16 a key protein that reduces the risk of bone fractures?Medicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Osteoporosis is one of our major public health problems. Bone fractures caused by osteoporosis lead to great suffering and significant costs for the patients affected.The inhabitants of Sweden and Norway have the highest risk of bone fractures in the world. The reason for this is unknown and it is therefore of great strategic importance to conduct osteoporosis research in Sweden. The overall objectives of the application are to develop more effective and safer treatment methods for patients with osteoporosis and to increase knowledge of the causes of osteoporosis. The studies include both experimental animal studies and clinical patient studies. I have recently identified a number of genetic risk markers and potential drug targets for bone fractures. We will evaluate whether the identified genetic regions that have been shown to increase the risk of osteoporosis are indeed important for bone fracture risk and if so, we will investigate in detail how they affect fracture risk. My human genetic studies and subsequent studies in transgenic mice have recently shown that the endogenous protein WNT16 reduces the risk of bone fracture by increasing the thickness of compact bone. We are now using advanced cell culture systems and transgenic mice to investigate in detail how WNT16 protects against bone fractures. Our working hypothesis is that WNT16 is released from the bone-forming osteoblasts and inhibits the bone-degrading osteoclasts.Lindbom, LennartKarolinska InstituteNew strategies to prevent vascular leak in acute inflammationMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

Sepsis is a dreaded complication of bacterial infections that, despite advanced intensive care, can lead to circulatory collapse and organ failure with high mortality rates. Increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance contributes to difficulties in successfully treating these conditions. An essential component in the development of the disease is damage to the blood vessels of the lungs, resulting in leakage of blood plasma into the lung tissue. The lung injury is mainly due to the activation of white blood cells, particularly neutrophilic granulocytes. We have shown that proteins released from storage vesicles in the granulocytes (e.g. HBP/azurocidin) strongly contribute to the impairment of the blood vessel barrier function during inflammation. The research program aims to further elucidate mechanisms for the impact of white blood cells on blood vessel integrity in inflammatory disease states including sepsis. In particular, it will investigate new possibilities to therapeutically counteract the harmful activity of granule proteins in acute systemic inflammation. The program will hopefully establish a completely new approach to the treatment of complications in severe infectious conditions which may lead to the development of unique drugs in this field.Mathé, AleksanderKarolinska InstituteNew treatment for severe recurrent depression: intranasal neuropeptide YMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 400 000

Depression is a leading cause of disability and premature death, including co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease and suicide (>1,500/year), affecting approximately 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men in their lifetime. The European Commission/Brain Council report (2011) highlighted the growing seriousness of the problem, with more people living longer and the frequency of depression increasing with age. Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien (2011) estimates the cost of mental illness "to be at least 75 billion SEK per year" and points out that "the funding for psychiatric research corresponds to no more than 0.1-0.2% of the total cost of mental illness, while cancer research receives 2% of the cost of cancer diseases". The causes of depression are only partially understood, and no new treatments have been developed since the 1950s. 25-35% of patients receiving standard antidepressants have only partial or no response. Thus, there is a great need to develop drugs based on new therapeutic principles. We and other researchers have found that an endogenous substance, neuropeptide Y (NPY), is lowered in the brains and livers of depressed patients and that successful treatment raises NPY. Similar results have been obtained in animal models. Taking these facts into account, we want to give NPY to depressed patients in a double-blind study and test its antidepressant effects. Our work is supported by the Swedish Research Council and may open new ways to treat recurrent depression.Mellstedt, HåkanKarolinska InstituteROR1 - novel tyrosine kinase receptor for targeted therapy in tumorsMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 700 000

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) expresses the tyrosine kinase receptor ROR1, as do, for example, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer. ROR1 is not found in normal adult cells. ROR1 is essential for the survival of cancer cells and its expression increases with the aggressiveness of the disease. Antibodies have been produced against ROR1, which specifically kill leukemia cells and pancreatic cancer cells. These antibodies kill leukemia cells better than rituximab and ofatumumab, the antibodies that are the standard treatment for CLL. Our antibodies can eliminate leukemia cells in an animal model. We have also produced small chemical molecules, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), that specifically recognize ROR1 and kill tumor cells. These drugs have a different mechanism of action than antibodies. We have generated ROR1 TKIs, which can kill leukemia cells more specifically and effectively than fludarabine. They kill 60 times more leukemia cells than normal white blood cells. These ROR TKIs also kill leukemia cells that are resistant to fludarabine. ROR1 TKIs kill pancreatic cancer cells better than gemcitabine. The molecules have promising pharmacological properties. The goal is now to conduct treatment trials in animal models to develop ROR candidates for clinical treatment trials in patients. CLL is a non-curable disease and current treatment options for lung and pancreatic cancer are poor. There is a great need to develop new therapies. ROR1 is a promising structure for developing new targeted therapies against small side effects on normal cells.Fridberger, AndersLinköping UniversityNew molecular targets for the treatment of age-related hearing lossMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 400 000

Age-related hearing loss affects around 40% of older people. The condition causes many people significant problems in understanding speech and therefore contributes to exclusion, isolation, depression, and perhaps even the development of dementia. Hearing aids and cochlear implants are helpful but they do not replace normal hearing and most sufferers therefore continue to have significant problems. There is no treatment for the underlying disease. My research team has developed a microscope that allows us to directly observe the inner ear sensory cells when the ear is hit by sound - we can 'see how we hear'. No other group has the technical capability for such experiments and we can thus generate unique data. With the microscope, we have discovered a new mechanism of great importance for hearing. Sensory cells contain stereocilia, whose mechanically sensitive ion channels translate sound waves into electrical signals. We have found that the function of the stereocilia is regulated by the electrical voltage of the surrounding fluid. If the voltage is reduced, the stereocilia become so soft that they no longer function. A low electrical voltage is the most common cause of age-related hearing loss, and our results therefore have direct relevance to the understanding of this condition. This project studies how stereocilia function is regulated at the molecular level. This knowledge is used to develop new treatments for age-related hearing loss.Gillberg, ChristopherUniversity of GothenburgNeurophysiological markers for autism spectrum disorders - a MEG studyMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 800 000

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an umbrella term for conditions characterized by problems with social interaction, language comprehension and flexibility. The direct causes of ASD are, in most cases, unknown and there is no physiological test (e.g. blood test) that can identify ASD. Using the latest technology in brain imaging methods (magnetoencephalography, MEG) and individuals with ASD who have undergone thorough clinical examinations, we hope to identify a marker for ASD. Individuals with ASD and control subjects will be shown different images at the same time as brain imaging takes place; when an image is shown, brain activity occurs and this brain activity creates magnetism that MEG registers. It is then possible to see brain activity in real time, i.e. where, when and how long the brain reacts. In MEG, it is also possible to see where on the image the subjects are looking, so we can be sure that the participants in the study are actually looking at the image presented. One of the project leaders in the study is conducting a similar study at Harvard University in America, so we will be able to compare data from both studies and draw stronger conclusions. The project management team consists of individuals with extensive experience in ASD and brain imaging and includes two doctors, a psychologist and a physicist. By the end of this project, we hope to have identified markers that will lead to a better understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms of ASD.Erhardt, SophieKarolinska InstituteSchizophrenia and its co-morbidities - common pathophysiology?Medicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric disorder that affects about one percent of the population. Patients with schizophrenia have about 30% shorter life expectancy than healthy people. This is largely explained by a high risk of suicide and co-morbidity with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The drugs currently available can provide some symptom relief, but also increase the risk of further CVD. The need for new medicines that address the pathophysiological cause is therefore enormous! Our recent studies show that low-grade inflammation in the brain of patients contributes to the onset of symptoms. Changes in the immune system also play a central role in the development of CVD and suicidal behavior. Our multi-translational project aims to identify biomarkers in schizophrenia and to study genetic and molecular pathophysiological causes of these. We will study newly diagnosed patients with schizophrenia using advanced brain imaging techniques (PET), analyze central and peripheral levels of immune markers and study pathophysiological mechanisms in patient-specific cell cultures. We will also examine the patients for CVD and suicide risk and study biological risk factors for this comorbidity. The overall goal of our project is to identify pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia and to find reasons for the co-morbidity of CVD and suicidal behavior. This will allow us to propose new pharmacological targets and treatment principles for schizophrenia.Björck, LarsLund UniversityHarmful and beneficial bacterial proteinsMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

We humans live in a close relationship with different microorganisms and bacteria are the most common cell type in the body, an adult human carries 1-2 kg of bacteria mainly on the skin and in the intestines. This so-called normal flora contributes to a normal and healthy life. At the same time, outside bacteria, but also members of the normal flora, can cause disease. For more than 30 years, we have discovered, purified and studied bacterial proteins that interact in different ways with the human host in which the bacteria live. Many of these proteins have been isolated from streptococci, bacteria that can appear in the throat and on the skin without causing any symptoms of disease, but which also cause mild (tonsillitis, rose fever) and life-threatening infections (sepsis and deep tissue infections). In this project, we want to investigate how some of the streptococcal proteins we have discovered may contribute to severe infections. These include a group of antibody-binding surface proteins (members of the so-called M-protein family) and a protein that the bacteria deliver to the environment (protein SIC). We also want to study an enzyme (IdeS) that cleaves human IgG antibodies with a unique degree of specificity, an activity that allows the bacteria to defend themselves against our immune system. The fact that IdeS only cleaves IgG antibodies and no other protein, on the other hand, has opened an exciting opportunity to treat patients with disease-causing IgG antibodies with this bacterial enzyme.Ehrsson, HenrikKarolinska InstituteHow do we experience the body as our own? Research on cortex mechanismsMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 2 600 000

Bend your head forward and look down at your body. You see two arms, two legs, a stomach and a chest. But how does the brain understand that this body is your own? In our research project, we will use the most advanced brain imaging and brain stimulation techniques to answer this question. Our hypothesis is that the whole-body experience is created by two parallel cortex mechanisms. Signals from vision, touch and muscle sense are integrated in specific areas of the frontal lobe and the association cortex of the cerebral lobe to create the experience of a single coherent body, while processes in the temporal lobe generate signals about the location of this body in space. We will then go on to show that this brain's internal representation of the body affects episodic memory - one of our most important higher cognitive functions. Our hypothesis is that episodic memory requires us to have a functioning whole-body experience, and that disturbances in this, such as in "out-of-body experiences", lead to disrupted memory storage by affecting the temporal lobe memory area. In summary, our results will provide a groundbreaking description of the cortex mechanisms underlying whole-body spatial perception, and also demonstrate for the first time that this perception affects our episodic memory. These results may lead to important new advances in applied research on virtual reality, cognitive psychiatry and advanced prosthetics.Engel, JörgenSahlgrenska AcademyRole of gastrointestinal hormones in the development of addiction disordersMedicine2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Alcohol dependence is a chronic disease that affects about 3 to 8% of the population. It causes great suffering for the individual and relatives and is a major social problem. This complex disease involves an annual cost of approximately SEK 150 billion in Sweden and there is a great need to develop adequate treatment strategies. Our and others' research has shown that alcohol interacts with brain neurotransmitters in a very complex way. The goal of our translational research is to increase the understanding of the mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence and to create the conditions for the development of new and better drugs. Recently, we have shown that the appetite-stimulating peptide ghrelin and its receptor are potential targets for the development of new treatment strategies for alcohol dependence. This is a completely new approach to research on alcohol addiction and its treatment and may provide new ideas for drugs to treat drug addiction. We are now investigating whether ghrelin and its receptor are important for several aspects of alcohol dependence such as relapse, motivation and drug craving. The possibility that alcohol interacts directly with the ghrelin receptor and causes epigenetic changes is also being studied. Genetic changes in genes expressing ghrelin and its receptor are being investigated in populations with different addiction states. This knowledge is of utmost importance for the development of new pharmacological agents for the treatment of addiction disorders.Sundberg, Carl JohanKarolinska InstituteHealthcare and business management for future doctors (Master's degree)Economy2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 000 000

The proposed Master's degree in Healthcare and Business Management aims to prepare future physicians to lead, improve and influence patient health and societal well-being beyond direct patient care. To be effective and useful in this future role, students must develop their knowledge, skills and attitudes in a number of knowledge areas in parallel with clinical studies. Specifically, this means combining medical knowledge with organizational, financial and management/leadership skills to improve human health and well-being. The programme is aimed exclusively at students in national medical programmes with a genuine interest in contributing to the development and management of public and private healthcare and biomedical industry. The programme recognises interprofessional collaboration as a cornerstone of improved and patient-centred care and develops students' leadership and transprofessional collaboration skills. Doctors with a solid knowledge base in economics and management/leadership are in short supply in Sweden. Students who complete the new two-year master's program and who gradually build new knowledge and skills will be able to improve the competitiveness of healthcare, society and companies.Söderlund, MagnusStockholm School of EconomicsCenter of excellence for marketing research at the Stockholm School of Economics.Economy2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 280 092

The project aims to develop a strong research environment, a center of excellence (CoE), for marketing research at the Stockholm School of Economics (HHS). Our time horizon is relatively long term, we believe that ten years are needed to achieve this. The environment we seek, which is organizationally based at the Center for Consumer Marketing (CCM), one of the departments at HHS, is characterized by (1) high quality publications, (2) good training of PhD and undergraduate students, (3) high attractiveness in the outside world (e.g. among potential PhD students, conference organizers and the mass media), (4) high quality objectives, (5) strong research leaders, (6) good ability to communicate research, (7) good research infrastructure, and (8) a critical mass of researchers (not too few, but not too many) who complement each other within a defined subject area. The academic subject in question is marketing, with particular emphasis on the part of the subject known internationally as "consumer behavior", an area where the objects of study are how consumers acquire, use and dispose of products (both goods and services). The approach in CCM's research is based on concrete tests, typically with an experimental method, where people are exposed to and come into contact with different marketing expressions (e.g. advertisem*nts or different elements in a shop environment).Carpenters, PelleThe Royal LibraryLight and freedom as a livelihood - 19th century advertisingEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Any change in media history is usually a commercially driven search for ever new markets, audiences and consumers. This also applies to the history of the press, especially during the 19th century when modern industrial Sweden was emerging. The columns of the newspapers constitute the infrastructure in which the economy takes place, and in which economic policy discussions are conducted. The self-image of the press is of course quite different. The newspaper has long been the guarantor of democracy and the free exchange of opinions. But in reality, the daily press is as dependent on steady income as any other company. The medium's message is nothing more than its advertising. The project involves the digitization of one million pages of Swedish daily press from the 19th century and is divided into two separate parts. One part is done in collaboration with the Gothenburg University Library and focuses on the digitization of specific Gothenburg press during the 19th century. The second part is done in collaboration with the Center for Business History and is based on the 19th century press as a kind of advertising magazine. Press history has always been a story about money, and it is only by adopting a clear economic-historical perspective that the actual forms and contours of the daily press in the 19th century emerge. In digital form, with OCR-readable pages for lightning-fast textual searches, no researcher will be able to escape this advertising-economic aspect of press history.Rudholm, NiklasTrade Research InstituteAnalysis of asymmetries in the price formation process in the Swedish consumer market for electricityEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 050 000

The major electricity market reform of 1996 aimed to create more favourable conditions for business start-ups, competition and more efficient use of resources in the electricity production and trading sectors. However, in direct contrast to these ambitions, the number of electricity trading companies has recently decreased substantially, as illustrated by the 2/3 market share of the three dominant energy groups. As electricity prices have steadily increased since the 1990s, the media and consumers have demonstrated increasingly widespread dissatisfaction. Through a unique access to all electricity market companies' prices since 2008, this project aims to analyze competition and efficiency in the electricity market through so-called asymmetric price transmission models. The primary research question is to analyze whether electricity trading companies have a greater propensity (both in terms of level and time) to raise customers' electricity prices after producer price increases on Nord Pool, compared to the propensity to lower consumers' electricity prices after corresponding producer price reductions on Nord Pool. This means that the electricity trading companies, at the expense of consumers, take a larger share of the margin than the risk premium justifies. However, as long as customer mobility (in terms of the propensity to switch to a cheaper electricity trading company) is low, there are limited incentives for the larger electricity trading companies to compete on price to any significant extent - and the inefficiencies can therefore be allowed to continue.Sandgren, FredrikUppsala UniversityInnovation and institutional change in Swedish goods trade 1750-2010Economy2012

Amount granted: 493 000 SEK

The project will analyze the transformation of the Swedish trade in goods. Goods trade, i.e. wholesale and retail trade, is an important sector whose history has not been written in a comprehensive way. The focus is on institutional change and important innovations during the period 1750-2010. By institutions I mean legislation, but also the more informal agreements and rules that have influenced trade in goods and its conditions. Regarding innovations, i.e. new technologies and new forms of organization, I will investigate how general innovations such as cars, telephones, computers, factories, Taylorism have affected the trade in goods. An important task is also to investigate how new ways of conducting trade in goods such as fixed stores, department stores, self-service, single-level warehouses, etc. have been introduced and spread within the Swedish trade in goods. The major shifts in terms of institutions and innovations that I identify will form the basis for the periodization. Much is known about the history of goods trade. However, much of this knowledge is scattered across many different books and essays and needs to be compiled. But there are also a lot of knowledge gaps that need to be filled by primary research. In addition to knowing more about the entire period 1750-1900, we also need to find out more about the development of the 20th century in terms of wholesale trade, specialist trade and the early activities of trade associations.Nygren, BitteUniversity of Gothenburg School of Design & CraftsEndowed Chair in Design Management - operating grants 2012 and 2013Economy2012

Amount granted: SEK 3 000 000

Persson, TorstenStockholm UniversityPoliticians in proportional electoral systemsEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 062 500

The overall goal of the project is to develop theoretical models for how the selection of politicians works in proportional electoral systems. These models will then be tested empirically on unique Swedish data. The selection of politicians takes place to the ballot, to the higher seats on the ballot, and to the more influential positions in the political hierarchy. We will answer five main questions regarding how this process works, namely how the selection is affected by 1) formal institutions in the proportional electoral system, 2) external factors such as competition between political parties and media coverage, 3) the characteristics of party leaders and 4) private networks between politicians. In addition, we will analyze how the policies implemented are affected by the end product of selection, i.e. the socio-economic composition of the elected representatives. Today, there is a lack of both useful theoretical models and empirical studies on these issues. Our scientific contributions come from both the theoretical and empirical side. The research group has unique expertise in developing theoretical models through the participation of two of the world's leading researchers in political economy, people who have participated in the development of several of the most widely used models in the field today. On the empirical side, important contributions will be made using the most detailed data set of elected and non-elected politicians ever assembled.Lundgren, TommyUmeå UniversityOn the Economics of Corporate Social ResponsibilityEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 876 000

Since the publication of the 1987 report Our Common Future by the World Commission on Environment and Development, the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development have become increasingly prominent in both public and academic debate. Much of the discussion on sustainability has been devoted to how companies can contribute to sustainable development, i.e. what is usually referred to as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Studies on CSR have grown into an extensive research area over the last 20 years, mainly in the disciplines of management and business administration, but also to some extent in economics. A significant part of the empirical research deals with the relationship between CSR and financial performance. To some extent, there are also theoretical analyses of the economic drivers and effects of CSR, but this research is still in its infancy; further theoretical studies in combination with econometric analysis are needed to better understand the mechanisms that drive CSR and the relationships with a number of fundamental economic aspects. Specifically, in the context of CSR, in six well-defined sub-projects we want to further investigate the role of shareholder preferences, uncertainty, causality, cost of capital, risk and policy/regulation.Maican, FlorinUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawCompetition in grocery retailingEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 100 000

Grocery shopping constitutes a large part of private consumption. Together with large stores in external locations, there is currently a trend towards further development of smaller grocery stores that are geographically close to the consumer. The overall aim of the research project is to make a dynamic analysis of demand and market structure in the Swedish grocery trade. We use newly developed models and methods with deep theoretical grounding and take into account that stores differ in size, location and service level. The first part consists of a detailed analysis of consumers' choice and valuation of different store formats from a geographical perspective. The second part deals with firms' decisions and costs to establish, reallocate and remove stores from local markets. A unique combination of databases covering all grocery stores in Sweden during the period 2001-2010 will be used. A central contribution of the research project is that we simulate the development of the grocery market as a result of a number of hypothetical changes such as a changed number of store formats and a more liberal regulation of new establishments. The project contributes to the international research front by using models based on economic theory together with newly developed statistical methods to analyze strategic interaction between firms.Johansson Sköldberg, UllaUniversity of Gothenburg GRIThe encounter between art and entrepreneurship. A close study of projects in the VG regionEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 909 000

We want to study the encounter between art/design and business in three projects. We intend to build a bridge between the subjects "Design Management" and "Art & Management" which are both very close and different in nature. We want to reflect more theoretically based on three concrete projects: 1. "100 offices" is a project that involves 100 industrial companies/organizations with unused spaces renting them out for "0 rate" to artists in need of an office or studio. No obligations are attached to the contract. However, there are hopes for an interesting dialog during the common coffee and lunch hours. It is these hopes and what happens to them that we will study. 2. Guest professor Mary Jo Hatch, together with the partnership unit at the Gothenburg School of Economics, has invited researching artists from GU to a dialog with business leaders. She is interested in the similarities between the problems that artists and business leaders deal with. In this project we want to follow what happens and interpret the situation together with Mary Jo Hatch. 3. process management of creative projects and matchmaking between companies and designers/artists. We want to compare the way SVID works with process management of design projects with the way Tillt processes and handles matchmaking of artists.Kallifatides, MarkStockholm School of Economics, SIRInstitutional business ownershipEconomy2012

Amount awarded: SEK 3 130 000

Institutional investors' formal opportunity and real willingness or ability to exercise active or passive control power is likely to be of crucial importance for the supply of capital to businesses, the quality of corporate governance and thus the development of the economy, as this category of shareholder is the dominant and growing category in the global capital market. Institutional investors have long-term mandates. It is theoretically reasonable for them to invest long-term even in illiquid assets and also to participate actively in the governance of individual companies. Studies show that a broad category of institutional investors internationally have been more passive and risk-averse than might have been expected. Legislation, governance models and theoretical ideas have probably largely driven this. With the global crisis, it is reasonable to expect that conditions for institutional capital will be renegotiated internationally. The project intends to follow developments in the Nordic countries, with a focus on the large Swedish institutional investors. What are the effects on corporate governance and thus entrepreneurship of this shareholder category's active or passive efforts? We intend to qualitatively study regulatory processes, institutional minority ownership and control ownership in three sub-studies. The program aims to describe, explain and critically reflect on the role of institutional investors in the national economy and in the Swedish innovation system on a more stable empirical basis.Källblad, SigridOptimal portfolio allocation under consideration of different horizons and model uncertainty respectivelyEconomy2012

Amount granted: 135 000 SEK

The thesis deals with optimal portfolio composition under different conditions. Partly based on the question of how the consideration of different time horizons affects the same, and partly based on the assumption that the underlying market model is not completely known and that model uncertainty must also be taken into account.Holmlid, StefanLinköping University of TechnologyInnovation environments' use of and approach to design in productization processesEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 898 000

Over the past decade, design as a concept has become more prominent in the context of research and debate on innovation. An example of this is the success of Apple's smart phones, where design and technological innovation went hand in hand to produce the touch-sensitive screens. In the management-related literature, the concept of "design thinking" has emerged as a way of capturing a new relationship between design and management. In the design-related literature, concepts such as "innovation in meaning" have instead taken their place as a description of what kind of innovations design contributes. Much of the previous research focuses primarily on corporate innovations and the role design can play in these contexts, and has contributed theories, empirical studies and actionable knowledge. However, we currently know less about how design can play a role for the actors in the innovation system that are close to, or partly constitute, actors close to basic research. The purpose of this project is to contribute knowledge about how design can contribute to the transformation from research-based ideas to products on a market.Heyman, FredrikInstitute for Business ResearchGlobalization, employment and wagesEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 523 000

It is no exaggeration to say that the globalization process that Sweden is currently undergoing is of historic proportions. The project aims to empirically investigate the labor market effects of increased international integration and is based on new economic theory with heterogeneous firms and heterogeneous labor force. Traditional trade theory assumes that the labor market is completely flexible, resulting in full employment. More recent theory instead emphasizes that wages are sticky and that the matching process between workers and employers can lead to long-term unemployment. Furthermore, this work suggests that the impact on a particular type of worker, e.g. in terms of wage changes, may differ depending on the type of firm. For example, increased globalization may lead to higher wages for the type of worker whose qualifications best match the firm's profile. These recent theoretical works thus result in a number of different hypotheses about internationalization and labor market effects that we intend to investigate empirically using Swedish data. The empirical analysis is based on a large data set of Swedish workers that can be matched with data on Swedish firms. For example, we examine the wage and employment effects of increased internationalization for different types of workers and in different types of firms.Hidefjäll, PatrikKarolinska InstituteHow do healthcare innovation systems affect the ability of innovations to develop and spread?Economy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 810 000

The initiatives targeting Swedish healthcare and medical technologies in recent years have been essentially limited to supporting the early idea generation process. But what happens next? Does the generation of innovations also lead to the creation of new successful Swedish medical technology companies and do the innovations result in improved care at lower costs? To answer these questions, we want to identify and study a wide range of medical technology innovations of varying commercial success over the last 15 years. A survey is planned to be sent to identified industry and healthcare stakeholders. Case studies will evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a selection of identified innovations and the impact of the healthcare innovation system on the development of the innovation. The healthcare innovation system is defined as the supporting (in the form of knowledge, resources, etc.) and selecting (market, procurement, evaluation) mechanisms that contribute to the creation of cost-effective innovations. We intend to identify whether cost-effective innovations have had greater survival in the health care system than those innovations that have been deemed ineffective. The results of the study are expected to give us better insight into the supportive and selective effects of the Swedish health care sector's innovation system on an innovation and lead to further theoretical development of the innovation system approach.Fellman, SusannaUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawCartels and trade policy: international agreements, foreign companies and liberalizationEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 058 750

Historical research on cartel and competition policy has experienced a boom. One reason is the availability of a unique source material, namely the cartel registers that many countries maintained during the post-war period in order to control cartels and to prevent 'abuse'. The Swedish register is used in a research project at the Gothenburg School of Economics. The main objective is to study issues related to (i) the control and monitoring of international cartel agreements and, to (ii) competition policy and free trade efforts in the post-war period. International agreements had to be registered if they had an effect on the domestic market and the Swedish register contains about 350 agreements involving foreign companies. Many of the international cartel agreements were Nordic. Among other things, changes in the ownership structure of the Swedish business sector are studied, as well as the foreign companies' strategy towards Swedish cartels. Another problem area is the authorities' actions as a result of free trade agreements. For example, what pressure did EFTA cooperation put on Nordic cartel cooperation, and how did the authorities relate to international cartels as pressure to deal with anti-competitive agreements increased? What was the importance of cooperation between the Nordic competition authorities (annual Nordic meetings)? And how did the cartels respond to the changes?Fellman, SusannaUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawThe role of trading houses on the credit market in Gothenburg in the 19th centuryEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 815 000

As the Swedish economy changed in the 19th century, so did the credit market. There was no uniform credit market in Sweden at the time, but it was divided into several locations, with Stockholm and Gothenburg being the most important. One player on the credit market was the trading houses. Their role on the credit market in Gothenburg in the 19th century is the subject of this study. The trading houses' lending was large and even generated greater profits than the trading activities. Nor did the role of the Gothenburg trading houses on the credit market disappear as the modern banking system was established. In other cities, the banks took over the role of the trading houses. Gothenburg's trading houses thus deviate from the national pattern. Was this due to a stronger link to international capital markets among the trading houses? Another important aspect is the relationship between the trading houses' lending to small businesses. In other source material, trading houses appear as important lenders to artisans. The study will increase the understanding of how small entrepreneurs financed their activities. Since the lending of the trading houses had a clear connection with trade in and out of Gothenburg, the questions will be placed in a larger international context. The project, which is linked to a project on informal and formal credit markets in Gothenburg, is important for obtaining an overall picture of the credit markets during this period.Gullstrand, JoakimLund UniversityThe company's international links, its organization and the role of entrepreneurship and innovationEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 680 000

The project builds on the international trade literature that studies the export and import decisions of firms. In brief, this literature shows that relatively few firms export and that the firms that enter the international market are the most productive. The literature explains this pattern by saying that only productive firms can pay the costs of entering the international market. In other words, the complex pattern of firms' international linkages has been explained by a black box, as productivity measures are affected by everything from differences in product quality, product mix, management capabilities, organizational form, to capital intensity and economies of scale. The main challenge for future research in international trade is to open up this box to explain in detail what matters when firms make their trade decisions. In particular, this is of importance for the design of different policy measures implemented to strengthen firms' opportunities in the global market. It will otherwise be difficult to design policies and predict their effects if this black box is not opened. The aim of this project is thus to identify the factors underlying firms' trade decisions, and three issues in particular will be highlighted: how firms organize the links and the role of entrepreneurship and innovation in these links.Cramér, PerUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawEnvironmental aid Centre for International Business StudiesEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 4 500 000

The Centre for International Business Studies at the University of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and Law (CIBS) conducts research on different aspects of the internationalization process of business. The group consists of four professors, two visiting professors, two associate professors, eight post-doctoral researchers and four doctoral students. The main part of the activity is currently carried out within the joint program "International Business Research in an Era of Global Spatial Reconfiguration - Corporate Restructuring in the Global Automotive Industry - The Disinvestments of GM and Ford and the Entry of China" which was originally funded in 2010.

The aim is to investigate the takeover of Volvo Car Corp. by the Chinese company Geely, and its effects on subcontracting and distribution systems, markets, global production networks, R&D, and clashes between different management cultures. Furthermore, the disintegration process from Ford is studied, i.e. how production systems and management structures change when a company changes its main owner, as well as the external framework for business activities in China, in the form of direct investment policy, and other institutional conditions at national, regional and local level. Researchers from Germany and Finland also participate in the program as a reference group. A total of 23 researchers are now active in different parts of the program. CIBS is an important strategic part of the School's continued development.

Cramér, PerUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawEndowed Chair in Business History - operating grant 2012 and 2013Economy2012

Amount granted: SEK 3 000 000

Operating appropriations for the 2012 funding of the endowed chair in Business History held by Professor Susanna Fellman.Ekström, Karin M.University of BoråsMarket orientation of art museums - a study on marketing and increasing accessibilityEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Marketing, once considered a dirty word in the arts, is now seen as a legitimate tool to enrich and deepen the experience of museum visitors. The number of museums has increased, including art museums. From a social sustainability perspective, it is important to attract new visitors to museums. From a focus on objects and collections, museums have become increasingly visitor-oriented. The purpose of the project is to study how a market-oriented perspective is expressed in art museums in Sweden. How do they work with marketing, event activities and visitor orientation strategically as well as operationally? How is it perceived by museum directors, curators and other staff? How do art museums work to increase the number of visitors and to become more accessible to a broader target group? The study also aims to develop theory on the marketing of culture and cultural consumption. The project is related to research on consumer culture, material culture and museum studies, marketing and customer orientation studies. The study is based on ethnographic methods in the form of long interviews and observations. Museum directors, curators, event managers, marketing managers and other staff are interviewed at three art museums in Sweden. Observations are made of ongoing exhibitions and events. Visitors and non-visitors are also interviewed to understand how art museums can be made more accessible.Calmfors, LarsStockholm UniversityCan economic self-interest explain negative attitudes towards trade competition?Economy2012

Amount granted: 128 333 SEK

A number of labor market conflicts related to low-wage competition with posted workers have been highlighted in the public debate across the EU Member States. Judging from the debate, most citizens seem to have a more negative attitude towards low-wage competition in the import of services than in the import of goods. This project aims to analyze how attitudes towards different forms of foreign trade relate to individuals' economic self-interest by testing how well the short-term and long-term trade theory models can explain an individual's attitude. The analysis in this project will be based on data from a survey study (from 2007) of attitudinal data collected through interview surveys and as yet unpublished data from a follow-up survey (from 2011). This extensive data set, collected for other purposes, provides a unique opportunity to contribute to the empirical political economy literature on trade policy and in particular to the scarce empirical literature on the specific factor model. But above all, it is important to learn more about attitudes towards trade competition in the light of labor market conflicts that hinder deeper integration of European markets.Collin, Sven-OlofLinnaeus UniversityBoard remuneration: a survey of board remuneration in Swedish listed companiesEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 774 200

The project aims to identify and explain the level and form of board remuneration of listed companies and to study its possible effects on the company. While CEO remuneration has been studied extensively, both by researchers and by commentators, board remuneration has been ignored. Today, there are signs that remuneration is changing, perhaps as a result of the profound changes in the tasks of the board of directors since the early 1990s, and perhaps inspired by the US and the UK. It is therefore empirically, theoretically and practically relevant to conduct a survey today. Previous studies, mainly from the US and the UK, have not sought the experiences and thoughts of practitioners about remuneration, which is why our knowledge of Swedish remuneration is non-existent, and our theoretical knowledge has only been developed within theory and not with the help of practice. The method for the survey will therefore be to first gather insights from practice through interviews with board chairs, compensation committee chairs and reward consultants. Then the theory that will guide the mapping and the explanatory study will be developed. In doing so, I hope that the project will not only make an empirical and theoretical contribution, but also bring insights on board remuneration back into practice.Blomberg, JesperStockholm School of EconomicsRisk management in investment banking: organization of risk taking, risk control and risk productionEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 265 500

To understand risk in any financial product or service, you need to understand how that risk is created. In investment banking, financial risks are created, managed and controlled. As bankers, traders, brokers and analysts shape primary markets for stocks and secondary markets for securities, they also create financial risks. Despite increased regulation, as well as banks' sharply increased investment in risk control and compliance functions, there is a lack of systematic knowledge about how regulation and control systems affect risk-taking in practice. To increase our understanding of how financial risks are created, we need to study investment banking practices in terms of risk-taking and risk control, and especially how these relate to each other. With an "inside-out" approach, we will investigate what and how the rapidly growing risk control and compliance functions within investment banking organizations (different types of banks) affect the same organizations' risk taking. Through primarily ethnographic observation, the study will investigate 1) If, how, and why risk-taking (mainly by bankers and traders, but also brokers and analysts) is affected by the increasingly comprehensive risk control systems. 2) How the production of risk in investment banking affects the risk-taking of other actors within and outside the financial sector. The expected results of the study have significant relevance for the financial sector, for financial consumers, and for regulatory and supervisory bodies.Anderson, AndersInstitute for Financial ResearchRethinking Beta in Asset ManagementEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 300 000

For nine years, the Swedish Institute for Financial Research (SIFR) has successfully organized an annual conference on various themes in financial economics in Stockholm. Leading international researchers in each field are invited to present the latest findings in their respective research areas. The conference runs for two days, with the first day aimed at practitioners in the financial sector. The second day is mainly aimed at academics, and provides an opportunity for Swedish researchers to take part in cutting-edge research in financial economics. The format has proved to be highly appreciated by both target groups, and has become a natural platform for connecting academics and practitioners in the financial market. This year's conference is intended to address the latest findings in theoretical as well as practical asset management.Andersson, PerStockholm School of EconomicsThe mobile phone, service innovations and the shaping of new marketsEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 140 000

Mobile phones are playing an increasingly central role in people's private and professional lives. At the same time, the development of new mobile services has also taken a very central role in the overall digital service development. This project focuses on the links between the development of new mobile services, service innovation processes and the creation of new markets. Special interest is given to new mobile services and innovation processes with a potential to change market structures. These include new mobile payment services involving a variety of market players: mobile phone companies, bank and card companies, retailers and others. These and other new mobile services, often linked to new mobile technologies and standards, are creating new patterns of competition and cooperation in the market. They are also driving entrepreneurship in markets and the creation of entirely new businesses. This project aims to develop knowledge on how new mobile services and service innovation processes are linked to the formation of new markets and industrial structures.Axelsson, BjörnStockholm School of EconomicsSupporting the maintenance and development of a trade-related research environmentEconomy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 935 000

Continued support for a research environment with trade-relevant research at the Stockholm School of Economics. This support has varied over time, but for a number of years it has amounted to a volume equivalent to covering 75 percent of the living expenses of three doctoral students and two postdocs, including overheads. First, we report on how the previous year's grant was used and some important ideas behind the pattern shown. It then highlights some of the developments in four programs and three separate projects. The programs are: a) Solution Business, b) Sustainable Business, c) Service Innovation, d) International Retailing. The projects covered are: a) Open Books, b) Pricing as an organizational issue. The highlighting indicates the projects and researchers supported and what has been achieved. However, it also indicates a number of interesting other and future projects that are planned. Where specific researchers are already involved, their names and the funding applied for are indicated. In other cases, the type of people (doctoral students, PhDs) intended to be associated with the research in question is indicated.Aldman, Lili-AnnConsumer credit in Gothenburg and Stockholm, 1650-1870Economy2012

Amount granted: SEK 1 240 000

The key for both trade and production is that there are consumers willing to buy their goods and services. Consumption is closely linked to a country's economic growth. What goods are demanded and when has always been linked to the financial resources and confidence of customers. It is likely that the credit and credit terms offered during a given period of time have also played a role. The use or non-use of consumer credit has often been controversial, as it has both positive and negative effects. One way to stimulate consumption that is used today is to offer potential customers credit. The positive effect is that the customer can spread their consumption expenditure over time and trade and production receive regular income. The downside is that some people will buy more than they can afford. But what was it like before the 20th century? The overall purpose of the project is to study whether there is a connection between the emergence and changes in consumer credit and credit conditions, with the political and consumption changes that took place during the period 1650-1870. The study is limited to Gothenburg and Stockholm and the surrounding area. The main questions are: Can the emergence of new, changed credits or credit conditions explain the changes in consumption? Were consumption credits and conditions affected or influenced by international crises and political transitions? What was the share of consumption accounted for by credit in each period?Söderlund, MagnusStockholm School of EconomicsCenter of Excellence for Marketing Research at the Stockholm School of Economics.Economy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 339 945

The project aims to develop a strong research environment, a Center of Excellence (CoE), for marketing research at the Stockholm School of Economics (HHS). Our time horizon is relatively long-term, we believe that ten years are needed to achieve this. The environment that we strive for, which organizationally has its platform at the Center for Consumer Marketing (CCM), one of the departments at HHS, is characterized by, among other things, (1) high quality publications, (2) good education of doctoral and undergraduate students, (3) high attractiveness in the outside world (e.g. among potential doctoral students, conference organizers and the mass media), (4) high quality objectives, (5) strong research leaders, (6) good ability to communicate research, (7) good research infrastructure, and (8) a critical mass of researchers (not too few, but not too many) who complement each other within a defined subject area. The academic subject in question is marketing, with particular emphasis on the part of the subject known internationally as "consumer behavior", an area where the objects of study are how consumers acquire, use and dispose of products (both goods and services). The approach in CCM's research is to use quantitative data, typically collected through experiments where people are exposed to different marketing expressions (e.g. advertisem*nts or elements in a retail environment).Schriber, SvanteStockholm School of EconomicsCompanies with acquisition experienceEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 186 000

Mergers and acquisitions (hereafter: M&A) change the ownership of companies on an almost daily basis. The large amounts of money involved are usually justified by the pursuit of increased profitability, for example through new product development skills, improved sales channels or increased manufacturing capacity. At the same time, research shows that acquisitions often fail. One branch of acquisition research has highlighted the importance of experience: that firms that are able to learn from previous acquisitions should be more successful in selecting, pricing and integrating acquisition candidates. However, existing theory is still not developed regarding which organizational conditions in the firms that favor or inhibit the accumulation of such experience. The purpose of this proposed project is therefore to develop theories on how acquisition experience is built up in acquisition-intensive firms. Since experience and experience building are organizational and sometimes unconscious processes, the project is conducted as a qualitative, comparative study based on interviews and observations. Between eight and twelve acquisition-intensive Swedish companies will be studied in order to achieve sufficient depth and spread in the results. The project is expected to make clear contributions to existing research. The results are also expected to be highly relevant for the ability of acquisition-intensive firms to succeed in later acquisitions, and thus also provide insights useful for firms that make fewer acquisitions.Sjölander, PerTrade Research InstituteAnalysis of asymmetric margins in the price formation process in the Swedish fixed income marketEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 445 500

While the bulk of financial efficiency and competition research tends to conclude that there is a relatively sound price formation process in most of our domestic financial markets, this view is certainly not unchallenged in the business press and the media in general. It is often argued that the oligopoly structures of the dominant market players (often in the form of the big banks) lead to competitive restrictions in the market. According to SKI, despite a lower level of customer satisfaction with the major banks compared to other banks, only about 3% of consumers switch banks per year. Although the dominance of the major banks has declined somewhat, the passive customer mobility of consumers means that the incentives of the major market players for strong price competition are relatively low. The project therefore unconditionally investigates whether there is a greater propensity for banks to raise customers' mortgage rates (both in terms of level and time) after borrowing cost increases, compared to the propensity to lower mortgage rates after corresponding borrowing cost reductions. Through a unique dataset, we measure banks' marginal borrowing costs, whereas the risk premium is difficult to measure. Changes in the risk premium can justify keeping mortgages unchanged despite repo or interbank rate cuts, but our new asymmetry method takes into account the level of the risk premium. For a large set of interest rates, times, frequencies and methods, we analyze whether banks charge a justified risk margin in addition to the marginal cost.Svensson, RogerInstitute for Business ResearchCoinage and monetary policy in medieval Europe and ScandinaviaEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 210 000

The project aims to analyze coin systems and monetary policy in medieval Europe and Scandinavia. The focus is on the choice between time-limited and long-lived coins in relatively undeveloped economies where coins began to be used as a means of transaction and a measure of value by large parts of the population. Time-limited coins meant that the mint master periodically invalidated the old coins, which had to be exchanged for new coins for a fee. The project analyzes the consequences of the choice of coinage system for coin deterioration, economic activity and uncertainty. In particular, coins in the form of so-called one-sided bracteates will be analyzed and how they relate to time-limited coins. A simple theoretical model will be built and tested on the Scandinavian countries during the Middle Ages. Existing literature on the subject has neither used: 1) economic theory to understand monetary policy and the function of money nor 2) statistical methods to analyze treasure finds. Nor has previous Swedish literature linked the Swedish medieval coins to the international research literature. This project applies all three of these methods. It should be emphasized that the project is interdisciplinary: existing literature and scientific methods in economics, economic history, numismatics and archaeology will be used and applied.Melin, FransLund UniversityFrom market orientation to brand orientation - a new path to growth and profitability?Economy2011

Amount granted: SEK 3 720 000

Strong brands are not something you get, but something you earn. Therefore, as more and more companies compete on the basis of brands, the ability to build strong brands comes into focus. A significant part of the research on this capability is conducted within the framework of brand orientation, a concept coined in the early 1990s by researchers at the Lund University School of Economics. Today, brand orientation has emerged as an interesting alternative to market orientation. But the question is whether these approaches should be regarded as competing or complementary? This question is the basis for the overall purpose of this research project, namely to increase knowledge about similarities and differences between market orientation and brand orientation and the effects of these approaches on growth and profitability. Emphasis will also be placed on examining how firms organize their branding efforts and the design of management and reward systems. The expected contributions are an increased understanding of how brand orientation as an overall corporate philosophy and process can contribute to building strong brands and creating sustainable profitability. Our research will be the first to make use of longitudinal studies and thus we have the potential to make a unique contribution regarding profitability relationships that have so far only been studied in cross-sectional studies.Mähring, MagnusStockholm School of EconomicsLean Practices and Information Technology: Exploring the ContradictionEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 086 500

Two of the most common ways to streamline operations today are the introduction of Lean and making investments in information technology (IT). While companies have long been investing in IT, Lean has now become an established option. However, lean and IT are not mutually exclusive. Lean is based on continuous, local and often small-scale change, while IT implementation is often based on single, centralized and large-scale investments. Once the new information systems are implemented, IT tends to make processes rigid and difficult to change. Therefore, companies that are good at Lean often use less IT support for the core operational processes, or they use IT differently than most other companies. Our study explores this contradiction and how it can be overcome. The project is exploratory and is guided by the following four questions: (1) How does the tension between Lean and the use of IT manifest itself in practice? (2) In what ways do organizations using Lean deal with these challenges and how do they overcome them? (3) How can the relationship between Lean and IT be characterized and understood theoretically? (4) How can organizations use IT resources to support Lean practically? The research team has extensive experience in both Lean and IT implementation. The aim is to fill the knowledge gap between these two areas and to produce academic research at international level in this important and so far only marginally researched area.Lönnroth, CorneliaGothenburg City MuseumHeads or tails. Different sides of coins and credits in 19th century GothenburgEconomy2011

Amount awarded: SEK 5 265 500

During the 19th century the city of Gothenburg was one of the most expansive in northern Europe and its economic position was strengthened. This is reflected in the City Museum's unique collection of coins and medals that began to build up during the period, which has never been shown to the public due to the lack of secure facilities. Remarkably, the city's 19th century economic history has also been poorly treated. The project will combine the coins, banknotes and other objects related to economic conditions with a study of the dramatic social transformation of the 19th century linked to industrialization. As a result of the project, the unique collection will be organized and digitized, making it accessible to everyone. The research on Gothenburg's 19th century contributes with a new picture of one of the most eventful phases in the city's history. Above all, the university and the City Museum will collaborate to work in completely new ways with both research issues and museum collections. It will be a lively collaboration with workshops for invited specialists, lectures for the public, which opens the door to a project that becomes a lively end product and continues to develop. A coin, a banknote or a share certificate that can be supplemented with names of people, something about their lives, perhaps an image and how the individual was and is dependent on the world economy will always be topical issues, regardless of boom or bust.Lund, RagnarStockholm UniversityPrivate sponsorship of culture and sportsEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 318 000

Private companies are increasingly contributing to social empowerment activities by sponsoring culture and sport. Sponsorship partnerships have become important both as a marketing activity and as a funding model for culture and sport. Despite this, there is relatively little research on collaboration between sponsorship partners. This project aims to shed light on key issues concerning sponsorship as a financing and marketing model.Gustavsson Tingvall, PatrikStockholm School of EconomicsThe SME internationalization process: trade barriers, cultural differences and the role of institutionsEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 790 000

That a country's institutions play a central role in economic development and the formation of trade patterns. Well-functioning institutions maintain property rights, business freedom and stable tax rules, among other things: factors that affect can act as significant barriers to trade. A simple overview of existing data suggests that a large number of SMEs have already taken the step of exporting or otherwise acting internationally. Despite the large number of SMEs, trade flows are dominated by a disproportionately small number of large multinationals. This indicates that the internationalization process of SMEs can be particularly interesting to study as small disturbances can completely stop or even reverse the internationalization process. Against this background, Viroj Jienwatcharamongkhol intends to write three dissertation chapters on the topic "SME internationalization process: trade barriers, cultural differences and the role of institutions".Jutterström, Mats HugoSSE Institute for Research (SIR) FoundationThe organized entrepreneur - conditions and effects of business incubatorsEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 610 000

Contrary to the usual individual-centred and limited view of entrepreneurship, organized entrepreneurship is on the rise in society. Entrepreneurs are increasingly embedded in an organizational context, which many want to help shape. This research project focuses on a clear and widespread example of the increasing organization of entrepreneurship: many entrepreneurial start-ups are now part of business incubators. That is, they are formal members of an organization that will contribute to their development. In the competition between universities, regions and states, the incubator is growing rapidly, and also promotes the development of its companies. Paradoxically, we know relatively little about how incubators try to organize their activities and members, how the organization varies between incubators, and about its conditions and effects. The project aims to contribute knowledge about the emerging organization of entrepreneurship by 1) describing and comparing incubators' organizational attempts, 2) addressing the conditions and effects of organization on entrepreneurial firms. The project uses basic organizational elements to analyze organization and its variation. It also draws attention to the fact that incubators have special conditions for organizing because their members are organizations rather than individuals. By collecting and comparing qualitative data on six incubators, the project also addresses the impact of organization on business development.Berglund, BengtJernkontoretIron as a social transformer. State formation and modernization in Sweden 1150-1350Economy2011

Amount granted: SEK 600 000

The project examines the role of iron in the process during the Middle Ages - here delimited to 1150-1350 - when a Swedish national formation took place with a central royal power that gained control over the country. The church and guilds developed into state-supporting institutions, new towns were founded and a bourgeoisie established. The project has so far been able to point to the almost sensational fact that ore mining in Bergslagen occurred as early as the middle of the 10th century. There is therefore reason to believe that the revolutionary blast furnace technology was not transferred from the continent to Sweden, but may instead have originated in Scandinavia. The second phase of the project will therefore focus on comparative studies of developments in the Nordic countries and on the continent. Supported by the project's strong interdisciplinary focus and methodological approach, new opportunities are provided to shed new light on the roots of the Swedish blast furnace. Iron processing gained importance in the national economy, new cities were privileged, credit systems and other institutions for trade were established. The changes are thus linked to the modernization process that began during the period, which had a major impact on the formation of the state and also changed the conditions for the emergence of political power in our country. As part of this process, the mining industry was given a special status through special legislation in the form of privileges issued by the new royal power.Cramér, PerGothenburg School of EconomicsEndowed Chair in Business History 2011Economy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Operating appropriations for the 2011 funding of the endowed chair in Business History held by Professor Susanna Fellman.Cramér, PerGothenburg School of EconomicsFramework appropriation for the Department of International BusinessEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 500 000

Andersson, Lars FredrikUmeå UniversityGrowth, transformation and competition - the Swedish life insurance industry 1855-2010Economy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 342 500

The life insurance industry emerged in the mid-19th century in Sweden. In the emerging industrial society, life insurance met a growing need to secure the family's livelihood in the face of life's uncertainties. Changing livelihood patterns and rising incomes created economic opportunities to save money for survivors. At the turn of the 20th century, life insurance provided security for many families in the country. For the economy as a whole, this meant that household savings, which had previously been tied up within the family, could be used for investments in the whole economy. The project examines the life insurance industry using economic statistics collected from all Swedish and foreign companies operating in Sweden since the mid-19th century. The focus is on the development of life insurance companies, growth, transformation and returns in the companies' insurance and investment business. Based on current research literature, it analyzes how macroeconomic conditions, institutional changes, market structure, corporate forms and company-specific characteristics have affected the development of the companies. From a broader research perspective, the study of the history of the Swedish insurance system is important because both market structure and institutions differ from the countries that have been models for the development of theory. The aim of the project is to increase our knowledge in this area and thereby contribute to the international development of theory.Andersson, MagnusGothenburg School of EconomicsThe European goods and credit market in pre-industrial times. Bills of exchange and assignments as credit and payment instrumentsEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 685 000

Big picture Economic and political changes take place in Europe during the pre-industrial era and the period is characterized by turbulence. Among other things, several wars take place that change the balance between European states. The resulting economic and social mobility leads to changes in the flow of goods and credit. The overall purpose of the project is to analyze the European payment and credit system during the early modern period, 1760-1800, based on the flows of goods that arise during changing international economic cycles. This includes mapping the actors involved in trade and credit networks and systematizing the flow of goods through the gateway systems that arise around important trade routes. Financial transactions are extensive and an increasing number of bankruptcies occur in Europe, especially in the 1760s. How did trading houses cope with such financial crises? Where did the trading houses in Gothenburg stand in this development? Since trading cities such as Hamburg, London and Amsterdam were at the center of the financial, credit and insurance systems of the time, the question arises as to how trading houses in Gothenburg, with their traditionally strong links to these cities, were affected.Axelsson, BjörnStockholm School of EconomicsMaintenance and development of a research environment for trade-related researchEconomy2011

Amount granted: SEK 1 450 000

Continued support for one year, partly to two PhD students and partly to two post-docs. The research projects are about (1) transparency and open calculations in service provider-buyer relationships, (2) creating a deeper understanding of complex sales and negotiation processes, (3) the role of the brand when suppliers offer complete solutions and (4) value creation with the support of mobile services.Anderson, AndersInstitute for Financial ResearchConference on "Real Estate Finance"Economy2011

Amount granted: SEK 300 000

The Institute for Financial Research conducts high-quality research in applied financial economics. Through open seminars and conferences, the Institute disseminates research results and is thus a natural meeting place for researchers and representatives of the financial sector. The last one was on "Household finance" and took place in conjunction with the EFA conference on August 17-20, 2011. The SIFR will now organize another two-day conference on 20-21 August 2012.Wolff, RolfUniversity of GothenburgManaging the business school for the global economyEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 550 000

Söderlund, MagnusStockholm School of EconomicsCenter of Excellence for Marketing Research at the Stockholm School of Economics.Economy2010

Amount awarded: SEK 3 100 000

Tagesson, TorbjörnLund UniversityWhat explains deviations from the Swedish code of corporate governanceEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 380 000

Thede, SusannaLund UniversityCorruption effects on foreign direct investmentEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

Sharma, Dharam DeoStockholm School of EconomicsStrategizing within competing institutional logics: The microfinance caseEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 700 000

Strömberg, PerInstitute for Financial ResearchConference on "Household Finance"Economy2010

Amount granted: SEK 1 000 000

Sundberg, Carl JohanKarolinska InstituteHealthcare and business management for future doctorsEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 2 105 420

Kylsberg, GöstaRoyal communication - Choral art and tradition. An autoethnography of authenticity and aura in a royal art company.Economy2010

Amount granted: SEK 150 000

Nordanstad, Karl-GunnarGothenburg City Museum"Heads or tails? Different sides of coins and credits in Gothenburg in the 19th century"Economy2010

Amount granted: SEK 610 000

Nyberg, KlasStockholm City ArchivesTrade guilds and collective action: the wholesale society in Stockholm, 1720-2008Economy2010

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

Braunerhjelm, PontusEntrepreneurship Forum FoundationThe economics of entrepreneurship: an international research project on the role of institutions.Economy2010

Amount granted: SEK 927 000

Johansson, UllaUniversity of GothenburgMaking Sense of Design Work - a research program within design management exploring designers' and design buyers' perspectivesEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 3 600 000

Kokko, AriStockholm School of EconomicsEffects of institutional functioning and corruption on Swedish firms' offshoring: Location, composition and volume effectsEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 1 760 000

Andersson, PerStockholm School of EconomicsThe Mobile Phone, Service Innovations and Market Shaping ProcessesEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 968 000

Asgharian, HosseinLund UniversityAnalyzing Risk Spillovers among Financial Markets using Spatial EconometricsEconomy2010

Amount granted: SEK 800 000

Ax, ChristianUniversity of GothenburgSchool of Accounting at the University of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and Law.Economy2010

Amount granted: SEK 5 760 000

Alvstam, Claes GöranUniversity of GothenburgResearch environment "Centre of International Business Studies", School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg.Economy2010

Amount granted: SEK 2 300 000

Söderlund, MagnusStockholm School of EconomicsCenter of excellence for marketing researchEconomy2013

Amount granted: 1 666 064 SEK

This project aims to develop a strong research environment, a center of excellence (CoE), for marketing research at the Stockholm School of Economics (HHS). Our time horizon is relatively long term, we believe that ten years are needed to achieve this. The environment we seek, which is organizationally based at the Center for Consumer Marketing (CCM), one of the departments at HHS, is characterized by (1) high quality publications, (2) good education of PhD and undergraduate students, (3) high attractiveness in the outside world (e.g. among potential PhD students, conference organizers and the mass media), (4) high quality objectives, (5) strong research leaders, (6) good ability to communicate research, (7) good research infrastructure, and (8) a critical mass of researchers (not too few, but not too many) who complement each other within a defined subject area. The academic subject in question is marketing, with particular emphasis on what is internationally known as "consumer behavior", an area in which the objects of study are how consumers acquire, use and dispose of products (both goods and services). The approach in CCM's research is based on concrete tests, typically with an experimental method, where people are exposed to and come into contact with different marketing expressions (e.g. advertisem*nts or different elements in a shop environment).Svensson, RogerInstitute for Business ResearchCoinage and monetary policy in medieval Europe and ScandinaviaEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 210 000

The project aims to analyze coin systems and monetary policy in medieval Europe and Scandinavia. The focus is on the choice between time-limited and long-lived coins in relatively undeveloped economies where coins began to be used as a means of transaction and a measure of value by large parts of the population. Time-limited coins meant that the mint master periodically invalidated the old coins, which had to be exchanged for new coins for a fee. The project analyzes the consequences of the choice of coin system for coin deterioration, economic activity and uncertainty. In particular, coins in the form of so-called one-sided bracteates will be analyzed and how they relate to time-limited coins. A simple theoretical model will be built and tested on the Scandinavian countries during the Middle Ages. Existing literature on the subject has neither used: 1) economic theory to understand monetary policy and the function of money, nor 2) statistical methods to analyze treasure finds. Nor has previous Swedish literature linked the Swedish medieval coins to the international research literature. In this project I apply all three of these methods. It should be emphasized that the project is interdisciplinary: existing literature and scientific methods in economics, economic history, numismatics and archaeology will be used and applied.Seim, DavidInstitute for Business ResearchEffects of wealth shocksEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 962 500

How are individuals affected by financial shocks? What are the consequences of unpredictable changes in individuals' stock portfolios? How do declines in portfolio value affect labor supply, consumption and savings? Do individuals choose to work more and retire later? Does health deteriorate, is mortality affected? Does the opposite happen for increases in asset values? How strong are informal insurance channels within the family? Are family and relatives affected by changes in wealth? Do these channels help individuals who have lost a lot of money due to a financial shock? On the other hand, during financial upswings, is wealth shared within the family? This research project aims to answer these questions empirically using a new research methodology. I study these questions with detailed Swedish data covering the portfolio holdings of all Swedes. The project is the first of its kind to use these data to analyze these questions. Our analysis will not only help to answer academically important questions such as how individuals choose to work and how savings are determined, but I will also be able to make recommendations in the design of economic policy. For example, if individuals with different levels of wealth choose to retire at different times, a pension system where the pension depends on wealth may be justified.Strömberg, DavidStockholm UniversityConversion of rented housing, private wealth and policy preferencesEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 660 000

How are people's political values affected by their income and wealth? This project aims to study this question in a specific setting, namely the conversion of rental apartments in Stockholm between 2007 and 2010. The apartments were systematically priced below the market value of the corresponding condominiums, which meant that those who bought their apartment made a large financial gain. By combining primary data from a specially designed questionnaire survey with administrative data from government registers, we can use statistical analysis to compare individuals who bought a converted rental apartment with those who showed interest in buying their apartment, but ultimately did not have the opportunity. We ask how the buyers' financial gain changes their general political views, such as their views on redistribution, and especially their voting decisions. Our study aims to increase the understanding of how political opinions are formed and how they can be linked to voting decisions. Finally, we will be able to answer whether redistribution affected the overall election result in the 2010 elections. Did the Alliance benefit from the policy and has there been a permanent shift of Stockholmers' values to the right?Member Falkman, LenaStockholm School of EconomicsSocial media as a tool for the construction of political leadershipEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 3 462 500

Göran Hägglund has one, so does Annie Lööf, and Carl Bildt. A Twitter account. Every other top politician today has a Facebook page, and perhaps a blog of their own. Leaders in Sweden have been using social media for some time. The new media provide an easy and quick way to reach both colleagues and competitors, including party members, voters and other parties. In addition to serving as a new meeting place, social media can also be a tool for presenting the image of oneself that the politician wants. Social media provides the power to construct oneself as a person, and as a leader. The purpose of the interdisciplinary research project is thus to develop theories on authentic leadership, an important track today in the field of business leadership. We will do so by bringing in political science and rhetoric, as well as conducting empirical studies, which is unusual in authentic leadership. We will examine and explain who, how and why Swedish leaders use social media, and what consequences this may have. We are also interested in whether and how leaders appear authentic and genuine in their rhetoric through social media. In the project, we want to contribute with both theoretical and practical knowledge about the phenomenon that leaders are active on social media and what it can mean in and for Sweden.Swiss, RogerUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawDeveloping research and development capacity in emerging marketsEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 904 000

An increasing number of multinationals have started to realize that the so-called emerging markets such as Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa offer very good conditions for conducting research and development (R&D) activities in order to develop innovative and resource-efficient products and services for the global market at relatively low costs. In order to exploit this business opportunity, multinationals need to build up the necessary R&D skills and knowledge in local units and integrate the new unit into the existing global organization to enable the sharing of skills and knowledge between new and existing R&D units. So far, research has not studied these two interlinked processes. By studying a number of Swedish multinational companies' R&D units in India and how they have built up the necessary local R&D capacity and knowledge and how this affects the companies' global R&D strategy and organization, the study will not only address the research gap outlined above but also contribute knowledge to practitioners on how this process can be managed and how challenges can be addressed.Cramér, PerUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawTorsten and Ragnar Söderberg Chair at the University of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and Law, capital increaseEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 7 000 000

Husebye, AlexanderCenter for Business HistoryThe history of Swedish entrepreneurship - 150 years of growth 1864-2014Economy2013

Amount granted: SEK 675 000

The Center for Business History produces a book that, based on the 1864 business freedom reforms, highlights the conditions for entrepreneurship and the development of the Swedish business community. With the help of a long-term perspective, it analyzes how the development of the Swedish business community has created the conditions for economic growth and social development. The analysis focuses on the relationship between state, market and business and discusses the long-term processes that have resulted in transformation and development. The project will highlight turning points and transformation processes related to:Häger Glenngård, AnnaLund UniversityPatient-perceived and medical quality in Swedish primary careEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 691 600

Reforms in Swedish primary care in recent years have focused on increased privatization and competition among providers and increased freedom of choice for citizens. Individuals are allowed to choose among public and private clinics financed by public funds and are expected to compete for listed individuals in a so-called quasi-market. Important objectives behind the introduction of such models are to achieve better responsiveness, accessibility and quality towards individuals. Furthermore, market mechanisms are expected to lead to more efficient use of the public funds that finance the activities. These gains should also take place without negative consequences in terms of increased inequalities in the population. The purpose of the project is to study variation in quality among primary care clinics with regard to conditions among individuals and organizational and structural characteristics among clinics. Analyses of both medical quality and patients' perceptions of quality and responsiveness in primary care, as well as possible contradictions between them, will be studied. In the continued governance and development of Swedish primary care, such issues are important to consider, especially within the framework of models where patients' perceptions of quality and responsiveness are expected to guide individuals' choice of clinic and thus drive the quality of care forward. These issues are also interesting to highlight from a governance perspective given the dual accountability of quasi-markets.Holmquist, CarinStockholm School of EconomicsThe role of family members in family businesses: A longitudinal population study of ownership and succession transitionsEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 35 000

Sweden has the oldest entrepreneurs in Europe. 75% of managers in privately owned companies are over 40 years old and as many as 38.4% are of retirement age. Unless someone in the family or external owners take over the business, tens of thousands of companies will close down in the next decade (Företagarna 2009, Nutek 2008). This is a major problem that many have warned about but is still growing. Most entrepreneurs have families with children who are familiar with the business. The potential for family entrepreneurship should therefore be good. But the proportion of businesses that are taken over by the next generation is low. Only 4.6 % of today's entrepreneurs have inherited businesses (Nutek 2008). A fundamental problem is the lack of systematic research on how and under what conditions entrepreneurs choose to let their family take over, sell to outsiders, or close down the business. Why is it that so few take over businesses from previous generations? What do the potential successors do instead? What happens to the individuals and to the companies, and are there differences between the companies that are kept within the family and those that are sold or closed down? Miriam Birds's thesis analyzes factors of importance for the survival and success of family businesses during generational transitions. A specific focus for Miriam is how family businesses are socially and regionally embedded. The project is based on a unique and comprehensive data set where SCB helped us compile data for all companies, owners and their children over a 20-year period.Hallén, PerUniversity of Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and LawPrinting grant for the "Heads or Tails" projectEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 265 000

In 2011, the three-year project "Krona eller klave. Different sides of coins and credits in 19th century Gothenburg". In 2014, a report will be completed in the form of a book that reinterprets the economic history of Gothenburg in the 19th century. The book is estimated to be around 350-480 pages.Hemlin, SvenUniversity of Gothenburg, GRIImproving the management of pension fundsEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 2 291 250

The public pension funds together manage over SEK 1,000 billion in their buffer funds to ensure the financial stability of the pension system over economic cycles. For both the individual pensioner and the national economy, it is essential that the pension funds succeed in achieving a stable but also a good return over time. This project deals firstly with the question of how reliable predictions of market developments are made by pension fund managers. A second area examined is how pension fund managers make risk assessments. A third area concerns decision-making strategies in economic decision-making. Theoretically, the project is based on how people behave and make decisions in economic situations (behavioral economics, economic psychology). The purpose of the research project is to investigate and gain a better understanding of how well pension managers can predict value development, make risk assessments when investing and what decision-making strategies they use to invest fund assets. The aim also includes the applied task of contributing to stronger predictions, more accurate risk assessments and improved decision-making strategies in public pension funds. The project includes three empirical sub-studies and a final applied synthesis study. The results are disseminated in scientific journals and popular media. The project ends with a workshop for pension funds and researchers.Holmberg, PärInstitute for Business ResearchBidding records and auction resultsEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 3 120 000

The bidding protocol specifies in detail which bids are allowed in an auction. For example, the protocol specifies the price range within which bids must fall, but also the specific prices within the range that are allowed. Sometimes several identical goods are sold in the same auction, for example when trading commodities and financial instruments. In this case, each bid consists of a price and quantity pair, where the quantity indicates how much the participant is willing to buy at the invited price. Previous studies of multiple commodity auctions usually assume an idealized bidding protocol where prices and quantities are allowed to vary continuously and where bidders form a smooth curve instead of a bidding staircase. However, a few previous theoretical studies have shown that the technical details of the bidding protocol, which the schematic studies have ignored, can have major consequences for the outcome of the auction. We want to further investigate the driving forces behind this phenomenon, to what extent it can be observed in practice and how it can be used to improve the efficiency of auctions. In the theoretical part of our study, we use game theory to predict the bidding in an auction under different bidding rules. The theoretical predictions are then tested in economic experiments.Axelsson, BjörnStockholm School of EconomicsDeveloping an environment for trade-relevant researchEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 1 595 250

The application concerns continued support for a research environment with trade-relevant research at the Stockholm School of Economics. There is a long history of this support, which has been of great benefit to us and has produced good results in research. In recent years, the support has been provided with an amount intended to support 3 doctoral students and 2 postdocs, including expenses. First, we report how the previous year's grant was used. This is followed by a description of developments within four of the ongoing research programs and two separate projects. The programs covered are a) solution business, b) sustainable business, c) service innovation, d) international retailing. The two projects are a) Open boks, b) Pricing as an organizational issue. This is in line with the previous year. The review discusses who has received funding and what has been achieved. It also discusses some planned future projects. In cases where specific researchers are already involved, their names and the funds applied for are stated. In other cases, the type of people (doctoral students, PhD) who are intended to be involved.Engbom, Niklas(Princeton University, USA)Labour market frictions, wage growth and inequality over the life courseEconomy2013

Amount granted: 135 000 SEK

There are large international differences in how wages evolve over the career between the US and Europe: between the ages of 21 and 50, average real wages rise by 80% in the US, while in Germany, for example, they only increase by half as much. At the same time, inequality rises much more sharply in the US over the career span. It is important for both public policy and economic research to understand the forces behind such large transatlantic differences in how wages evolve over a lifetime. In my project "Labor market frictions, wage growth and lifetime inequality" I investigate whether large international differences in labor market mobility can explain the significant differences in wage growth and lifetime inequality between the US and Europe. I document marked differences in labor mobility as well as wage growth, and find that the average American changes jobs more than twice as often as the average European. Previous research has shown the importance of such job-to-job switches for wage growth - on average, wages rise by 10% with a job change. I develop a model that captures the importance of labor mobility, showing important interaction effects between mobility and human capital investment decisions. Finally, I analyze the institutional differences that underlie the large international differences in labor mobility.Gullstrand, JoakimLund UniversityCorporate globalization: the organization, the entrepreneur, the innovationsEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 320 000

The project builds on the international trade literature that studies the export and import decisions of firms. In brief, this literature shows that relatively few firms export and that the firms that enter the international market are the most productive. The literature explains this pattern by saying that only productive firms can pay the costs of entering the international market. In other words, the complex pattern of firms' international linkages has been explained by a black box, as productivity measures are affected by everything from differences in product quality, product mix, management capabilities, organizational form to capital intensity and economies of scale. The main challenge for future research in international trade is to open up this box to explain in detail what matters when firms make their trade decisions. In particular, this is of importance for the design of different policy measures implemented to strengthen firms' opportunities in the global market. It will otherwise be difficult to design policies and predict their effects if this black box is not opened. The purpose of this project is thus to identify the underlying factors of firms' trade decisions and there are three main issues that will be highlighted: how firms organize the links and the role of entrepreneurship and innovation in these links.Anderson, AndersInstitute for Financial ResearchSIFR conference on Innovation and EntrepreneurshipEconomy2013

Amount granted: SEK 550 000

Every year, the SIFR organizes a conference on a theme in financial economics. This year, the theme is entrepreneurship, which is one of the key drivers of economic growth and dynamism in the global economy. This conference provides a unique opportunity to bring together leading academics, policy makers and entrepreneurs to discuss the forces that create entrepreneurship, while highlighting the role of Sweden and the Nordic countries as leading regions for innovation. The conference will therefore bring together both academics and practicing entrepreneurs to discuss the latest research on entrepreneurship and not least the role of venture capital, regulation and policy.Töllborg, DennisUniversity of Gothenburg GRILegal studiesJurisprudence2012

Amount granted: SEK 400 000

Support for independent research, loyal only to the values that give the university its legitimacy and the society it serves its quality.Votinius, SachariasState power and sustainabilityJurisprudence2012

Amount granted: 27 500 SEK

The question of public liability is of great importance both in principle and in practice, and it has so far received relatively little attention from the scientific community, in Sweden and internationally. The fact that the subject is clearly topical is demonstrated, among other things, by the considerable attention that the issue has repeatedly attracted in the media and in the public debate. The cases that have attracted attention cover a broad spectrum and have concerned, among other things, the public sector's responsibility for incorrect taxation, its responsibility for bullying at school and its responsibility when a municipality has not provided the assistance ordered under the Social Services Act. Recently, cases have also been decided that bring into play the domestic rules on public liability in relation to EU law. The study makes the civil law issue of public liability for damages in relation to individual natural and legal persons the subject of a broader analysis with intellectual and philosophical content. The focus is on the grounds for public liability under civil law, and the central theme is how these grounds have been formed and defended in legal, philosophical and intellectual history. In a historical development perspective, influential legal and philosophical arguments are identified that have been important for the question of the extent of the public's responsibility for its actions in relation to the members of society.Svensson, BoelFoundation for the Stockholm Prize in CriminologyStockholm Prize in Criminology 2013Jurisprudence2012

Amount granted: SEK 350 000

Svensson, BoFoundation for the Stockholm Prize in CriminologyGrants to the Foundation for the Stockholm Prize in CriminologyJurisprudence2012

Amount granted: SEK 4 000 000

Special grant to the Foundation for the Stockholm Prize in Criminology in memory of Dr. Edvard Söderberg.Persson Österman, RogerStockholm UniversityAdvance ruling in the taxation procedureJurisprudence2012

Amount granted: SEK 447 500

The tax consequences of civil law transactions with financial implications are difficult to predict. One reason is that tax law is constantly changing and under strong political pressure. The "normal" legal system is not able to provide sufficient predictability, which is why the institution of "advance ruling" has been introduced. It is a form of tax process before a transaction is carried out or a tax return is filed. A taxpayer seeks an advance ruling before the Tax Tribunal. The Swedish Tax Agency is the other party before the Board. The decision given, which states how taxation is to be carried out in the situation described, can be appealed by any party to the Supreme Administrative Court (HFD) without leave to appeal being granted. The characteristics of the institute are regulated in the short law on advance rulings and supplemented by administrative law legislation. The procedural rules are sparsely codified and the practice of the HFD is important for the understanding of the system. In recent years, debate has arisen about the aims and functioning of the Institute. Uncertainty has arisen about what can be the subject of the application as a result of evasions by the HFD. The project primarily aims to systematize and analyze the relevant legal sources to increase knowledge of the nature and meaning of the Institute. The project also aims to determine the purpose and functioning of the Institute and whether there is a need for reform or a need for complementary procedures.Sundberg, Jacob W. F.Institute for Public & Private LawPrinting grant for the final volume of the Nordic trial competition Sporrong Lönnrothska Priset.Jurisprudence2012

Amount granted: SEK 75 000

Kaldal, AnnaStockholm UniversityProof of intentJurisprudence2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 138 000

When is there an intentional crime and how do the courts achieve a legally sound examination of evidence of intent? This area of law is controversial, partly because of the difficulties in proving a person's intentions, and partly because the assessment includes positions on the limits of human responsibility. Two court cases and a legislative proposal have further highlighted the issue: the court cases have led to a partial reformulation of the doctrine of intent and the disappearance of the possibility for the court to find intent when the offender is voluntarily intoxicated. The bill concerns the reintroduction of a so-called sobriety requirement. Sweden is currently fairly alone in the Western world in having a legal system where children and the mentally ill can commit crimes. A reintroduction of insanity would change that. Against this background, the question arises whether these changes affect the courts' examination of evidence of intent and, if so, how? This is particularly true for crimes where intent is considered particularly difficult to prove, such as murder/attempted murder, rape and receiving stolen goods. A study of how the courts examine evidence of intent in such cases could answer these questions. Since the matter has received attention at the legislative level as well as in practice and legal doctrine, the subject is also highly topical. Moreover, no similar study has previously been carried out in Sweden.Olsson, StefanKarlstad UniversityThe role of accounting in civil and public lawJurisprudence2012

Amount granted: SEK 2 360 000

The intention is to launch two legal research projects linked to an interdisciplinary research group for research on financial reporting, i.e. companies' communication with society in the form of consolidated or annual reports. Society's interest in companies' external reporting has increased in recent years, partly as a result of high-profile accounting scandals such as the Euro, and partly as a result of the international financial crisis and the strain it has placed on financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies. Public and private law standards determine the extent to which companies' accounts provide a reliable picture. But accounting standards also play an important role in the public sector, for example in the monitoring of municipal finances. The application concerns two legal science dissertation projects related to accounting issues. The first project examines the importance of accounting rules for the obligation to liquidate, i.e. dissolve, a limited liability company that lacks sufficient capital. The second project focuses on accounting in the public sector. In municipal accounting, there are accounting recommendations similar to those in the private sector. The purpose of the project is, among other things, to investigate whether the formation of norms and the application of these recommendations are compatible with the requirements of the Swedish Constitution for public activities.Bernitz, UlfStockholm UniversityStockholm-Oxford research collaboration in European lawJurisprudence2012

Amount granted: SEK 500 000

The project focuses on research cooperation with the Faculty of Law in Oxford in the field of European law in a broad sense. The work is based in Sweden and aims to contribute to an increased international impact and a stronger international character of Swedish legal research. The project has three main orientations. The first focuses on EU company law and the Nordic model of corporate governance, particularly the risk of clashes between the EU's plans for detailed regulation and our well-functioning model with strong owners and extensive self-regulation. The second focus is on the civil enforcement of competition law. In view of the EU's plans for more effective rules on damages and rights of action, it is important to present Swedish legal views and experiences. The third direction concerns common European contract law, which is undergoing particularly rapid development in the EU. In this area too, it is important to clarify what Swedish legal concepts and legislation have to offer. Implementation is primarily through the organization of conferences, seminars, etc. in cooperation with the Oxford faculty, which provides an opportunity for Swedish expertise to highlight and develop the situation in Swedish and Nordic law and what it can contribute. This will lead to publications. The activities also include guest lectures and guest researcher visits in cooperation with Oxford.Brokelind, CécileLund UniversityThe principle of abuse of rights in the EU and Sweden - justice or legal certainty?Jurisprudence2012

Amount granted: 840 000 SEK

The research project concerns comparative tax law, EU law and comparative civil law. The aim of the project is to conduct a comparative analysis of the concept of abuse of rights in EU, Swedish and French law, with an emphasis on the importance of the concept in the context of tax law.The main purpose of tax law rules is to prohibit and punish those who try to evade their tax liability through various schemes. Such schemes can be considered afterwards as an abuse of law and can thus lead to serious consequences for taxpayers, either under the tax crime law or through assessment decisions. The meaning of the concept of abuse is vague and leads to different results which unfortunately cannot be considered predictable. In EU law, there is a general legal principle prohibiting abuse of rights, but there is no comprehensive and unambiguous definition of the concept to guide taxpayers. An additional difficulty is that the concept of abuse of rights does not have the same meaning in all Member States. The question is whether the CJEU's case law on abuse of rights in different legal sectors has an impact on the Swedish